Summary “Internet Advertising: Theory and Research”, D.W.

Summary “Internet Advertising: Theory and Research”, D.W. Schumann en E. Thorson (2007)
Chapter 1 The Internet Waits for No One
The Internet has changed everything: news, advertising, commerce, relating to others, getting information, and being entertained. It
has changed how people practice religion, how they date, how they decide on a Friday night movie, how they spend their leisure
time, and how they work. It is important to keep in mind that what advertising looks like on the Internet must be considered in light of
a broad canvas of change.
82% of children are online by Grade 7. Those 8 to 18 are reported to use electronic media an average of 6.5 hours a day.
4 basic communication needs people have:
1. Connection with others
2. Information
3. Entertainment
4. Buying goods and services
More and more of these needs are being met online.
The most frequent Internet activity is e-mail and instant messaging. Sharing with others is another area of huge increase in online
connectivity. The sharing of user content like photos, favorite music, games and any number of other of infinite personal preferences
is massive.
Social networking is another area of online connectivity.
a site aimed at college students, allowing them to locate people with similar interests, find friends,
and in general expand their inner-circle connectedness.
a site that allows youth to maintain homepages and blogs, instant message with each other and
find significant others. A central activity is the introduction of newly composed music.
The phenomenon of blogging. Steve Ballmer, Microsoft CEO, says “Blogging is huge. It brings together the three biggest Internet
trends: communication, sharing and socializing”.
Affinity communities:
online sites where people go to share with others special interests they have. One of the most
important classes of Internet affinity groups are the political sites.
The Internet is rapidly becoming the place to go for information, indeed for all kinds of information. Those 18 to 24 went first to the
Internet for information about products, computers, hobbies, music, video games, movies, and television. Those 35 to 54 go first to
the Internet for the same categories of information. Furthermore, people are increasingly turning to the Internet for their news.
What Teens Do Online:
1. Send or read e-mail
2. Go to websites about movies, TV-shows, music groups or sports stars
3. Play online games
4. Go online to get news or information about current events
5. Send or receive instant messages
All Age Groups Would Turn to the Internet First for Information…
…And the Internet is a More Important Source of News for Young People.
Just as they are satisfying their information needs with the Internet, people are satisfying their entertainment needs there as well.
Internet and television are two 900-pound gorillas when it comes to entertainment. 74% said they used the Internet for
There is a massive shift by people to Internet commerce. Internet shopping is growing faster than any other shopping activity. The
two youngest generations shopped online for media and consumer electronics. The preference of the young for online shopping
predicts even greater growth in the future. Clearly, then, the four basic communication needs are increasingly being met via the
Internet. It is no wonder, then, that advertising is following that migration.
Chapter 2 Internet Advertising: One Face or Many?
the “network of networks” that operates on a set of technical protocols that enables people from around the world
to access and exchange information using tools such as the World Wide Web, e-mail, chat rooms, and so on.
a paid, mediated form of communication from an identifiable source, designed to persuade the receiver to take
some action now or in the future.
Internet advertising:
any form of communication that meets the definition of advertising and can be found on the Internet.
Internet advertising is a multifaceted phenomenon.
4 key elements of advertising:
1. A message that is mediated
2. Someone who can be identified pays for that message
3. Primary purpose is to persuade
4. The action that results may take place now or in the future.
Internet advertising is different from other forms of advertising.
4 key differences:
1. The Internet “compresses” the hierarchy of effects.
On the Internet banner ads might build brand awareness of a brand, but they are most often also designed to encourage
click-through to a Web site that often sells the products or services presented on the banner.
2. Internet was the first widely available consumer medium that enabled the sometimes-elusive properties of
Thus, Internet advertising has more capacity than most other forms of advertising to develop two-way communication with
consumers, engage the consumer, and present timely messages quickly.
The Internet has intrusiveness, or lack thereof, as a unique characteristic.
a multifaceted concept that includes two-way communication, a high level of user engagement and/or
control over messages, and timeliness of communication.
interruption in the user’s online experience.
More intrusive forms can lead to irritation and avoidance.
The Internet has the capacity for highly personalized communication.
The Typology
2 primary dimensions of Internet advertising:
1. The location (nonadvertiser venues such as a news Web site vs. controlled advertiser Web sites).
2. The purpose of advertising:
a. To initiate contact;
b. To inform and/or refer;
c. Direct interaction;
d. To enable transactions;
Typology of Internet Advertising
Location: Nonadvertiser Site
Location: Advertiser-Controlled Site
Initiate contact
Small-format ads (buttons, tiles,
hyperlinks, audio-only)
Listings (online directory listings,
Search engine optimization)
Paid placement (search engines,
content sponsorship, online game
sponsorship, paid placement in
Web sites)
Inform and/or
Facilitate Direct
Banner ads (includes flash,
contextual, expandable,
floating, frames)
Opt-in client e-mail
Consumer endorsements
Externally validated content Bulletin boards
(reviews, rankings, news articles)
Large-format ads (pop-ups, popunders, interstitials, site takeovers,
rich media such as streaming video)
Brand Web sites
Chat rooms
Fantasy communities
Online games
Alliance sites w/ e-commerce
opportunities and often purchases
on a pay-per-click basis
Other forms of embedded content
designed to obtain customers (e.g.,
Controlled direct marketing (job boards,
online coupons, online sweepstakes,
shopping cart promotions)
Initiate contact
2 characteristics:
To build brand awareness or to remind consumers of a product or service.
To minimize expenses, (messages or often small).
Listings were identified as another component of marketing communication plans.
Spam, advertisers use this technique minimally because it often results in poor brand image.
Inform and/or Refer
1 characteristic:
Advertisers often utilize banner ads as well as externally validated content such as reviews, rankings, and news articles.
Practitioners identified several forms of externally validated content. These techniques often seem to be closely related to offline
practices that fall under the domain of public relations. It is important to consider those activities over which the advertiser has more
direct control.
Facilitate Direct Interaction
1 characteristic:
Large-format ads are more intrusive than the smaller formats.
Researchers have found that as advertising becomes more intrusive, it also becomes less effective.
Singh and Dalal (1999) have made a strong argument that the organizational Web site is a form of advertising.
Example: Every state in the United States has a Web site that promotes tourism. These Web sites typically do much more than a
magazine ad could. It allows consumers to search through a depth of information, sign up to receive promotional e-mails, and even
order free vacation guides and view ads that were prepared for television.
Communication that is found in advertiser-controlled sites and that is designed to facilitate direct interaction is not limited
to Web sites. Other forms include chat rooms, blogs etc. (table 2.1). All of these forms of Internet advertising have the potential to
facilitate interaction and build relationships between consumers and brands.
Facilitate Transaction
Companies that survived the dot-com crash were those that invested in understanding consumer behavior and in facilitating
transactions that made sense online.
Example of dot-com failure: Pet supply companies. Simple research would have revealed that pet supplies are often an impulse
purchase and that shipping delays from online transactions were not consistent with existing consumer purchase patterns in this
product category.
E-transactions are not always e-commerce in the traditional sense of visiting a shopping site, loading up a shopping cart, checking
out with a credit card, and then waiting for delivery of goods and services. Other forms can also be performed online. For example,
job boards allow both job seekers and employers to transact a review of credentials and an initial interview.
E-commerce can also occur in sites that are not directly controlled by the marketer. An example is a sponsored link from a
Web site to a shopping venue, such as, that results in a commission paid to the sponsoring site for all sales originating
from the hyperlink.
Summary of Typology
Some purist might argue that only messages placed in non-advertisers site meet the classical definition of advertising. But because
many of those messages lead seamlessly to advertiser-controlled environments such as brand Web sites and e-commerce sites, it
is impossible to ignore the right column of the typology when considering Internet advertising.
Regardless of their vision for the future, many practitioners tended to focus their comments on the 4 key characteristics of Internet
advertising:compression of the hierarchy of effects, interactivity, intrusiveness, and personalization.
Not only is the distance from message to action being shortened, but also all the channels of communication and transaction are
becoming so similar that they are almost impossible to differentiate.
Compression and convergence will make new demands on advertising practitioners. Teachers and students will have to
explore what it means to move from awareness to purchase in a single environment in a very abbreviated space/time. The
expectation will be that consumers move from initial contact to transactions in a relatively swift and very measured way. All the
compressed and converging functions and features will be ultimately accountable to the bottom line regardless of whether the
transaction happens online or offline.
a multifaceted concept that includes two-way communication, engagement and/or control over messages, and
timely information.
One of the keys to successful Internet advertising will be the ability to enable and encourage consumer interaction with brands.
Successful online marketers communicate and demonstrate value to the consumer to capture their interests and develop ongoing
two-way relationships. Organizational Web sites must increase interactivity by moving away from simple online brochures to
communication that allows consumers to engage and build relationships with brands.
Practitioners predicted that Internet advertising of the future would be both more and less intrusive. Several practitioners shared the
belief that the best way to overcome perceptions of intrusiveness is by showing consumers respect.
Generally, advertising that occurs in nonadvertiser sites by definition “intrudes” into the content that users are accessing.
For advertising, other than spam, that occurs in an advertiser-controlled site, intrusiveness is less likely to be an issue. Consumers
typically seek out these typos of Internet advertising and thus are less likely to perceive the content as intruding on them.
Practitioners predicted that consumers would demand more personalization. Tracking and measurement is key to being able to build
personalized communication. Messages placed in nonadvertiser sites can easily be personalized if marketers buy advertising based
on specific viewers in specific situations rather than simply buying time and/or space on a content provider’s Web site. And if the
messages based in external content environments are more personalized, they may be not only less intrusive but also more
effective. When the marketer has more control over the location, personalization becomes even more important. In these
environments, communication can be customized so that consumers consistently see the information that is most valuable to them.
What is Internet advertising? It is evolving and expanding. There is no one best form of Internet advertising. Regardless of where a
specific advertising format might appear in the typology of Internet advertising, it should to be sensitive to the unique characteristics
of the Internet: compression of the hierarchy of effects, interactivity, intrusiveness, and personalization.
Chapter 3 Theoretical Approaches in Internet Advertising Research
In this chapter the research of online advertising studies has been divided into four general topic areas:
Attitudes toward online advertising in general.
Specific factors influencing the effectiveness of Internet advertising.
