Social Studies 20-1 Course Package 2014 – 2015 Mr. Clay 2 Theme One: To What Extent Should Nation Be the Foundation of Identity? Nation: The word nation focuses around ‘people’ or ‘race’ and is different than a country or nation-state. A nation is found in the feelings and minds of people, an internal connection to others. Canada can be both a nation-state and a nation. A collective identity is crucial to developing a sense of nation. - Collective Identity: A group of individuals who develop a sense of belonging with others based around similarities like language, religion, ethnicity, etc… Linguistic Nation: Languages help influence how people view the world around them by allowing them to make connection when it comes to sharing ideas, knowledge, and wisdom. Example: Francophone’s and Québécois in Canada. Ethnic Nation: People sharing the same ethnic (racial, cultural, linguistic) characteristics develop a sense of pride and loyalty to their heritage. Ethnic nations are not confined to a nation-states border. Example: Ukrainians living within the City of Calgary. Cultural Nation: The way of life that people share inspires a sense of nation and shapes on identity. Example: Though both First Nations people, Haida people are different than the Blackfoot people. Religious Nation: Based around the understandings of one’s place in the world and ideas about how the group should live. Example: Jewish communities develop a sense of a Jewish nation even though they may speak different languages. Spiritual Nation: A shared set of beliefs and traditions associated to the land or a specific place. Also brings together people who search for the meaning of life, belief in a spiritual being, or achieving human potential. Example: Siksika Nation has numerous sacred sites within Southern Alberta and Saskatchewan as well as northern Montana. Geographic & Land Nation: Physical landscapes (oceans, mountains, and deserts) often become barriers that force people to develop a sense of 3 connectedness through different languages, cultures, and religious beliefs. Example: Tibetans in the Tibetan plateau. Political Nation: Surround two major ideas of self-determination and sovereignty. - Self-determination: Refers to the desire to have power to controls one’s own affairs - Sovereignty: Refers to the political authority to control one’s own affairs. Nation-State: A territory with internationally recognized boundaries (borders) and a politically organized body of people (government). Nation-states are sovereign because they are recognized by other nation-states as having the right to govern independently. Describe the situation in Fiji – Describe the situation in Tibet – Nationalism: Defined as shared sense of belonging, or a shared consciousness of collective identity. Nationalism can arises when a nation or society feels threatened by, or threatens, an outside group or state. Nationalism promotes acquiring large amounts of power for their nation or society. Nationalism can have both positive and negative outcomes. - Nationalists: Individuals attain power for their specific nation states or nation. They put aside their individual aspirations for power to focus solely on their nation. - Patriotism: Love of one’s country, is an example of how a nation can form as well as a form of nationalism 4 Charter of Rights and Freedoms: Formulates our “laws” for Canadian society. Laws express the values and beliefs that Canadians choose to embrace. These values and belief are engrained into the Constitution to ensure they are preserved and protected. These include rights to equality, official languages, legal rights, and freedoms that every individual has. Civic Nation: Combines two key elements of citizens and their beliefs and values. When citizens choose to live according to shared beliefs and values they create a civic nation. Civic Nationalism: When individuals abide by shared laws and can live together peacefully. Civic nationalism envisions the nation as equal citizens, united together shared political practices and values. Ethnic Nationalism: The idea that those who share an ethnicity, culture, and language should form a nation-state. National Identity: A collective identity where mass amounts of people identify with the same beliefs and values as well as internalized national symbols. Ways a National Identity Emerges… 1) People feel a strong connection to their collective identity and this creates feelings of nationalism. 2) People with a variety of collective identities decide they want to live together in a nation-state. The foundation of this nation-state is mutual respect for all differing collective identities. Canadian Identity: People in Canada identify themselves as not only Canadian but other identities as well including ethnic, cultural, or religious. Plus different regions within Canada also have different perspectives. This means Canada is a pluralistic society (many different cultural and ethnic groups within one country). Thus some people do not identify themselves as fully Canadian. Many in Canada identify themselves not only with Canada but with their region, like Quebec. Furthermore Aboriginal people often feel a sense of nationhood within their group and not necessarily Canadian. 