Chapter 1: Exploring Life

AP Biology Review Sheets Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System
Overview: The Body’s Long-Distance Regulators- hormone, target cells
45.1 The endocrine system and the nervous system act individually and together in
regulating an animal’s physiology
 Intro- nervous system, high-speed electrical signals, endocrine system,
endocrine glands, slower but longer-acting responses
 Overlap Between Endocrine and Nervous Regulation- neurosecretory
cells, neurohormones
 Control Pathways and Feedback Loops- simple endocrine, simple
neurohormone, simple neuroendocrine, feedback loop, negative feedback
Concept Check- 1,2,3
45.2 Hormones and other chemical signals bind to target cell receptors, initiating
pathways the culminate in specific cell responses
 Intro- bloodstream, proteins, peptides, amines, steroids
 Cell Surface Receptors for Water-Soluble Hormones- reception, signal
transduction, response, signal transduction pathway, epinephrine
 Intracellular Receptors for Lipid-Soluble Hormones- steroids, thyroid
hormones, hormonal form of vitamin D, protein-receptor complexes,
transcription factors, regulating transcription of specific genes
 Paracrine Signaling by Local Regulators- paracrine signaling, local
regulators, neurotransmitters, cytokines, growth factors, nitric oxide,
Concept Check- 1,2,3
45.3 The hypothalamus and pituitary integrate many functions of the vertebrate
endocrine system
 Intro- hypothalamus, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands,
pancreas, adrenal glands, gonads, pineal gland
 Relation Between the Hypothalamus and the Pituitary Gland- posterior
pituitary gland, tropic hormones, anterior pituitary
 Posterior Pituitary Hormones- oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
 Anterior Pituitary Hormones- follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),
luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH),
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), prolactin (PRL), melanocytestimulating hormone (MSH), beta-endorphin, growth hormone (GH)
Concept Check- 1,2,3
AP Biology Review Sheets Chapter 45: Hormones and the Endocrine System
45.4 Nonpituitary hormones help regulate metabolism, homeostasis,
development, and behavior
 Thyroid Hormones- thyroid gland, T3, thyroxine, T4, hyperthyroidism,
Graves’ disease, calcitonin
 Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin: Control of Blood Calciumparathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, calcium homeostasis
 Insulin and Glucagon: Control of Blood Glucose- glucagon, insulin,
diabetes mellitus, Type I diabetes mellitus (insulin-dependent), immune
system destroys pancreatic beta cells, Type II diabetes mellitus (noninsulin-dependent), change in insulin receptors
 Adrenal Hormones: Response to Stress- adrenal glands, adrenal medulla,
adrenal cortex, epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline),
catecholamine, fight-or-flight responses, glucocorticoids, cortisol,
mineralocorticoids, aldosterone
 Gonadal Sex Hormones- gonads, androgens, estrogens, progestins,
testosterone, estrogens, estradiol, progestins, progesterone
 Melatonin and Biorhythms- pineal gland, melatonin
Concept Check- 1,2,3
Testing Your Knowledge 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9