Internet advertising measures and terminology.
Related aspects to Internet advertising.
Theoretical Approaches Used When Researching Consumer Attitudes
In this section, studies are reviewed that focused on people’s attitudes toward Web advertising in general.
Hierarchy-of-effects Approach
Hierarchy-of-effects models assume that advertising works in 3 steps:
1. making consumers aware of a product (cognition);
2. persuading consumers to like the product (affect);
3. encouraging consumers to move to product purchase (behavior).
3 important predictors of the perceived value of Web advertising:
1. Informativeness
2. Entertainment
3. Irritation
Theoretical Approaches Used When Researching Advertiser Attitudes
The studies in this section feature 2 different theoretical perspectives:
Placing Internet advertising in the traditional marketing communications mix.
The diffusion of innovation theoretical approach.
Integrated Marketing Communications Approach
The theoretical approach referred to as integrated marketing communications (IMC) is based on the idea of a consistent “one voice”
of a brand. The studies presented here under the IMC umbrella are research on how advertisers view a tactical integration of the
Internet in the marketing communications media mix.
The Internet is becoming a necessary part of a marketing communications strategy even though its effectiveness appears
to be undetermined. Findings show that advertisers rate communication tools higher than do the ad agencies. The discrepancy
between advertisersand agenciesviews on Internet advertising’s role was investigated by Bush and Bush (2000). Findings however
suggest that the Internet causes no threat to the agency-advertiser relationship.
Diffusion of Innovation
Findings reflect that traditional advertising agencies lag behind other agency types when it comes to Internet advertising expertise,
profitability, staffing, ability to attract interactive lients, and overall understanding of the Internet’s value.
This section considers theories employed in studies examining the influences on online advertising effectiveness. The 3 include:
Studies that examined the influence of…
the actual Web site and ad characteristics (e.g., content, format, animation, size).
consumer characteristics (e.g., Internet experience, brand familiarity).
some unique characteristics of the online environment (e.g., interactivity, personality).
Theoretical Approaches Used When Researching Web Site and Ad Characteristics as Influences of Internet Advertising
Distinctiveness and Attribution Theories.
Distinctiveness theory helps explain the cognitive impact of animated banners: that moving objects grab our attention more than
static ones and therefore we are more likely to remember them.
Why larger ads are more effective relie on the consumers’ perception of the cost incurredd by the advertiser. In other words, the
value the consumer attributes the brand is generated by his perception of the advertiser’s cost for the ad.
animated banner ads result in quicker response and better recall whereas larger banner ads lead to better
there’s a positive effect of banner ad size on brand attitude only under the high-involvement condition.
Elaboration Likelihood Model and the Moderating Role of Involvement.
Yoon argues that under a peripheral route, the use of attractive and credible endorsers should be more persuasive than the
informational content of the ad. Yoon deems the Internet an informative medium that requires greater eloboration for processing, a
findeing supported by Ducoffe (1996), who found the Internet more informative than entertaining.
Although the impact of endorsers may not transfer from print to the Web, other studies have examined whether the
moderating influence of involvement (with the ad or the product) on persuasion applies to the Internet environment.
banner ads utilizing pull-down menus have stronger persuasive impact than conventional banner ads.
Persuasion may be enhanced by the increased quality of information available. This increase in quality
corresponds with Petty et. Al’s (1983) claim that high involvement is affected by the quality of information
a visit to a high-involvement Web site was likely to increase brand attitude whereas a visit to a low-involvement Web site
was not.
the relationship between animation level and attitude toward the ad appears to be curvilinear; that there is an optimum
level of animation where attitudinal ratings are most positive after which reactions become unfavorable.
Intrusiveness as a Direct Cause of Advertising Annoyance.
Intrusiveness is a direct cause of advertising annoyance.
Authors argue for the development of a universal advertising intrusiveness measurement tool that can be applied across all media.
Learning Theory.
The degree of forced exposure to banner ads had a significantly positive relationship with advertising perceptioni and
clicking of banner ads.
The banner ad presented in the format of the highest forced-exposure level also yielded the most desirable
advertising effects.
Because learning theory predictions did not explain this study’s findings, there is a significant need for new theory that considers the
impact of this new environment on consumer reactions to Internet advertising.
Habituation-Tedium Theory.
Habituation-tedium theory: novel ads lead to uncertainty and tension, but as viewers become familiar and comfortable with ads
(Tellis, 1997)
they develop positive attitudes through a process called habituation. However, as the number of
exposures increases and viewers become bored with ads, they develop negative attitudes through a
process called tedium.
The habituation-tedium theory appears to be one theory that works in the online environment.
Theoretical Approaches Used When Researching Consumer Characteristics as Influencers of Internet Advertising
Whereas the studies discussed earlier presented advertiser-controlled aspects, the studies in this section investigated consumer
characteristics that impact Web advertising effectiveness.
Hierarchy of Effects.
Traditional hierarchy-of-effects finding:
attitude toward the ad influences brand attitudes and purchase intentions.
Attribution Theory.
Attribution Theory:
the processes people use to interpret effects.
External attributes such as computer mapping and speed are more significant factors than Web surfer’ internal variables
(i.e., skills, attention, and flow) for explaining successful commercial Web surfing.
Theory of Buyer Behavior.
Theory of Buyer Behavior: consumers simplify their decision process by storing relevant informatin and routinizing their decision
Internet experience is an important factor for marketers to consider.
If a Web site manages to get into the Internet user’s evoked set, it may take a very favorable position and become more
immune to competititon as the user gains experience with the site. E-loyalty could therefore be the most important
marketing result in the future.
Uses and Gratifications.
Uses and Gratifications:
media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. Users are active in the
communication process and are goal oriented in their media use. An individual’s media choices are
motivated by particular self-defined uses and goals.
The stronger the match between Internet motive and banner ad type, the more effective the banner ad.
Skilled people with higher need for cognition perceived Web site to be more interactive.
Need for cognition is a predictor of the comfort level with online browsing and purchasing.
As Rodgers and Thorson (2000) reflected, the uses-and-gratifications approach proved useful in identifying the reasons for Internet
use; however, in order to work for the Web environment, the theory has to include other antecedent factors that determine the
motivation to go online such as Web user skill and need for cognition.
Media Dependency Theory.
Media Dependency Theory: the more dependent an individual is on the media for having his or her needs fulfilled, the more
important the media will be to that person.
Patwardhan and Yang (2003) introduces Internet dependency relations (IDR).
IDR significantly explained online shopping activities and online news reading, but did not predict online chatting.
Knowledge Gap Theory.
Knowledge Gap Theory:
the increase of information in society is not evenly acquired by every member of society, people with
higher socioeconomic status tending to have better ability to acquire information.
Awareness of a knowledge gap produces an aversive feeling of deprivation or disfcomfor that can be alleviated only by obtaining the
information needed to close the gap. Curiosity-based processing of advertising resulted in better product evauation and greater
perceived novelty.
Theoretical Approaches Used When Researching Interactivity and Website Personality as Influencers of Internet
Advertising Effectiveness
Interactivity is viewed as the unique characteristic of the new online medium.
“Some level of real-time dialogue in which the involved entities (human or otherwise) play both the role of
sender and receiver of information at some point in the dialogue” (Roehm&Haugtvedt, 1999).
Schema Theory and the Concept of “Flow”.
Interface mapping:
Schema theory:
the process of optimal experience.
the process of relating user’s schema content to Internet content.
what we expect to encounter in the world influences how we process and understand newly met events.
Mapping positively impacts memory for Web content including advertisements.
Uses and Gratifications.
People’s perceived interactivity is related to their locus of control orientations.
Social Learning Theory.
Social Learning Theory:
there are two types of people: internals (or those who believe they can control external
circumstances), and externals (or those who believe their outcomes are controlled by external
The locus of control concept reflects the internalized social dimension of individuals and this dimension moderates the interactive
relationship between the Internet and users.
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM).
Perceived interactivity influences attitudes toward Web ads and memory for Web content.
Web users control their information flow online by selectively clicking links.
Therefore, the new interactive environment that facilitates user control determines increased memory for Web content.
Expectancy theory.
Expectancy theory:
individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that:
a) There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance.
b) Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward.
c) The reward will satisfy an important need.
d) The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile.
Different expectations of interactivity generate different perceptions of the Web site’s interactivity.
Theory of Personality and Congruity Theory.
Congruity Theory: the level of congruence between the self-image of a consumer and their perception of the image of a brand will
influence their intention to choose that brand or their attitude toward the brand.
Ads embedded in similar contexts appear to lead to better understanding and a more positive affective reaction.
Vividness, Telepresence, and the Virtual Experience.
Coyle and Thorson’s (2001) experiment:
increases in interactivity and vividness were associated with increased feelings of
telepresence. In addition, increases in vividness were associated with more positive
and more enduring attitudes toward the Web site.
the perception that a mediated experience is real rather than mediated.
3-D advertising is capable of enhancing presence and, to varying degrees, ultimately influencing traditional advertising effectiveness
measures such as consumer product knowledge, brand attitude, and purchase intention.
Vividness, telepresence, and virtual experience are brand-new concepts that are ready to be encompassed in new theories of online
consumer behavior and marketing communication.
Perceived Interactivity and Attitude Toward the Web Site.
There is a strong positive correlation between perceived interactivity and attitude toward the Web site as well. McMillan
(2000) stressed the fact that “interactivity is in the eye of the beholder”.
Skilled people with higher need for cognition perceived Web sites to be more interactive.
3 antecedent variables successfully predict the level of interactivity:
1. The level of involvement
2. The perception of message-relatedness between the banner and target ads
3. The perception of message personalization
The higher the degree of interactivity the better the advertising effects, such as attitude toward the ad, attitude toward the
brand, and purchase intention.
Both product involvement and the interactivity level of the Web site had positive effects on the user’s interactivity with the
User interactivity is a useful indicator of Web advertising effectiveness.
Perceived interactivity is a stronger predictor than involvement with the site’s topic.
Studies in this section feature no or very little theoretical background. The studies here deal with classical notions such as
reach/frequency, audience estimation, Internet-related programming and price/measurement. These studies are relevant, because
old advertising effectiveness measures have not been adopted yet by all marketers and advertisers.
Miscellaneous Studies of Importance
Context Communication Theory.