5 List four ways Canadians promote their national identity… 1) 3) 2) 4) Symbolism: Recognized objects that bring forth a sense of belonging and sameness with other Canadians. An example of symbolism is the maple leaf. Mythology: Involves stories of a nation or country’s history with a sense of bravery or greatness. These stories are passed down through generations to stimulate a sense of connectedness to a country or nation. These often evolve over time. An example is that “Canada is a funny nation.” Institutions: Influence the international community on how they see a nation. An example is the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) provides information, in both French and English, to Canadians about important domestic and foreign affairs issues through the radio, television, and Internet. Other examples include the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP). Government Programs and Initiatives: Organizations like the Canadian Radiotelevision and Telecommunication Commission (CRTC), National Film Board (NFB), and Telefilm Canada promote and fund Canadian media. __________________________________________________________________ French Revolution: Event where nationalism, when influenced with external factors (social, geographic, economic, historical, and political) can change society. - Social Factor: France was divided by social classes (Estates of the Ancien Regime) based on birth. The aristocrats and monarchy had the power where the bourgeoisie (common people) held little power. As a result of the class system, many French people began to meet in private homes and public places to discuss changes to French society. Intellectuals, like Voltaire, use print media (books, pamphlets, etc…) to express their ideas to the public. These intellectuals desired the British system where the monarchy had its powers limited by parliament. Estates of the Ancien Regime: Division of French society, prior to the French Revolution, into socioeconomic classes. First Estate – Clergy 6 Second Estate – Aristocrats Third Estate – Common People - Geographic Factor: In the year of the French Revolution the weather in France was disastrous. The winter was extremely cold causing roads to be blocked with snow making trade and travel between regions nearly impossible. The spring brought floods and the summer brought droughts which resulted in loss of crops and resulted in shortages. Therefore food prices rose as supply diminished. - Economic Factors: France supported the Americans during their battle for independence from the British (American War of Independence). To make up for the shortage, the upper classes desired to raise the taxes of the common people in a meeting of the Estates General. Estates General: Representatives of the Three Estates meet to discuss, and vote, on issues in French society. Each Estate has one vote. After years of being outvoted by the First and Second Estates the Third Estate rose up as the National Assembly to establish a constitution for equal rights. Tennis Court Oath: Stated that the common people in the Third Estate were the “only group that represented the nation.” - Historical Factors: On July 14, 1789 the French stormed the ‘Bastille’ a prison in Paris where it is believed the king of France held prisoners who spoke out against him. The event inspired others to take up arms as well in revolution. This moment became as a defining moment of their history as a nation. - Political Factors: The National Assembly created a new French constitution, the Declaration of Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which removed certain privileges that the monarchy, clergy, and aristocracy previously had. This document established France as a non-religious republic. European Reaction to French Revolution: Surrounding nationstates sent armed forces to attempt to restore power to the French monarchy. These attacks lead the common people to execute King Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. 7 Reign of Terror: During 1793 and 1794, those who spoke out against the revolution were arrested (200 000 people) and many executed (17 000 people) including Olympe de Gouges who wrote the Declaration of Rights of Women and of the Female Citizen. Napoleon Bonaparte: In 1799 Napoleon unified the French and brought order to the nation-state. He went on to conquer most of Europe until he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo. He is remembered for strengthening national pride, modernizing government, laying the foundations for public education, and establishing a rule of law which created the French and Quebec legal system. Whereas others view him as a dictator whose wars cost many French lives. Symbols of the French Revolution: Out of this time period came symbols of belonging for the French including the Storming of the Bastille, Marianne, and the Red, White, and Blue Cockades (or badges). As well Napoleon Bonaparte, 200 years after his death, is still a powerful nationalistic symbol for the French. Marianne – Symbol of the French Revolution Discrimination in Modern Day France: In 1789, the French instituted principles of liberty, brotherhood, and equality as the foundation of their nation. Many are 8 questioning these terms due to the discrimination encountered by some French citizens. 19th Century France: Immigrants who came to France for work (including Belgians, Italians, and Polish) were discriminated against due to their religious views and their heritage. Discrimination escalated to the point where some Polish miners were forced to leave France. 20th Century France: Muslims from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia were welcomed into France when there was a labour shortage in the post World War II period (1945-1974). However when an energy crisis occurred in 1973, France closed its doors to more immigrants as jobs became hard to find. The Muslims were blamed for threatening French national identity resulting in new laws in France on who can and cannot become citizens as well as restrictions on religious apparel in state schools specifically the Islamic hijab. Boston Tea Party (USA): Is the defining moment for American nationalism. In 1773, the British controlled the Thirteen Colonies along the Atlantic coast in the United States. Due to massive spending by the British parliament, King George III decided to increase the tax in the American colonies. This angered many because the colonists had no say in how they were taxed as they never had any representatives in the British parliament. “No taxation without representation” became the slogans associated with the colonists. The British still needed tax money, therefore they decided to change the way tea was to be taxed. This further angered the colonists. As the ships reached port in Boston, many colonists (disguised as ‘American Indians’) boarded the ships and dumped the tea into the harbour as a sign of protest. - Coercive Acts: As response to the dumping of tea, the British shut down the port of Boston, restricted town meetings, made British officials immune to criminal prosecution, and made the colonists provide room and board for British soldiers. Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR): Finished in 1885 at Craigellachie, British Columbia with the driving of the Last Spike, was Sir John A. McDonald’s dream of connecting eastern Canada to western Canada with an ‘iron road’. This allowed for trade and travel across the vast Canadian landscape, creation of the Prairie Provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan, as well as to ensure any desire of 9 American expansionism north would not occur (Manifest Destiny). Much of the railway was built using Chinese labourers (navvies) who were paid little and often lost their lives in dangerous working conditions. - Sir John A. McDonald: First Canadian Prime Minister who was instrumental in creating the Dominion of Canada. The driving of the Last Spike on November 7, 1885 First Nation Assimilation: Due to European immigration, the relationship between the Canadian government and the Aboriginal groups was tense. The Canadian government, after Confederation, adopted a policy of assimilation where all Aboriginals were to abandon their culture and become absorbed into Canadian culture. - First Nation Treaties: Agreements made before and after Confederation between the Canadian government and First Nations. The First Nation people agreed to move onto reserve land in exchange for money, goods, and other terms. These have become sources of conflict between the two groups. The First Nation people believe the government did not fulfill their end of the treaties and are not respecting the certain rights and privileges given to Aboriginals within the treaties. - The Indian Act: Passed in 1876, the Indian Act which allowed the government the ability to manage the affairs and lands of the First Nation 10 people. This also was an attempt to assimilate the First Nations into Canadian culture. This act is often viewed as racist and detrimental to the First Nations culture. - Duncan Scott Campbell: As head of Indian Affairs he viewed Aboriginals a “problem” and decided that assimilation of all ‘Indians’ into Canadian culture was the only solution. He was responsible for making residential schools mandatory for all aboriginal children between the ages of seven and fifteen. “I want to get rid of the Indian problem. I do not think as a matter of fact, that the country ought to continuously protect a class of people who are able to stand alone… Our objective is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic and there is no Indian question, and no Indian Department, that is the whole object of this Bill.” - Duncan Scott Campbell - White Paper: Created by Jean Chretien, the head of Indian Affairs under Trudeau, to solve the tension with the Aboriginal people. The document outlined that… a) Canada regarded the English and the French as the two founding nations, excluding the role played by the Aboriginals, b) Canada should not negotiate further treaties with Aboriginal people because they are not a sovereign nation, and c) Canada should not settle land claims with Aboriginal groups due to their broad nature. Red Paper (Citizen’s Plus): Countered all the White Paper’s proposals. An Aboriginal delegation met with the Canadian government and succeeded in convincing the government to change its policies and position on Aboriginals. This outcry forced the Canadian government to strengthen their relationship with Aboriginals. Inuit Assimilation: In the 1930, the Canadian government created ‘relocation programs’ to help the Inuit people survive after animal populations, essential for survival, declined. These programs often were regarded as a move to help the 11 government more than the Inuit people. Many saw that the Canadian government ignored the Inuit lifestyle and that relocation created many social problems. - Nunavut: An agreement was reached in 1975 over Inuit land claims and in 1999 Nunavut was established creating self-government for the Inuit. Québécois Nationalism: Since 1759, Francophone people in Quebec have struggled to maintain their language, culture, and identity in a largely Englishspeaking country. This ethnic division has been a source of tension leading to two referendums, one in 1980 and another in 1995, where Quebec desired complete sovereignty (separation) from Canada. Sovereignists: Individuals who support the idea of Quebec becoming an independent nation-state. Federalists: Individuals who desire for Quebec to remain within Canada as a province. - Bill 101: Charter of the French Language, passed in 1977 by the Parti Québécois, attempted to prevent further erosion of French national identity and affirm their language and culture. Ensured French would be language of government, workplaces, education, business, and communication. Anglophones and Bill 101: Many felt Bill 101 violated Anglophone individual rights. Children who started in English speaking school elsewhere in Canada before moving to Quebec could continue school in English. Furthermore forty-two (42) major companies shifted their head offices from Montreal to Toronto as a result of this bill. __________________________________________________________________ Loyalties: Are a “commitment,” the act of ‘sticking with’ a belief or value, a cause, a nation, a person, etc. There are both outward and inward forms of commitment. - Nationalist Loyalties: Loyalty that is embedded with the idea of a nation (race, ethnicity, country, etc…) - Non-Nationalist Loyalties: Loyalty that is not embedded with the idea of a nation (family, friends, culture, region, etc…) 12 Loyalties and Choices: Loyalties can make decisions easy or difficult. Furthermore loyalty can make life more difficult when a circumstance goes against one’s own interests. Loyalties and Patriotism: Patriotism is love for one’s country or nation. Showing patriotism to one’s country or nation is a sign of loyalty. It can also inspire behavior like participating in parades and fighting for one’s country. Loyalty can stem from patriotism. Nationalist Loyalties and Choices: Do not usually demand extreme sacrifices like dying for one’s country but can affect one’s decisions. For example, a member of the Siksika nation might attend a ceremonial dance like a powwow. Contending Loyalties and Choices: Are loyalties that compete and choosing between them can be difficult. For example, an individual has two loyalties that occur near the same time results in choosing one or the other. First Nations Loyalties: In 1982, the First Nation people affirmed their loyalty by restructuring and reorganizing the National Indian Brotherhood into the Assembly of First Nations. - Assembly of First Nations: Promote issues and concerns of its members as well as issues regarding self-government. Furthermore, they insisted on maintaining their status as a nation so they could deal with the Canadian government on a nation to nation basis. Inuit Loyalties: By changing names of place, like Frobisher Bay to Iqaluit as well as returning back to their original names, names without a last name, due the Canadian government giving the Inuit a personal number for tracking purposes in 1930s. Cultural Pluralism: Encourages groups of people to affirm and promote their unique cultural identity within Canada (multiculturalism). This however has created debate regarding how far a pluralistic society should go to protect and accommodate the minorities. - Reasonable Accommodation: Refers to Canadian institutions having to adapt to religious and cultural minorities as long as they do not violate 13 other’s rights and freedoms. This helps immigrants who are concerned on how to fit into Canadian society. For example, allowing a Sikh wear a tan colour turban while working for the RCMP. Charter of Quebec Values (Bill 60): A proposed Quebec response to reasonable accommodation. Would prevent public employees from wear unconcealed religious symbols in their workplaces, specifically the wearing of kippas, turbans, burkas, hijabs, or large crosses. Proposed religious symbols to be banned in public sector workplaces. Nationalist Loyalties in Conflict: Not all loyalties are compatible with each other. Many different groups of people have different goals and aspirations which in turn can cause conflict. - Newfoundland On July 1st, 1916 the Newfoundland regiment, fighting as a self-governing British dominion, as Newfoundland was not a part of Canada until 1949, in World War I, suffered “the bloodiest day in Newfoundland history” at Beaumont-Hamel during the Battle of the Somme. This occurred on the same day Canadians celebrate Canada Day, creating a conflict between celebration and remembrance for the Newfoundlanders in WWI. - Quebec Referendum: In 1995, a referendum (vote by the citizens) on Quebec separation from Canada