Two different cultures, Korean and American were compared. Contrary to expectations there was no significant effect between the
content of Web ads from the two cultures.
Category Management.
Papatla and Bhatnagar argue that affiliate partnerships should be estabilished online between businesses that retail products that
are related to each other.
Presented here are theoretical approaches from the fields of advertising (hierarchy of effects), social psychology (ELM), mass
communication (media dependency, uses and gratifications), and marketing (integrated marketing communications) used in Web
advertising research, as well as some new theoretical concepts (interactivity, telepresence, vividness, virtual experience).
Unlike traditional media, the Internet is fundamentally different in the aspect that it provides for two-way interactivity.
Chapter 4 Internet Integrated Marketing Communications (I-IMC):Theory and Practice
Over het algemeen een hoofdstuk wat vrij oude informatie bevat gezien recente ontwikkelingen van het internet.
Het hoofdstuk gaat over de mogelijkheden tot adverteren in de I-IMC en de strategieën waarmee men het beste kan handdelen.
two-pronged approach for integrating marketing communications: (a) within the Internet platform and (b) within the overall
promotional and marketing mixes.
IMC (Schultz, Tannenbaum and Lauterborn ,1993):
a new way of looking at the whole, were once we only saw parts such as
advertising, public relations, sales promotion, purchasing, employee
communications and so forth. It’s realigning communications to look at it the
way the customer sees it – a flow of information from indistinguishable
3 traditional IMC applications (Nowak and Phelps):
1. I-IMC-Integrated Communication Within Online Vehicles:
incorporating different messages within one advertising vehicle.
Traditionally referred to incorporating direct-response devices in
brand advertising.
5 bestaande middelen zijn:
Destination Web Sites: De homepage van een organisatie. To communicate with various target markets or stakeholders
(consumers, investors, potential employees and journalists).
Banner Advertising:
can be effective by facilitating direct response or by brand building.
New technologies  Absolut Lemondrop banner allows the consumer to shake lemons from a
lemon tree in the guise of an Absolute bottle. A way of involving the consumer in the ad, thus, the
 “click-within” banners that allows consumers to interact within the banner, as a way to make
direct response more convenient. AT&T created banners that allowed consumers to sign up for a
calling plan (belpakket) in an expandable banner. “click-within” banners increase consumer
interaction with an advertiser’s brand, increase traffic to an advertiser’s site, and provide
advertisers with real-time consumer data.
E-mail marketing:
Vooral effectief in geval van een rich-media email. Dus niet een saai lap tekst maar bijna een hele
website in de mail.
Companies like Rollerblade are experimenting with e-mail pieces that look more like Web sites
and, thus, offer multiple message capabilities. In introducing their Aero 9 skate, Rollerblade and
their agency, Annodyne Interactive, designed an e-mail piece that includes a mix of traditional
Online Sponsorships:
SMS marketing:
Web site and e-mail design variables  the company’s logo and a navigation bar, with links to a
dealer locater tool, to information about an inline skating marathon, and to video clips showing
people using the new skate. Unlike traditional e-mail messages, the Rollerblade e-mail is
dominated by visuals, not text. Indeed, there is no real offer, as is the focus in most e-mails. The
text reads like catalog copy, describing the new skate’s lacing system, shell technology, and
shock-absorbing technology. The closest thing to an offer is actually a promotion, with the words,
“CLICK HERE TO WIN THESE SKATES!”. Rich-media e-mail messages are yet another online
vehicle where many kinds of marketing messages can be integrated in one place.
Marketers can sponsor existing site content that they believe their target audiences appreciate.
Examples: Fuji sponsored a video retrospective of the popular CBS television show Survivor.
Nestlé USA/Carnation sponsors Your Baby Today, a site devoted to caring for babies and young
Spreekt voor zich. Example AT&T Wireless customers sent more than 7.5 million text messages
during the 2003 American Idol television season.
Table 4.1 Internet promotion mix: Integrated Communication Within Online Vehicles
Kinds of Marketing Messages
Destination websites
Virtually unlimited-branding; direct response; public relations;
product/service information; sales promotion; employement
information; franchise information; stockholder information
Banner advertising
Branding; direct response
E-mail marketing
Branding; direct response; public relations; product/service
information; sales promotion
Online sponsorships
Branding; direct response; public relations; product/service
information; sales promotion
Short-message service marketing
Currently limited to interactive/direct marketing promotion
entertainment like voting, sweepstakes, games, shopping and
2. I-IMC-One-Voice Communication Among Online Vehicles: advertising strategies that present a single position, image
message, and/or theme across multiple communication and
promotional tools. To maintain ‘one voice’ across different points
of contact.
3. I-IMC-Coordinated Marketing Communication Campaigns
Using Online and Offline Media:
how the various media, traditional and new, can be more
effective in synergy with each other than acting independently.
A marketer may have one Web site for multiple countries or multiple Web sites conform to country-specific language, regulations,
and laws. Should sites be standardized on a one-size-fits-all basis or adapted on country or regional bases?
Globally integrated marketing communications (GIMC):
(Gould, Lerman & Grein)
a system of promotional management that involves active
coordination on a contingency basis of both promotional
disciplines (e.g. advertising, sales promotion, publicity) and
I-IMC must be applied not only within countries as a domestic issue, but also across countries, when that is relevant , as a
GIMC tool.
Punten 4 en 5 worden door de auteurs van het boek toegevoegd aan de I-IMC
4. I-IMC-Hybrid Advertising Created by Media Convergence:
suggestion of another kind of I-IMC that results from multiple
media converging to form new, hybrid advertising vehicles.
Hybrid messages (Balasubramanian, 1994):
those that “creatively combine key advantages (and avoid key
disadvantages) inherent in advertising and publicity messages”
5. I-IMC Bundling Effects of a Multiple-Media Advertising Experience:
when marketers use a mixed-media strategy to
move consumers from different media to complete
an advertising experience.
Example: Mitsubishi’s Super Bowl cliffhanger ad. Mitsubishi Galant vs Toyota Camry in accident avoidance test. Men
bowled balls and threw barbecues out of the back of moving trucks into the path of these cars. Finally the video ended
with the instruction to visit (switch from TV to Internet)
The Navigational Characteristics of I-IMC
Consumers now have access to so much brand, product, and pricing information through the Internet, marketers must compete in a
new way: helping consumers navigate through e-commerce by improving their ability to sift and parse all this information efficiently.
3 navigatie dimentiesdie Evans en Wurster (1999) onderscheiden:
1. Reach:
(a) aantal producten dat het bedrijf aan kan bieden,
(b) hoeveel consumenten het bedrijf zichmee kan verbinden.
2. Richness:
(a) de kwaliteit van de informatie over de klanten van een organisatie
(b) de kwaliteit van de informatie over de producten aan de klanten.
3. Affiliatie:
de belangen van het bedrijf, liggen deze bij zichzelf of bij de consument?
Daarnaast zijn
de tijd die de consument besteedt op de site –
aantalen bezoeken etc.
belangrijke begrippen.
Alle bovenstaande punten (1 t/m 5 ) zorgen samen voor een goede I-IMC. Van belang is om synergie te vinden tussen de media om
de overtuigingseffecten te bevorderen. Daarnaast is het belangrijk om rekening te houden met je doelgroep, waar deze zich bevindt
en welke media ze accepteren.
I-IMC-integrated Communication Within Online Vehicles, Affiliation, Frequency, Reach and Stickiness
Many companies are choosing to include consumer-centric information that is not directly related to purchasing a company’s product
or service to build relationships and communities (Edelman, 2001). This is an example of advertisers competing on affiliation, as
they focus on providing consumers with information that may be merely tangential to an advertiser’s product or service, let alone
FIGURE 4.1 Integrated Internet marketing communications framed in terms of IMC definitions and navigational characteristics.
One Voice Communication among Online
Vehicles – Affiliation, Frequency and Reach
Coordinated Marketing
Communication Campaigns using
New and Traditional Media –
Reach, Frequency and Richness
Hybrid Advertising Created by
Media Convergence – Richness
and Stickiness
Integrated Communication within
Online Vehicles – Affiliation,
Frequency, Reach and Stickiness
Bundling Effects of a Multiple
Media Advertising Experience –
Frequency, Richness and
I-IMC-One-Voice Communication Among Online Vehicles: Affiliation, Frequency, and Reach
To coordinate the consistency of messages across new technologies.
I-IMC-Coordinated Marketing Communication Campaigns Using Online and Traditional Media
IMC also refers to finding synergies among media to boost persuasion effects. Of course, advertisers who add online media to their
marketing mix may also be able to reach particular audience segments, like light television viewers, more efficiently.
I-IMC-Hybrid Advertising Created by Media Convergence: Richness and Stickiness
Combining the strengths of existing media to create new, hybrid media, advertisers may be able to present consumers with a richer
experience than before.
2 online branding strategies (Evans and Wurster, 1999):
1. Brand-as-belief:
branding by conveying facts or beliefs about product attributes.
2. Brand-as-experience:
a richer experience, tapping into consumer feelings, associations, and memories.
Hybrid advertising vehicles that are a product of media convergence may be ideal brand-as-experience tools, because these hybrid
advertising vehicles are the product of multiple rich-information channels.
I-IMC Bundling Effects of a Multiple-Media Advertising Experience: Frequency, Richness and Stickiness
Similar to hybrid advertising, the effects of bundling media to convey an ad should contribute to a brand-as-experience, because it
relies on consumers accessing multiple rich-information channels. It should lead to higher levels of richness and stickiness.
Frequency will also increase as the number of consumer interactions with the message across multiple media increases.
Responsiveness: designing marketing networks that are built on understanding consumers.
Chapter 5 Motivations for Using the Internet and Its Implications for Internet Advertising
It is important to not only understand what motivates consumers to use the Internet in general, but also to identify what motivates
consumers to process advertising that is placed on the Internet. This chapter examines:
a) Motivation for using the Internet
b) Motivation for processing Internet advertising
c) The role of consumer motivation in constructing effective Internet advertising
Though there are an infinite number of uses for the Internet, “It is most of all a mail pigeon, then a library, then an amusement park,
then a shopping center”. Therefore, it seems possible that motivations of online users can be classified and these motivations could
be used to target online users with specific commercial messages.
Online advertisers face additional complexity in achieving targeting success due to the breadth of consumers’ activities.
To understand how best to target these online users, we must first examine the concept of motivation and also the specific
consumer motivations leading to Internet use.
Motivation is central to understanding human behavior.
Motive: an activated state that supports goal directed behavior.
Geen (1995) explained how motivation can be easily understood by observing people in their everyday activities. He suggested
3 dimensions of behavior:
1. Initiation
2. Intensity
3. Persistence
watching people stop what they are currently doing and initiate new actions.
the single-mindedness with which some people pursue their desired goal.
the degree to which goals are pursued in the face of difficulty.
Relevant to our current goal of understanding online motivation, motivation affects the definition of the gratifications sought online.
Motivations for using the Internet have been categorized as either process or content gratifications.
Process gratifications:
Content gratifications:
the use of the medium itself (e.g., I like to watch television)
the content a medium provides (e.g., I am challenged by questions on the game show Jeopardy)
We must also explore consumers’ motivations for processing commercial messages online. We may know why consumers go
online, but if we do not account for their interest in advertising, we severely limit the opportunity to maximize advertising
effectiveness. It is crucial to examine the relationship between process and content gratifications in relation to interest in processing
advertisements. First, consumer motivation for using the Internet is examined from a users-and-gratifications perspective.
Uses and Gratifications
Uses-and-gratifications approach:
a means to investigate persuasion in mass media.
5 categories of needs can be met by mass media:
1. Cognitive needs
2. Affective needs
3. Personal needs
4. Social needs
5. Tension release
Perse and Courtright(1993) have more recently shown that communication satisfies 11 different needs ranging from relaxation and
entertainment to feeling less lonely and feeling excitement. Research indicates that people seek gratifications from media and that
the degree to which these gratifications are met influences the decision for using a particular medium.
Although research has investigated multiple constructs entertainment and information are among the most important and
robust dimensions.
Process Motivations
People most often use computers to satisfy needs such as entertainment, escapism, and just passing time. Internet users are able
to develop parasocial relationships with Web sites that project strong personalities.
7 separate motivations (Korgaonkar and Wolin, 1999):
1. Social escapism:
the degree to which the Web provides entertainment.
2. Information:
the use of the Web for searching for information in general.
3. Interactive control:
users’ desires to be in control of their experiences and the positive feelings that result from that
4. Socialization:
Web use as a topic of conversation or a group activity.
5. Economic:
How the Web aids shopping through convenience, product information, and financial savings.
Any of these gratifications may allow advertisers an opportunity to provide Web users with positive experiences.
Transaction-based security
and privacy concerns:
the sharing of personal information during an online transaction.
Nontransactional privacy
general dislike for marketers’ use of private information and the lack of control concerning
unwanted e-mail solicitations.
It may be just as important to consider concerns that may negatively motivate consumers as it is to consider why they are
motivated to use the Internet.
Rodgers and Sheldon (2002) reviewed the literature on motivations for Internet use and concluded more than a hundred identified
motives generally serve only 4 purposes online:
1. Researching
2. Communicating
3. Surfing
4. Shopping
Researchers have also reported attitudinal and behavioral differences between men and women concerning Internet use.
Greater e-mail use by women, whereas men tended to use the Internet for information search.
Women are less likely than men to protect their privacy online.
Women have a more positive attitude toward computer-mediated communication.
Women are more likely to use online messaging services, whereas men have a higher propensity for purchase and
downloading behaviors.
However, men and women are not always different. Men and women have been found to spent an equal amount of time browsing,
and hold similar attitudes about online trust and Internet privacy.
Although boys and girls shared the same motives, each gender fulfilled those motives in different ways.
Boys were interested in sensationalist information online, girls were more likely to seek online information about animals
and television idols.
Given that people are generally seeking to satisfy one of only 4 process motives (e.g.,researching, communicating, surfing,
shopping), it becomes important to understand what content people are seeking online.
Content motivations
“Holding power”:
Stafford argues it is more important to understand the motivations for remaining or returning to sites on
the Web (content motives) than to understand motivations for using the Web itself.
Demographic differences including sex, race, age income, and education are still apparent in how people use the Internet. A greater
percentage of women reported seeking health or religious information, whereas a greater percentage of men sought information
related to news, finances, sports, and politics. Age distinguishes younger users (18-29) who spend time instant messaging, in chat
rooms, and participating in entertainment activities from older users. Those over 30 are driving the growth in commercial activities.
Users over 50 are responsible for the growth in the number of people seeking political and health information and the growth of
online banking.
In conjunction with process and content motivations, understandings people’s motivation to process online advertising in general
may provide a basis for the development of more effective commercial messages.
Traditional Goals of Advertising
Advertisements are often either informational or image oriented.
Informational ads:
Image ads:
generally understood to elicit action (e.g., on sale now)
seek to change perceptions so as to achieve a longer term orientation of brand building
(e.g., Toyota: Oh, What a Feeling!)
These models suggest that advertising effects begin with gaining consumers’ attention, followed, by
developing interest and desire, and finally resulting in consumers taking action.
Traditional models of creating effective advertising could be useful in suggesting avenues for effective online advertising.
Motivation to Process Advertising
MacInnis and Jaworski (1991) were the first to describe the importance of motivation,opportunity, and ability in processing
advertising messages in a unified framework.
“the desire to process brand information in the ad”
“situational characteristics that enhance or impede the encoding or rehearsal of brand information”
“skill or proficiency in interpreting brand information in an ad”
Given that ability is a factor that cannot be easily influenced by advertisers, the focus is limited to enhancing users’ motivation and
opportunity to process information online.
Motivation is key to understanding advertising effectiveness as it affects both attentional allocation and the intensity of processing.
MacInnis, Moorman, and Jaworski (1991) argue that motivation to process advertising messages can be enhanced through the use
of executional cues in the ads themselves.
Hedonic appeals:
appeals that make people feel good.
Hershberger (2003) examined different appeal types for banner advertising
Emotional appeals are more effective than information appeals, but only for business-to-consumer (B2C) ads.
Informational appeals enhanced click-through when we talk about business-to-business (B2B) ads.
Whereas the case for hedonic appeals may be clear in traditional media, more research is needed to determine the role of emotion
and cognition online.
Other finding:
Dynamic banners were more effective than static banners, but only for B2C ads. For B2B ads, dynamic banners were
clicked on a lower rate than static banners.
Findings indicate that executional cues in the ads themselves can enhance motivation to process/take action, but only to the degree
that people are not highly involved with the product. These findings suggest the importance of peripheral cues only under lowinvolvement processing conditions.
Motivation to process banner ads can be further enhanced by making sure ads are placed on Web sites that are congruent with the
messages in the banners.
The motivations of Web users for returning to a given Web site are broad and hard to capture, but Web sites must provide reward to
gain loyalty. The reward changes depending on whether Web users are classified as experientalor goal directed.
Experiental Web users:
Goal-directed Web users:
focused on the gratifications of the medium itself (process motivations)
focused on the gratifications associated with specific content online (content motivations)
Process motivations:
Content motivations:
often intrinsically motivated, nongoal directed and the outcome desired from the use of the
medium is enjoyment.
often extrinsically motivated, goal directed and the outcome desired from the use of the
medium is the degree that Web-surfing sessions are useful in achieving specified goals.
In addition, there are a few important issues regarding motivation that yet have to be considered: motive switching, mode of
surfing, influence of demographic variables.
Motive switching:
Mode of surfing:
occurs as individuals multitask in cyberspace or are distracted from an original goal.
the degree to which behavior is goal directed.
As previously reviewed, individual characteristics of consumers can influence which topics consumers deem relevant and the
manner in which advertisements are processed. Therefore, it is important to look beyond the motives and mode of surfing of
individuals and identify shared characteristics that may help advertisers provide segmented messages to groups of Web surfers.
Influence of demographic variables:
provide greater insight in to the mind of consumers.
Both age- and gender-related variability seem to influence motivations for using the Internet. Demographic variables should remain
viable segmentation variables online. Motivation should really be the key focus of advertisers, as motivation is the driving force
that will be need to be understood in order to develop “sticky” Web sites.
Web surfing is an activity that generally elevates the levels of involvement with the activity, as Web surfing is directed by the
individual. Content seems to be key when targeting messages online. Advertisers should be aligning their ads with the content
sought, rather than the motivation for using the Internet.
Web surfers control their experience online. Online advertising must be useful for satisfying the specific motives of the user. If
experientially motivated, the information must be entertaining. If goal directed, the information must be task relevant. Web sites must
first and foremost satisfy the instrumental nature of information exploration and help people feel in control of their online experience.
Advertisers must understand the gratifications consumers are seeking from Internet use, and the specific content that will reward
Web surfers for their efforts online.
Chapter 6 Computer Agents as Sources of Trust in Internet Advertising.
The design of agent interface (Internet agents) is believed to have the potential to shape the quality of social interaction between the
online consumer and the computer. The use of a computer agent who can greet and guide consumers and offer personalized
services via the Internet is motivated by the expectation that online audiences will give conscientious responses to socially enriched
Perhaps the reason why many online consumers do not make commitments could be a lack of trust. Het concept van vertrouwen
speelt een belangrijke rol in hoofdstuk 6. Er wordt veel literatuur doorgenomen met betrekking tot dit onderwerp en onderliggende
dimenties: affect, cognitie en intentie. Daarnaast worden de gevolgen van vertrouwen doorgenomen zoals communicatie,
overtuiging (persuasion) en relatie effectiviteit.
Trust is the fundamental driver of interpersonal relationships and social order. Garfinkel (1963) notes that because trust is so
fundamental in social interaction it is often taken for granted. He states that trust operates based on agreements, implicit
assumptions, and qualifications, providing basis for interpretation, understanding, and expectation for future actions.
3 soorten vertrouwen:
1. Cognitive Trust:
Affective Trust:
Intentional trust:
Een op een rationele denkwijze gebaseerde beslissing van vertrouwen. Bij voorbeeld aan de hand
van bewijs.
Vertrouwen op basis van een emotioneel verband. Dit kan op basis zijn van vriendschap
bijvoorbeeld, maar bijvoorbeeld dus ook door linking.
Vertrouwen dat een ander geen handelingen zal verrichten die slecht zullen zijn voor je. Intentioneel.