forced the Quebecois to choose to remain as a province within Canada or become a separate nation-state. Of the 93.5 per cent of Quebecers who voted, 50.58% voted to stay with Canada whereas 49.42% voted to leave Canada. Reconciling Conflicting Nationalist Loyalties: An attempt at accepting the past or fixing a broken relationship. When nations or nation-states cannot solve differences the result can be damaging political struggles or war. 14 - Aboriginal Groups: The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms has granted Aboriginal groups (Métis, Inuit, and First Nations) rights that are now guaranteed. The former Canadian policy of assimilation has been abandoned. Oka Crisis: In 1990, the Mohawks on the Kanesatake reserve in Quebec staged a protest over land claims regarding a proposed golf course to be built on sacred Mohawk ground. The Mohawks created a roadblock and violence resulted with a police officer being killed. Canadian soldiers were called to rectify the situation. The Royal Commission on Aboriginal People was set up after this conflict. Royal Commission on Aboriginal People: The purpose of this commission was to discover the foundations for a fair and honourable relationship between the Aboriginal and nonAboriginal peoples. The result of the commission was that the Canadian government original policy of assimilation toward Aboriginals was wrong and that the Aboriginal people have the right to govern for themselves. Statement of Reconciliation: In 1998, the Canadian government offered an official apology for Canada’s history of suppressing Aboriginal culture, values and weakening their culture. Land Claims: The Royal Commission on Aboriginal People recognized that the major source of conflict between the Aboriginal people and non-Aboriginal people was over disputed land. First Nation people have began to become frustrated with the slow progress of the negotiations between the Canadian Government and Aboriginal Groups. __________________________________________________________________ Non-Nationalist Loyalties: Loyalties not embedded in the idea of a nation like the great Calgary Stampeders. In times of conflict and war, non- nationalist loyalties become secondary to nationalist loyalties. Furthermore, people have an unlimited capacity for forming nationalist and non-nationalist loyalties. The difference between nationalist and non-nationalist loyalties can be difficult to distinguish. Individuals can be connected through non-nationalist loyalties, nationalist loyalties, or both. 15 - Nationalist and Non-Nationalist Loyalties: Often a non-national loyalty can become a nationalist loyalty. For example, the Third Estate started as a class loyalty and became a nationalist loyalty. Types of Non-Nationalist Loyalties: - Class Loyalty: Loyalty to people from a particular social sector (Eg. Working people, business entrepreneurs) - Religious Loyalty: Loyalty to a religious society and its beliefs and values (Eg. Catholic Church, Tibetan Buddhism) - Regional Loyalty: Loyalty to a region and the interests of people living there (Eg. The west, the arctic) - Ideological Loyalty: Loyalty to shared ideas about how a society should run (Eg. Conservatism, Marxism, animal rights) - Cultural Loyalty: Loyalty to a way of life (Eg. Alberta ranchers, Ukrainian heritage) - Racial/Ethnic Loyalty: Loyalty to people of the same race or ethnic group. (Eg. Tutsis, Koreans) Class and Nationalist Loyalties: Societies are divided based on social status (wealth, education, career choice, etc…) When people accept these divisions, no conflict occurs however when groups dispute these groups conflict can result. Religious and Nationalist Loyalties: The Iraqis people are divided on who should control the political and justice system. Some believe the Shiites should rule whereas others feel the Sunnis should be in control. Both are of Muslim faith however they differ on how to interpret scripture. This disagreement leads to violent conflict. Shiites make up 60% whereas Sunnis make up 35% of the Iraqi population. This population distribution is different than most Middle Eastern nation-states as they are predominately 85-90% Sunni. Regional and Nationalist Loyalties: A region can be an area within a country, an area within a province, or an area that crosses provincial and national borders. 16 - National Energy Program (NEP): During the 1970s and 1980s, inflation (rise in prices and drop in purchasing power of money) was a problem in Canada. Pierre Elliot Trudeau introduced the National Energy Program (NEP) to make Canada self-sufficient for energy, reduce foreign ownership of oil and gas companies in Canada, and protect Canadians from high energy costs by setting a Canadian oil price. Albertans were outraged as they felt that the federal government did not belong in provincial matters and contributed to western alienation. The NEP hurt the Albertan economy. Ralph Klein, former Alberta premier, stated that it cost Albertans 50 000 jobs and $100 billion in revenue. Western Alienation: Feeling that some federal government policies are detrimental to the Western region and that the federal government is unconcerned about Western issues. Alberta Oil Sands Loyalties: In 2007, the oil industry boomed due to an increase in the price