Trust leads to actions that increase one’s vulnerability to the other partner; hence, the need for trust arises in risky situations
(Deutsch, 1962).
It has been suggested that the newer and more complex the environment is, the more the need for trust arises (Keen, Balance,
Chan, & Schrump, 2000).
In tabel 6.1 worden voorbeelden gegeven van de 3 soorten vertrouwen.
Vertrouwen in de context van internet
Vertrouwen heeft veel te maken met het gebruik van internet doordat internet een groot en complexe omgeving is en aan het
gebruik hiervan hangen risico’s zoals het verlies van tijd, financiële middelen, fysieke nadelige gevolgen en psychologische
gevolgen. Over het algemeen is het zo dat vertrouwen een grote rol speelt doordat internet een grote en risicovolle omgeving is.
FIGURE 6.1 A model of enhancing Internet trust employing Internet agents.
Trust-Enhancing Agent Factors
Interface Enhancers:
1. Human-Likeliness
2. Social Presence
3. Personality etc.
Trust Dimensions
Cognitive Enhancers:
1. Expertise
2. Customized Service
3. Information Richness, Relevance, etc.
Potential Consequences of Trust
Communication Effectiveness
1. Self-Disclossure
2. Honesty, Assurance
Persuasion Effectiveness
1. Purchase, Conversion Behavior
Relationship Effectiveness
1. Satisfaction
2. Loyalty
In de figuur hierboven is hoofdstuk 6 voor een groot deel samengevat. In het model word onderscheid gemaakt tussen
eigenschappen van agents die vertrouwen bevorderen, de dimensies van vertrouwen en de gevolgen hiervan.
Waarom kunnen computer agents zorgen voor vertrouwen in het internet?
Consumenten hebben hulp nodig bij het overmeesteren van de overvloed van informatie op het internet. Agents kunnen hier een
oplossing bieden, de intelligente agens zoals de paperclip van Word kunnen hierin barrières helpen overkomen. Hiermee kan dus
ook vertrouwen mee worden gecreëerd.
Affectieve en cognitieve verbeteraars van vertrouwen
- Interface Based Trust Enhancers (affective route): Bij het ontwerpen van Internet Agents moet rekening worden gehouden met
het implementeren van menselijke eigenschappen in deze systemen. Mensen kunnen namelijk aan digitale interactie de zelfde
eisen gaan stellen als bij onderlinge interactie, een agent waarbij dat is ingebouwd zal dan de voorkeur genieten van de gebruikers.
Hierin zullen mensen op zoek zijn naar overeenkomsten tussen de gebruiker in de agent. Deze gelijkheden leiden in grote mate de
mens-computer interactie mede als interpersoonlijke relaties. Dit wordt ook wel approach-avoidance genoemd.
people give open and positive responses to those who appear similar to themselves and who share a
common ground.
If computer agents appear friendly, having trustworthy appearances and natural verbal behaviors, people will more be likely to trust
the interface than agents without such amicable characteristics.  one way to enhance affective trust perceptions about a computer
agent, the affective route to enhance Internet trust.
- Expertise Based Trust (cognitive route)
depth of knowledge or the capability to perform given tasks successfully.
Met andere woorden indien de agent kan laten zien dat hij daadwerkelijk de gebruiker kan helpen, zal de gebruiker meer vertrouwen
krijgen in de agent. Deze bewezen efficiëntie en voorkomen van een informatie overload is een voorbeeld van cognitief kweken van
Consequences of Trusts
3 areas in which potential outcomes of Internet trust can be highlighted:
1. Communication effectiveness
2. Persuasion effectiveness
3. Relationship effectiveness
Een goede online Agent is net een goede verkoper. Tevreden klanten zullen terug komen om meer aankopen te maken.
Consumers will likely respond favorably to Internet agents they can trust. Trust is the key to the success of agent-based online
marketing. Internet agents have the potential to greatly enhance online consumer trust.
Chapter 7 Segmenteren van Internetmarkten
Er is al veel literatuur over de traditionele markten, maar niet over de benifits van niet traditionele markten zoals het internet. Het
hoofdstuk gaat over het testen van verschillende segmentatie-strategieën,die normaal gebruikt worden voor traditionele markten, in
de context van het internet.
Market segmentation is employed to…
1. gain a better understanding of one’s consumers
2. seek new product opportunities or areas that may be receptive to product repositioning
3. create improved advertising message strategies to assure that the “right” message gets to the “right customer”
Segmentatie kan de communicatie-effectiviteit verhogen door de “wasted exposure” te minimeren. Het internet geeft veel
mogelijkheden op dit gebied. Het internet wordt echter door individu’s op verschillende manieren gebruikt en daarom is het
belangrijk het belangrijk de denkwijzen en het gedrag van de segmenten te kennen. Na het commerciële succes van het internet
kan de gebruiker niet meer langer als homogene groep gezien worden. Consumenten zijn bereid meer te betalen voor “tailored”
producten. Het segmenteren van het internet kan zeer profitabel zijn, maar er zijn veel manieren om te segmenteren. In het
volgende stuk worden verschillende variabelen voorgesteld:
Market segmentation is a key requirement for companies that want to compete for an identified target market with a diversity of
needs. The goal is to segment the Internet for the purpose of maximizing profits. This task is somewhat complicated because there
is often frequent overlap between segments.
Segmenting Approach
2 major segmentation approaches (Myers’s, 1996 classification scheme):
1. Consumer-based vs. product/service-based variables
2. A priori (vooraf bekende gegevens, zoals consumptie, leeftijd) vs. Post hoc segmentation (gebaseerd op feedback van de
4 objectives of Internet companies:
1. Identifying and characterizing heavy internet users
2. Identifying likely targets for new technologies
3. Improving existing Web site design or navigation
4. Focusing Internet advertising efforts for greater impact
2 Consumer-Based Segmentation Variables:
1. Demographics:
Een van de eerst gebruikte segmentatievariabelen. Geslacht speelt een erg belangrijke rol.
Mannen gebruiken het internet meer voor gaming, informatie zoeken, shoppen en vrouwen
meer om te communiceren. Etniciteit is ook een belangrijke variabel. Demografische
gegevens alleen zijn echter te beperkt om inzicht te krijgen.
2. Product-Related attitudes:
Ze helpen om te ontdekken hoe de consument denkt of voelt over een product. Zo kunnen
er sterke boodschappen verstuurd worden. Producten moeten vaak aan emotionele en
psychologische behoeftes voldoen. De attitudes zijn een goede toevoeging tot de
demografische gegevens om internetsegmenten te begrijpen.
2 Product-Based Segmentation Variables
1. Internet usage:
Segmentatiestudies hebben aangetoond dat inzicht geven op wie er beroep kan gedaan worden,
maar ook hoe deze te benaderen en te houden zijn. Kunnen helpen met het “wat” en “hoe”.
2. Usage Motives:
Geven inzicht in het gedrag van consumenten. Kan helpen bij het verbeteren van de doelboodschap.
Er zijn meer dan 100 motieven geïdentificeerd.
Resultaten uit het hoofdstuk
Een combinatie van traditionele segmentatie werkt ook voor het internet.
De segmentatie kan een goede voorspelling geven voor het gedrag van de consument.
Uit groot onderzoek kwam naar voren…
3 homogene segmenten:
1. Phobics (fobieën): Gebruiken internet alleen voor communicatie. Ze vermijden elk ander internetgebruik.
2. Pragmatics:
Gebruiken internet vooral om informatie te verkrijgen. Ze surften, communiceerden of
shopten niet. Ze hadden een algemene negatieve attitude tegenover internetgebruik.
3. Passionates:
Gebruiken het internet voor alles. Ze hebben over het algemeen een positieve attitude over
internet. Ze besteden de meeste tijd van alle drie op internet.
Theoretische implicaties
Information processing:
Uses and Gratifications:
Diffusion research:
“Means-End” research:
The three segments, Phobics, Passionates and Pragmatics, have implications for
understanding information processing by providing attitudinal and affective explanations for
Internet use, and subsequent advertising avoidance.
The findings also have implications for informing the U&G tradition by improving our
understanding of how individuals use media based on needs and desires.
Our research can also be applied to diffusion of innovation which is the process by which
an idea, practice, or object is communicated through and adopted by members of a social
system over time. The diffusion of innovations field emphasizes interpersonal
communication networks, which may provide a means of increasing Phobic users’ attitude
toward and implementation of the Internet using interactive applications such as e-mail.
suggest that overt (openlijke) consumer behaviors can be linked to various underlying
Beleid implicaties
Mensen moeten geïnformeerd worden over de methoden, waarbij marketers data verzamelen. Consumenten maken zich
in dit verband zorgen over privacy en beveiliging. Vooral Phobics maken zich hierover zorgen. Striktere wetgeving over
privacy en beveiliging moeten de zorgen wegnemen. Daarnaast moet er ook gekeken worden naar de type en grootte van
de advertentie. Duidelijk benoemen van informatie neemt verwarring en de bezorgdheid bij Phobics weg.
Praktische implicaties
Media planning:
E-mail wordt bijvoorbeeld veel gebruikt door Phobics. Pragmatici gebruiken internet vooral
voor het zoeken van informatie dus zijn search engines belangrijk. Gepassioneerde zijn het
beste te bereiken.
Phobics moeten met simpele en niet technische boodschappen benaderd worden.
Herhalende bezoeken aan de pagina ondersteund door bijvoorbeeld aanbiedingen kunnen
Phobics en pragmatici aanmoedigen.
Gezondheidsboodschappen: Phobics zouden de grootste nadelen hebben om gezondheidswebsites te bezoeken.
Alleen gepassioneerde toonden interesse in e-shopping. Waargenomen risico’s van
consumenten bleken het grootste obstakel voor de groei van e-commerce. Meer ervaring
op internet leidt tot een afname van deze waargenomen risico’s.
Websitedesign en navigatie: Keep it simple! Dit helpt onervaren gebruikers. Toch trekken complexe en interactieve
designschemas meer gepassioneerde aan.
Our research has attempted to address the question of whether traditional segmenting strategies are effective for segmenting
Internet markets. We believe they are. 3 segments that emerged: Phobics, Passionates, and Pragmatics – represented
homogenous groups of Internet users who had different attitudes toward and different uses of the Internet. Segmenting on the basis
of traditional consumer product variables can be an effective means of segmenting Internet users.
Chapter 8 Het proces en de consequenties van het cognitief filtering van internetcontent
Hoffman and Novak (1996) describe the Internet as a “hypermedia environment”, engaging users in a way no traditional media
Interactiviteit vereist acties en beslissingen van de consument. Ze hebben dus keuzes die hun ervaring met de hypermedia vorm
geven. Ze geven aan welke informatie getoond moet worden en welke informatie ze verwerken. Webdesign moet hierop inspelen en
de aandacht van consumenten aantrekken en ingaan op hun behoeftes. Met de grote hoeveelheid van ongekende informatie is er
een grote kans op een information overload.
The human mind’s need to make sense of its surroundings, coupled with cognitive capacity limits, has resulted in a coping
mechanism termed cognitive filtering.
cognitive filtering:
a process that restricts how much individuals can obserb at one time.
3 steps of information processing (that occur in order and may occur at many different levels or depths of cognitive processing.)
1. Perception: Men neemt waar als men bewust wordt van een stimuli.
2. Attention:
als men de stimuli onderzoekt.
3. Cognition:
als men de stimuli in het mentale proces betekenis geeft.
Cognitive capacity:
the amount of information one is able to attend to and process at a given point in time.
Contextuel “cuing”
De attentie van de consument focust zich op de informatie die relevant is voor het doel.
Cognitieve mechanisme verminderen afleidingen en focussen op het belangrijke.
Contextueel “cuing” treedt op als de consument voorspelt waar de informatie waarschijnlijk te vinden is gebaseerd op
context of familiariteit van omliggende informatie.
Daardoor filteren mensen delen uit die waarschijnlijk geen relevantie informatie bevatten.
Consumenten ontwikkelen een map van de context in hun hoofd die op die pagina te vinden is.
Reclamemakers gaan hierop in en laten pagina’s als belangrijk en het niet als een reclame er uit te laten zien.
2 elements of search activity:
1. Point of entry:
Where search begins. May vary from experience to experience. For example at home a standard
home page from an Internet provider, at work the company’s intranet connection. The entry point is
one that has been customized in some way through interaction with the medium prior to the search
2. A search engine: May be reached from a link on the entry point, by accessing a frequently used engine from a link in
their browser, or by typing the site address (URL) into the navigation bar. Once the search engine is
reached the user types in key words related to the information desired.
Whether using a search engine or the entry point (in some cases identical) users continue to be presented with sets of choices
during most points in their search (Figure 8.1c and 8.1d)
Informatie wordt geselecteerd om door de filter gelaten te worden. De selectie volgt op basis van de nuttigheid en congruentie die
nodig is voor het behalen van het doel.
2 states of Internet users:
1. an information-seeking goal state:
2. a desired experiental state:
(rather than one of a task-oriented nature)
a user is looking for specific information to complete a task.
looking trough and interacting with different sites for the
purpose of enjoyment, also described as “surfing” (Hoffman and Novak, 1996).
To play online games, read stories or blogs etc.
These relationships just described are depicted in Figure 8.2.
Individual differences:
Situational influences:
Beïnvloeden de online ervaring. Een karakteristiek is bijvoorbeeld de “user’sneedforcognition
(NCOG)” die de sterkte van de gebruiker beschrijft om informatie te begrijpen. Mensen met een hoge
NCOG geven meer tijd uit voor zoeken. Daarnaast ook de neiging om informatie te vertrouwen.
Mensen die weinig tijd hebben en een hoge NCOG filteren veel. Mensen nemen bijvoorbeeld aan dat
content in hoeken minder belangrijk is.
Mensen moeten de grote hoeveelheid filteren, anders worden ze gek.
Cognitief filteren leidt tot een beperking van blootstelling tot diversiteit.
Minder diversiteit leidt tot een scheiding van in-group en out-group informatie.
The recent continuing evolution of search engines and home pages like Google and Yahoo! has reflected a changing model. Google
provides opportunities for advertisers to be listed in either prime spots (paid) and competing spots (nonpaid), all depending on how
the consumer structures their search. Yahoo! provides literally a one-stop interactive retailing experience, where any business can
connect. Businesses are rated as to the quality of their performance. These are two examples that reflect that the advertising model
is changing and that advertising and retailing exist in the same space on the Internet.
In sum, cognitive filtering on the Internet is a real phenomenon that deserves much more research attention. It has significant
implications for Internet advertisers as the consumer may be increasingly harder (and more costly) to reach. Understanding both the
value that customers seek in products and services, coupled with knowledge of how the customers uses the Internet and how she or
he cognitively filters information, will enhance the advertiser’s potential for succesful targeting and enhanced purchase activity.
Chapter 9 Examining the Effectiveness of Internet Advertising Formats (Li &Leckenby)
De effectiviteit van internet advertenties is onderdeel van de vraag over de effectiviteit van advertenties in het algemeen. Daarom
wordt de effectiviteit van internet advertenties op dezelfde manier onderzocht als traditionele advertenties. Echter verschillen
internet advertenties met traditionele advertenties, aangezien internet meer mogelijkheden biedt dan traditionele media. Internet kan
bijv. dienen als communicatie, transactie en distributie kanaal. Andere media hebben niet zo’n breed kanaal capaciteit.
De uitgebreide functie van internet advertenties is afkomstig van haar verticale integratie van drie marketing kanaal capaciteiten:
1) communicatie, 2) transactie en 3) distributie. De uitgebreidefunctie van internet advertenties komt ook voort uit de horizontale
integratie van alle vormen van marketing communicatie, met inbegrip van reclame, public relations, sales, promotie en direct
The Internet provides the means for
This interaction can be human-machine or human-machine-human among others.
On the other hand…
Interactive media:
refers to a carrier of messages that provides for the possibility of interaction with messages
conveyed in that medium.
refereert naar de drager van de boodschap dat voorziet in de mogelijkheden van interactie met
boodschappen overgebracht in dat medium.
Internet is dus een interactief medium dat in mogelijkheden voorziet voor interactieve communicatie met boodschappen. Hoewel
bevindingen van algemene advertentie effectiviteit gelden voor internet, kan het zijn dat afwijkingen komen door de speciale
karakteristiek van interactiviteit (dat met internet wordt geassocieerd) komt.
Objectives and Effectiveness
Bij de discussie over de effectiviteit van advertenties spelen doelstellingen een belangrijke rol. Doelstellingen dienen verschillende
functies in het management. Ten eerste, ze geven richting aan de besluitvorming door te dienen als criteria. Doelstellingen dienen
ook de functie van het verstrekken van een middel waarmee resultaten kunnen worden geëvalueerd. Ten slotte, en belangrijk op te
merken, de doelstellingen dwingen betrokkenen tot betere begrijpbaarheid van processen te krijgen die ten grondslag liggen voor
hun specifieke problemen.Redelijke advertentiedoelstellingen kunnen niet worden vastgesteld zonder kennis over hoe het
advertising proces werkt.
2 interrelated issues in advertising management in general:
1. Setting objectives
2. Measuring advertising results
Criteria of effectiveness
Elmo St. Lewis was in 1898 de eerste die discussieerde op een systematische manier over het vaststellen van‘criteria van
effectiviteit’, middels het AIDA model: attention, interest, desire en action. Sinds die tijd richt de discussie over criteria zich op de
een of andere manier op dit basis idee.
Lavidge en Steiner kwamen tot een hiërarchie van effecten, waarbij elementen in de categorie van Cognition, Affection en Conation
werden geplaatst, waarbij conation een populaire term voor gedrag of gedragsintentie was. In dit model leidt Cognition tot affection,
dat weer leidt tot gedrag. Cognition gaat om de kennis in het achterhoofd van een persoon en hoe dat wordt verkregen. Affection
verwijst naar zowel de emotionele en attitudeaspecten, bijvoorbeeld ‘likinganddisliking’. Behavior verwijst naar waarneembare
handelingen van personen of hun intenties tot handelen.
Robertson (1971) maakte de volgende observaties:
1. de consument maakt beslissingen op niet-rationele wijze.
2. er is niet een bepaalde opeenvolging van stadia die moeten plaatsvinden.
3. Het CAB model moet voorzien worden van feedback loops, omdat een dergelijk proces niet noodzakelijkerwijs lineair en
één-dimensionaal zal zijn.
Het oude hiërarchische model van cognition, affection en behavior is terug te vinden in fig. 9.1. Dit is contrasterend met de idee
ontwikkeling in de late 60’er jaren, zie fig. 9.2. Dit figuur illustreert het niet-lineaire en overlappende karakter van de drie criteria van
doeltreffendheid. Er is geen vooraf bepaalde criteria om mee te beginnen of te eindigen. Verder is het mogelijk om meer dan een
criterium te ontwikkelen op hetzelfde tijdstip zoals wordt geïllustreerd door het onderling niet-exclusieve karakter van dit schema met
betrekking tot de drie criteria. Er dient te worden opgemerkt dat sinds 1977, reclame beoefenaars het belang van het vaststellen van
doelstellingen en het meten van de effectiviteit van berichten met behulp van alle drie de criteria (CAB) erkennen in plaats van
slechts een of twee van hen. Voor een volledig beeld van de effectiviteit van de boodschap dient gemeten te worden op alle drie
FIGURE 9.1 The traditional CAB “hierarchy of effects” model
Criteria and Interactivity
‘Control’ is een belangrijk aspect binnen de effectiviteit van advertenties, elk model dient hier rekening mee te houden. ‘Control’ wil
zeggen, hoeveel van de communicatie rondom een advertentie op het internet is onder controle van de gebruiker en hoeveel is
onder controle van de adverteerder.
2 soorten control (Pavlow en Stewart, 2000).
1. process control:
the parts of the process of communication through the Internet that is largely under control of the user
or consumer of the message.
2. outcomes:
the information that is under the control of the advertiser.
Rodgers en Thorson (2000) tekenen een vergelijkbaar onderscheid in hun Internet Advertising Model (IAM, zie fig. 9.3), welke is
ontworpen om het communicatieproces die consumenten volgen in relatie tot boodschappen op het internet te verklaren.
Criteria and Control Ownership
2 verschillende gedachten om effectiviteit van advertenties te meten (Deze twee sets kunnen worden gezien als verschillend,
maar ook complementair in hun focus.)