of a barrel of oil. Thus creating an economic boom in Alberta where many oil companies starting to extract oil from the Albertan oil sands which contains 98% of all of Canada’s oil reserves. These developments resulted in many jobs and more economic opportunities. However with the increase in demand for workers resulted in higher house prices. - Nationalist Loyalties: Many support oil sands development for revenue to the Alberta government and ensuring more people have jobs creating more tax payers. More tax payers allow the federal government, through equalization payments to support have-not provinces as well as funding social programs like health care, education, etc... - Ideological Loyalties: Some believe that oil sands development damages the environment and are concerned over its protection. (Five hundred ducks, in 2007, dying as a result of tainted oil sands tailing ponds) - Cultural Loyalties: First Nations traditional ways of life and culture are in conflict over the economic benefits oil sands development brings (employment, First nation band investment, etc...) and the changes to their traditional hunting and fishing lifestyles as well as a fear over oil companies potentially having irreversibly negative effects on the environment. Reconciling Nationalist and Non-Nationalist Loyalties: When dealing with loyalties in conflict an individual has four options… 17 a) b) c) d) Live with their contending loyalty, Choose one loyalty over the other, Including multiple loyalties, Accommodate their non-nationalist loyalties by bring change in the nation. - Living with Contending Loyalties: Choosing to remain uninvolved. These individuals are regarded as the ‘silent majority,’ as they do not usually express their opinions and as a result decisions are often made without their input. - Choosing One Loyalty over Another: Results in the potential of losing an important part of one’s identity or alienation due to sacrificing one loyalty. (Chinese government forcing Falun Gong members to give up their religious/spiritual loyalty or risk torture or imprisonment to keep their loyalty) - Including Multiple Loyalties: Choosing to include multiple both their nationalist and non-nationalist loyalties without sacrificing one over the other. (Former governor-general Michaëlle Jean balancing her nationalist loyalties to Haiti, where she was born, Quebec and Canada with nonnationalist loyalty to her coat of arms suggesting that Anglophone and Francophone Canadians are two separate identities within one country.) - Bringing Change to a Nation: Accommodating non-nationalist loyalties by attempting to bring about change within their nation. United States: Segregation – forced separation of racial groups – was common in 1957 in the American south. As a result of civil rights movements integration was brought forth. Nine African-American teenagers (known as the Little Rock Nine) attended a typically Caucasian school in Arkansas. This angered many Caucasian adults who protested integration. The National Guard was brought in to ensure the safety of the nine teens. Religious Freedoms: Canada is a secular state – religion is separate from government and politics. A Hutterite Colony in Alberta believes that having a picture taken of them voluntarily is against their Biblical teaching. As a farming community they rely on driving to continue farming and interact with other communities. Albertan law requires 18 that a drivers’ license must have photo identification or one must forfeit their license. The Colony challenged the law however the Supreme Court upheld the right for the Alberta government to enforce photo identification on driver’s licenses. Compensation: After September 11th, Syrian-born Maher Arar was detained by American officials due to his ethnicity (racial profiling). As a result of the Canadian government providing false and misleading information to the American authorities about Arar, he was accused as a terrorist and deported to Syria. As a result the mistreatment that Arar experienced while detained, he desired to clear up his name and ensure that no other Canadians would face the same treatment. An inquiry into the deportation found that there was no evidence of terrorist activity and as a result Arar was awarded $10.5 million in compensation and an official apology from Prime Minister Stephen Harper in 2007. __________________________________________________________________ Theme Two: To What Extent Should National Interest Be Pursued? National Interest: Individuals who govern democratic communities and nations making decisions to gain benefits for themselves or their nation. These interests are not static meaning they change based on situations that occur both in and out of a nation or nation-state. National interest has increased as a result of global dependence of each other. National interest can focus around economic prosperity, security and safety, as well as beliefs and values. - Economic Prosperity: Providing stable employment and a decent standard of living including trade treaties and workplace legislation. - Security and Safety: Maintaining national security and physical protection. Peacekeeping: Armed forces that maintain peace by remaining neutral and keeping enemies apart until diplomacy can solve the conflict. An idea which was originated by Canadian Lester B. Pearson. Peacemaking: Soldiers use force for reasons other than self-defense. 