1. process control: hebben voornamelijk betrekking op de media keuze, informatie zoeken, en de aandacht voor en
verwerking van informatie. Deze metingen houden zich in de eerste plaats bezig met de wijze waarop
gebruikers construeren en controle hebben over hun relatie tot berichten op het internet.
2. results.
de uitkomsten van consumenten die zijn blootgesteld aan berichten op het internet. Deze twee
‘control ownership’ dimensies kunnen operationeel worden onder één of meer van de drie dimensies
van effectiviteit,CAB ( zie fig. 9.4)
Er zijn veranderingen gaande in het gebruik van internet advertentie formats. Zo is er een daling gaande van banners en
sponsorships. Rich media (de advertenties bestaande uit audio en video en met dynamische beweging) en met name key-word
search stijgen qua gebruik. Daarnaast worden nieuwe vormen geadopteerd zoals 3-D visualisatie en merk integratie in games.
Deze formats vervagen verder de advertentie- en marketingcommunicatie. Onderstaande formats worden besproken met wat er
bekend is qua onderzoek naar de effectiviteit.
7 formats:
1. Banner Ads:
bestaan uit tekst en plaatjes, en zijn of statisch of dynamisch. Er is veel onderzoek gedaan waaruit
blijkt dat banner ad karakteristieken verschillende impact heeft op de performance van banner
het plaatsen van een identiteit van een sponsor in de gesponsorde website voor het kweken van
goodwill. Studies tonen aan dat het essentieel is voor een bedrijf om een evenement of activiteit te
kiezen die aansluit bij het bedrijf, aangezien de waargenomen klik de uitkomst van een online
sponsorship beïnvloed.
forced-exposure ads, web page advertisements that are displayed before or after an expected
content page. wordt samen met pop-ups en pop-unders het meest opdringerig ervaren. Deze
vormen verdwijnen steeds meer, mede doordat ze geblokt worden.
Rich Media:
Rich media is een generieke term voor een breed scala aan internet-advertenties met dynamische
beweging, die zich voordoet automatisch of in directe reactie op de interactie van de gebruiker.
Deze advertenties zijn meer effectiefdan banner advertenties.
Key-word search: Deze vorm was de meest populaire vorm van internet advertising in 2003 in termen van inkomsten,
het overtreffen banner ads, ‘classifieds’ en sponsorship. Key-word search is de belangrijkste bron van
inkomsten voor sites als Google, Yahoo, MSN en AOL. Deze vorm van adverteren levert
commerciële informatie aan de gebruiker op het moment dat de gebruiker dit nodig heeft. Hierdoor
vindt de gebruiker het minder opdringerig.
Key-word search lijkt een ideale oplossing wanneer het gebaseerd is op pay-per-click en het
resultaatgedreven is. Click-throughs alleen zijn niet een betrouwbaar meetinstrument voor de
effectiviteit van key-word search.
3-D visualizaties: 3-D visualisaties laat gebruikers interacteren met gesimuleerde producten op het web. De interface
mogelijkheden van 3-D visualisaties brengt een natuurlijke benadering voor object inspectie en
representeert een vorm van ‘object interactivity’ door bijv. producten te bekijken vanuit verschillende
hoeken en door in en uit te zoomen voor details. Onderzoekt wijst uit dat deze advertentievorm
vergeleken met graphics leidt tot een verhoogde mate van productkennis, een positievere
merkattitude en een verhoogd aankoopintentie. Li, Daughberty et al. (2002) schrijven de superioriteit
van de virtuele ervaring van 3-D visualisatie over indirecte of zelfs een directe ervaring voor bepaalde
soorten producten aan virtuele affordances. Zij identificeren
3 soorten van product affordances.
Real affordances:
fysieke attribute van een product.
Perceived affordances:
waarnemings-aanwijzingen die een consument bezit en
gebruikt bij de beoordeling van een product voorafgaand aan
de aankoop.
Virtuele affordances:
product eigenschappen die worden gesimuleerd in 3-D
visualisatie, die kunnen verschillen van de waargenomen
Li, Daughberty et al. stelde dat, als virtuele affordances ofwel matchen of groter zijn dan de
consument gepercipieerde affordances, dan resulteert virtuele ervaring in betere productkennis,
merkattitude en koopintentie
productplaatsing in online games is een ander voorbeeld van ad-content integratie, waarbij
interactieve technologie wordt gebruikt om het merk te verspreiden in een boeiende manier. De
manier waarop een merk geïntegreerd is in een game varieert. Chen and Ringel (2001) observeren 3
levels van de integratie van een merk in een game: associative, illustrative en demonstrative.
Associative is de laagste leven waar het merk in de achtergrond van een activiteit of evenement
wordt geplaatst. Illustratieve integratie plaatst het merk in een prominente positie in de game, zoals
een cartoon die zijn General Mill’sCinnamon Toast Crunchcereal moet verzamelen. Demonstratieve
integratie is het hoogste niveau. Denk aan de Nike schoenen die een gebruiker kiest voor zijn
basketballer in een game.
Ook in Advergames is reeds onderzoek gedaan, vooral met betrekking tot brand recall and
Expanded scope of internet advertising research
Het doel van internet advertising onderzoek is het identificeren en begrijpen van de manieren waarop internet adverteren het meest
effectief kan zijn voor adverterdeers, geschikt voor uitgevers en acceptabel voor consumenten.
De laatste ontwikkelingen rondom internet adverteren suggereert dat de kracht van internet adverteren ligt in de integratie met
conventioneel adverteren om de impact te maximaliseren. Een beter begrip voor de brede functie van internet adverteren is niet
alleen bruikbaar bij het ontwikkelen en gebruiken van verschillende internet advertentie formats, maar het helpt ook bij het effectief
integreren van zowel traditionele als internetadvertenties in marketing campagnes.
Verder wordt in de laatste paragraaf aangegeven dat er behoefte is aan meer academisch onderzoek naar de effectiviteit van
internet advertising in het algemeen, en in het bijzonder op advertentie formats.
The effectiveness of Internet advertising formats must be judged in the context of an overall philosophy or model of advertising
effectiveness in general, regardless of medium or message characteristics. Internet has some special characteristics, notably
interactivity, which bring about special issues. Today, key word research, represents 35% of all advertising expenditures on the
Internet.The continued invention of new formats is likely to continue into the foreseeable future. Challenges are to find new ways to
integrate Internet advertising formats into the traditional advertising campaign with its traditional media and traditional formats.
Chapter 12 Global issues in Online Advertising
Dit hoofdstuk geeft een overzicht van de huidige staat van online adverteren vanuit een wereldwijd perspectief.
Current trends en statistics
Statistieken omtrent het internet gebruik van landen, regio’s worden weergegeven. Hieruit blijkt dat het aantal internetgebruikers
stijgt. Zeker als gebruikers uit verschillende delen van de wereld blijven bewegen online, zal de omgeving blijven evolueren en
veranderen. Marketeers zullen meertalige en culturele consumentbehoeftes in overweging moeten nemen.
Naast online veranderingen in het geografische landschap zijn er ook demografische veranderingen terug te vinden. Waar
voorheen een blanke man, goed opgeleide met een goed betaalde professionele baan was, is er nu een grote diversiteit aan
gebruikers te vinden op internet. Op globale schaal is er een ‘digital gender gap’ te constateren. Verder kunnen ook geslacht en
generaties verschillen met betrekking tot het doel van het gebruik van internet teruggevonden worden. Zo gebruiken vrouwen in de
VS internet meer voor communicatie en shoppen ze vaker op internet dan mannen. Mannen gebruiken internet meer voor
entertainment en informatie verzamelen.
Al deze veranderingen en verschuivingen betekenen dat adverteerders en marketeers de consumenten vanuit een globaal
perspectief moeten gaan begrijpen. Dit betekent niet alleen in staat zijn om logistieke eisen te beheren om ervoor te zorgen
producten beschikbaar en leverbaar zijn voor een wereldwijde markt, maar ook dat de online functies voor communicatie en
interactie die rechtstreeks met de consument plaatsvinden moet worden verbeterd. Bij Webpage design, taal en content moet
rekening gehouden worden met culturele relevantie voor wereldwijde consumenten
Why being online is big business
Online ad business is een groeiende markt, waarin veel geld in omgaat. Er is veel potentieel aanwezig voor marketeers die de tijd
nemen om hun consumentbehoeftes in termen van producten en leuke website shop ervaringen. Marketeers moeten zich realiseren
dat simpelweg het hebben van een website niet wereldwijde succes betekend.
A global medium: Not necessarily a global brand
Internet heeft de mogelijkheid om traditionele beperkingen in international commercie van geografische grenzen en tijdszones te
Het internet is interactief, waarbij tweezijdige communicatie tussen koper en verkoper mogelijk is.
Robert en Ko(2001) definiëren globalinteractive advertising als: “cross-culturele marketing communicatie die doelbewust is gepland
en uitgevoerd om actief personen in reclame verwerking te betrekken door middel van interactiviteit als onderdeel van de
gelokaliseerde, geregionaliseerde, of wereldwijd strategische communicatie-inspanningen.” Met andere woorden: niet alle interactie
advertenties zijn wereldwijd en niet elk bedrijf met een website is klaar voor wereldwijde business of wereldwijde consument
Glocalized strategie wordt door marketeers steeds vaker toegepast: het ontwikkelen van een wereldwijde strategie en
merkbeeld, maar met een lokale uitvoering. Bijv.: I’mlovin’ it campagne van MC Donalds in diverse landen. Bedrijven zoeken steeds
meer naar manieren om kansen te omarmen, terwijl ze de challenges verminderen. Het gebruik van aanpasbare templates in
websites is een voorbeeld. Trends zoals deze zijn belangrijk voor marketeers voor het handhaven van consistente merkbeelden en
het verbeteren van kostenefficiëntie terwijl ze rekening houden met culturele invloeden.
Een aantal relevante kansen zijn: de mogelijkheid tot het bieden van maatwerk informatie en prijzen; sneller nieuwe product
diffusies; eerder toegang tot een criticalmassfor niche-producten; als wel een efficiënt medium voor marktonderzoek wereldwijd.