19 - Beliefs and Values: Affirming and protect citizens’ beliefs, values, and culture. Arctic Sovereignty: Often involves nations claiming sovereignty over territories. Canada, the United States, Russia, Denmark, and Norway all desire to control the arctic island and the seabed for economic benefit. Within this territory there are oil, gold, tin, diamonds, natural gas and, due to climate change, the Northwest Passage can open an important trade route connecting Europe to Asia. - Russian Claim: In August of 2007 Russia attempted to claim an 1800 kilometre ridge under the Arctic Ocean after Russian scientists mapped the ocean, collected soil samples, and planted a flag on the ocean floor. Countries like Canada have disputed Russia claim to this territory. - United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea: Agreement that set rules for international waters as well as established the International Seabed Authority. o International Waters: Any water that is beyond 22.2 kilometres from any coast. However the coastal country has exclusive rights to control fishing, mining, and the environment up to 370 kilometres from their shore. o International Seabed Authority: Organization that reviews claims of states who are competing to extend their territorial claims beyond 370 kilometres from their shore. Government Policy: A plan of action that has been deliberately decided upon to guide or influence future decisions. These are to ensure that the direction the country is moving toward aligns with where leaders would like to be in the future. These can have short or long term affects on a nation-state. - Domestic Policy: Decisions about what to do within the country. E.g. Policy regarding Aboriginal Land Claims. - Foreign Policy: Decisions about relations with other countries. Also known as foreign affairs or external affairs. E.g. Co-operating in the United Nations. 20 Nationalism Foreign Policy Domestic and International Events National Interest World War I (1914-1918): Disastrous conflict that resulted in millions of deaths and massive financial costs. Cities were destroyed and families broken during the conflict between the Central Powers, lead by Germany, and the Allied Nations, lead by Britain. National Interests of World War I: One of the major causes of World War I has been linked to nationalism and people’s beliefs about their national interest. European countries believed in expanding their territory within Europe. This idea of expansionism created numerous alliances between European countries. These alliances agreed to protect each other in times of threat and were a major cause of so many countries entering into WWI so quickly. Furthermore, some countries had their national interests overlooked as they were forced into war when their colonial rulers entered the conflict (i.e. Canada had to enter WWI when Britain declared war). World War I Peace Settlements: Sovereignty, territory, economic interests, security, nationalism, and national identity were issues fought over in World War I and were the main issues surrounding the Paris Peace Conference in 1919 after the armistice was signed in November of 1918. - Paris Peace Conference: The ‘Big 4’ who attended the peace conference included Woodrow Wilson (USA), David Lloyd George (Britain), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Vittorio Orlando (Italy). France and Britain wanted to punish Germany. As a result, the four leaders agreed to place severe financial, military, and territorial penalties on Germany. These included paying $30 billion for damages, loss of territory, and reduction of their military. This agreement became known as the Treaty of Versailles. 21 From left to right: David Lloyd George (Great Britain), Vitorrio Orlando (Italy), Georges Clemenceau (France), and Woodrow Wilson (United States) at the Paris Peace Conference,1919. Treaty of Versailles Summary: 1. Germany had to admit full responsibility for starting the war 2. Germany was found responsible for all the damages caused by the war and ordered to pay reparations. - 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The Dawes and Young Plans provided financial assistance to German to help pay their reparation debt. Germany finished paying the 136 billion Reichsmarks on October 3, 2010. In 1919, Germany was originally to pay 226 billion Reichsmarks. League of Nations was established to ensure world peace. Germany was forbidden to unite with Austria. Germany’s army was reduces to 100 000 with no tanks or air force. Germany was only allowed six naval ships and no submarines. Many German territories were taken away including Alsace-Lorraine to France. Woodrow Wilson’s Fourteen Points: In January of 1918, Woodrow Wilson addressed the United States Congress regarding a plan for concluding the First World War and establishing long-lasting peace. Wilson outlined ways for countries to ‘chart their own course’ using peaceful intentions including… o o o o o o Negotiate treaties openly, Navigate the seas freely, Engage in equal trade, Reduce the weapons of war. Borders to be changed to recognize people’s sense of nation. Germany not pay reparations