Uitdagingen belichten onder meer ‘global branding’; regelgevingskwesties; toegenomen concurrentie van concurrenten op de
wereldmarkt, alsmede kleinere bedrijven die gemakkelijker kunnen concurreren met grote multinationals; en het vermogen om
relevante content en service te bieden aan de consument op een lokaal niveau, maar in een wereldwijd medium.
Landen verschillen in penetratiegraad voor computergebruik, internet toegang, en internetsnelheid, het aantal online service
providers, financiële betaalsystemen en transport capaciteiten voor het bezorgen van goederen alsmede als host van andere
infrastructurele issues. Deze verschillen kunnen het consumenten gedrag online beïnvloeden. Bijv. het betalen per creditcard is in
Japan niet zo gewoon als in de VS. Met deze culturele verschillen dient rekening gehouden te worden, zodat gebruikers eerder
bereid zijn voor herhaalaankopen.
Online motivationandpreferences
Over het geheel genomen moet bij de discussie over het inzetten van gestandaardiseerde versus gelokaliseerde websites begrepen
worden waarom mensen het internet gebruiken, welke voorkeuren er bestaan in een online omgeving, en hoe culturele variabelen
van invloed zijn op deze zaken.
Motieven kunnen zijn: sociale escapisme, informatie, de interactieve ervaring, inter-persoonlijke communicatie en economische
motivatie, zoals besparing van tijd en geld bij het doen van aankopen. Concerns centreren zich op privacy: transactie gerelateerd
(bijv. security) als niet-transactie gerelateerd (bijv. spam).
Managerial issues
Sheldon en Strader bespreken een aantal bestuurlijke vraagstukken voor bedrijven die willen uitbreiden naar de internationale ecommerce. De discussie is opgesplitst in vier belangrijke onderdelen: 1) internationalisering kwesties, 2) Financiële kwesties, 3)
transport concerns en 4) juridische kwesties. de aspecten die het meest relevant zijn voor de wereldwijde online reclame vloeien
voort uit de punten bespreekt het kader van internationalisering van de inhoud van websites en het uiterlijk. Verschillende
suggesties worden gedaan, maar ten minste de structuur van de site moet genoeg internationaal ingericht zijn zodat potentiële
klanten informatie in hun eigen taal kunnen vinden, zonder dat ze verward of gekwetst worden tijden hun site bezoek.
Emerging best practises
Een gecentraliseerd management systeem voor website operaties is een opkomende trend. Het lijkt alsof de advertentie issues in
de traditionele media met betrekking tot het lokaliseren versus standaardisering ook worden voortgezet in de online omgeving. Net
als bij traditionele media, de succesvolle bedrijven diegene die de juiste balans bereiken tussen standaardisatie en lokalisatie of met
andere woorden de gemaakte kosten afwegen voor het lokaliseren van websites met potentiële voordelen.
“Best practises” voor bedrijven zijn: bepalen van de juiste mate van lokalisatie; tenuitvoerlegging van een "one-platform"-beleid;
focus op het creëren van inhoud en work flow efficiëntie; test besluiten met het juiste soort onderzoek.
Chapter 13 Internet Advertising in Online Newspapers
Most advertising draws part of its strength from the context in which it resides. This is also the case for online advertising. The start
of advertising in the digital age is generally credited to two banners (AT&T and Zima) in October 1994.
Using the attraction factor
As other advertisements, online ads try to catch people’s attention. Since the first ads in 1994 the web has exploded to an
overwhelming amount of available information. The marketing ads are now competing to “attract eyeballs”.
Combining the strengths of the media
Convergence signifies the use of multiple types of media and multiple formats by a single media organization. The convergence
bridgeoccurs when “old media” become the guide to “new media”. One survey found that regular readers of online news sites were
also some of the most ardent readers of the print versions of the newspapers.
New demographics for new media
The internet offers newspaper publishers the opportunity to respond to changing customer preferences as to delivery methods. If
their markets are online then advertisers should be online as well.
Dividing to conquer
Online advertising offers a means for newspapers to subdivide their market and stratify their messages to various levels of their
readership. But, because publishers need to protect their share, they have no choice but to participate in online sites. Classified
advertising is now available to online-only news sites and newspapers will have to work to protect their most sacred cash cow. This
is reason enough to motivate newspapers to develop online operations.
A print counterattack
Online advertising isn’t as profitable as newspaper advertising and advertisers have come to question the value of the internet. But
advertisers do want to have more “eyeballs”.
The eyes have it
Newspapers can bring “eyeballs” to the web like few other media. By trading on the readership they have already established, they
offer advertisers a better chance of a large audience than the start-up web-only publications. The trust factor should increase the
brand equity of the web versions of those papers.
Close to home
The web is at its best as a local medium. Therefore, web marketers are increasingly focusing on the combination of local-content
sites and the worldwide accessibility. The structure of the newspaper industry lends itself to this local connection better than any
other medium.
Serving the national market
However, the local advantage is a burden for national advertising agencies. The issue that remains is whether online advertising is
worth the effort. But there is little doubt that online operations are generating revenue.
A future in advertising
The future for internet newspapers is a double-edged sword: it can vastly increase the range of the paper but readers don’t have to
pay for the access. The old business model of the newspapers isn’t applicable on the internet.
Because people rate the internet on par with print or broadcast as an influence on buying decisions, the competition for online
“eyeballs” is fierce. The key to the future of online newspaper advertising may be that symbiotic relationship or convergence.
Chapter 14 The new onine campaign: Translating information into action
This chapter overviews the history of the migration of political campaigns from old platforms to the internet. It emphasizes on the
motivation of political participation and the role of the internet. Americans use the internet more often to get political news and
information, discuss candidates and debate issues etc. Therefore this medium got more important over time. The combination of
attributes found in traditional media, is what makes the internet unique for political communication. The speed, low costs and 24
hours availability are the most important aspects.
Evolution of online campaigning
In 1996 the internet was first used in an meaningful way for a political campaign. They began to realize that it could:
1. Reduce costs;
2. Directly appeal to voters;
3. Have greater control over image;
4. Ask for information from voters;
5. Solicit online contributions.
Both major party presidential candidates were present on the web. However, special content for the websites wasn’t created, old
video and audio were used as multimedia, biographical information, position statements and press releases could also be seen. In
1996 the internet didn’t have much effect and were certainly no indicators for offline political behavior.
Internet use in politics had grown for the 1998 mid-term elections. Here, it was a powerful tool for minor-party candidates to raise
money and connect with supporters. However, content development lacked and was rather similar as in 1996, although more
functionalities as online credit card contributions, search engines and feedback mechanics could now be used. Politicians viewed
the internet as more important than they did in 1996.
By 2000, the internet had become more mainstream. Updates happened more frequently, feedback and fundraising facilities were
more common. However, campaign messaging did not change significantly from 1996.
Innovating online politics: Election 2004
The 2004 election was accompanied by an explosion in fundraising, in innovative use of sites and e-mail and in media attention to
online politics. Five important influential innovations were identified:
1. Tying fundraising appeals to short-term goals and current news pegs;
2. “Meet-ups” (the use of online tools to organize offline gatherings of supporters);
3. A blog to report regularly on campaign activities;
4. Using online referenda as tools for engaging public support;
5. Decentralizing the decision making process.
Evolution of the audience
Not only the campaigns changed but the audience changed as well, meaning they used the internet more often and more diverse.
The most important difference between online and offline exposure is that online exposure requires the user to actively search for
information and participate, rather than the passive offline media like radio, TV and newspapers. People who actively search political
information are therefore already interested in politics and they are the same people that pay attention to politics through the use of
other media. This may prove harmful to the democratic ideal of a public sphere, because most of the visitors of candidates websites
are already supporters. Therefore, deliberative conversations among people with diverse ideas and opinions are unlikely to occur,
which is crucial in democratic public spheres. So, candidates focused more on using sites to mobilize existing supporters rather than
to persuade undecided voters who are hard to find.
Is there anything “new” about online campaigning?
Scholars have examined if online campaigning replicates patterns of offline campaigning. Existing research offers support both for
and against this.
Xenos and Foot (2005) found that many offline campaign patterns were represented online AND several patterns of issue
information availability and dialogue on campaign sites were not replications of offline patterns. The websites are also “new” in terms
of easy online donations and other interactive elements.
Campaign websites as persuasion
The internet is not yet an effective tool for converting voter preferences to a candidate. The power of the website lies in its ability to
activate and mobilize supporters on behalf of the candidate. But how can websites be designed to positively influence candidate
evaluations and inspire supporters to action? A concept widely discussed as a key attribute of online media but lacking a generally
agreed upon definition is interactivity.
Candidate evaluations
Candidates were evaluated higher by participants that were exposed to online content than by participants exposed to offline
content in an experimental comparison of exposure. Online exposure also influences vote intentions positively. However, websites
can be TO interactive and TO available designed.
Encouraging political participation
Claims for the democratic potential of the internet focus on:
1. Ease of access to political information;
2. Increased involvement with political content through interactive qualities of the medium;
3. Increased opportunities for political discussion.
However, campaigns have been slow to adopt technologies enabling interactions. The interactions on campaign websites are
divided into two categories: human interaction and media interaction. In online campaigns media interaction is encouraged were as
human interaction is resisted by campaign staff because human interaction:
1. Drains limited campaign resources;
2. Increases risks of a communication situation that is difficult to control;
3. Reduces a candidate’s ability to engage in ambiguous campaign discourse.
People who actively participate in interpersonal discussions will learn from it and this will have an impact on levels of political
knowledge. The internet provides the potential to increase interpersonal discussions among citizens.
Increasing political knowledge
Research has shown that political knowledge is crucial for political participation. The internet can encourage political learning due to
lower costs for finding information. However, online political knowledge isn’t available to all. Costs are still high and a lot of people
lack the skills needed to find and understand it. For now, the internet plays a minimal role in influencing active citizenship.
Future research
Future research should continue to consider not only how online political communication influences individuals’ evaluations of
various candidates, but also how the internet affects what people know about politics, how people organize that knowledge within
their minds, and what they do with it in terms of interpersonal discussion of politics and political participation.
Online campaigning is here to stay. It has a lot of benefits as opposed to traditional media. But the effect it will have on the voting
public isn’t clear. However, it is clear that the power of the online campaign is not primarily in changing voters’ minds, but in arming
them with the tools and knowledge they need to take active part in the political process.