for World War I (Quickly dismissed at the Paris Peace Conference) 22 - League of Nations: Wilson desired the creation of an organization responsible for global security. His vision focused around collective security where nations would work together to promote peace. o United States and the League: Though Wilson’s ‘brainchild,’ the United States would not support Wilson’s Fourteen Points and they never joined on to the League of Nations as it was viewed as a threat to national sovereignty. National Interest after World War I: After World War I, domestic issues become of more concern than foreign policy. Canada focused on the issues more at home like finding work for veterans, continuing the industrial boom, etc… Belgium and France focused on rebuilding cities and towns devastated by war and Britain had unrest in their imperialist colony of India as a result of Ghandi’s peaceful civil disobedience. Middle Eastern Nationalism: Before WWI, the Arabs in the Ottoman Empire were subjected to political, cultural, and linguistic persecution at the hand of the ruling Turks. The Arabs desired self-government from the Turks. During WWI, the Allied Powers offered the Arabs an independent homeland in return for help fighting the Central Powers. However secretly Britain and France agreed to divide the Middle East and control it themselves with an agreement called the Sykes-Picot Agreement. Middle Eastern Exploitation and Outrage: At the Paris Peace Conference, the Arabs were denied their own independent homeland. Instead France and Britain were given Middle Eastern territory to expand their colonial empire. o France received Syria and Lebanon. o Britain received Cyprus, Iraq, and Palestine. The agreement made at 1919 focused on Britain, France, and the USA’s interests, not the nations of the Middle East. Oil was an important commodity and these nations wanted to ensure that trade with the region would continue. They were further outraged when the British enacted the Balfour Declaration that promised to set up the Jewish nation of Israel in the middle of a Islamic dominated territory called Palestine. - War on Iraq (2003): The invasion of Iraq, by the United States and its allies, was justified by claiming to seek out weapons of mass destruction, 23 which the United States claimed Saddam Hussein had, and promote democracy within Iraq. This, however, has caused controversy over the true reason for the invasion. Many feel the true intention of the War in Iraq was to secure the United States’ interest of access to Middle Eastern oil reserves, specifically Iraq. Nevertheless, this war brought death (over 100 000) and destruction on the citizens of Iraq as well as continued the history of Western democracies aggressive policies toward the Middle East. Foreign Policy and National Interest: Foreign policies put in place by a nation’s government can affect citizen’s security, economic future, values, and culture. An example is when Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia in 1914. - Peruvian National Interest: The Peruvian government wanted to auction portions of the rainforest to foreign-owned oil companies for economic development. This would raise Peru’s gross domestic product and benefit Peru financially. However this directly affected the Mashco Piro, an Indigenous tribe, who traditionally claimed the territory as their own and did not want to leave their territory. Furthermore, Peruvian law states that this land is for the indigenous people’s use only and they have freedom to use it as they please. Foreign Policy After September 11th, 2001: After the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, the United Nations allowed the United States and its allies to attack the nation-state of Afghanistan to defeat the Taliban, an extremist and corrupt government that funded terrorism, and find Osama bin Laden. The justification for this invasion was that the terrorist attacks ‘threatened international peace and security.’ The UN allowed NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) to organize an offensive against this nation-state. As Canada’s foreign policy after World War II, Canadians played a role in the founding of NATO. - North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): The intent of NATO is that an attack on one would mean an attack on all members. Canada joined the Afghanistan mission, as a member of NATO, when the United States declared war. - Canadian Interests and Afghanistan: Once the Taliban government fell in 2003, US troops were sent to Iraq resulting in numerous armed troops vacating the country of Afghanistan. Thus Canadian foreign policy shifted and sent more troops to Afghanistan to cover this shortfall. Many 24 viewed this decision as a move to support both the Americans and the people of Canada who were against the war on Iraq. o Debate over Afghanistan: During the Afghan mission, which ended in March 2014, Canadians debated on whether, and for how long, Canadian troops should remain in Afghanistan. The intention was to help establish stable government, rebuild the economy, armed forces, medical facilities, etc… however numerous Canadians soldiers died as a result of guerrilla tactics employed by the Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters. Other issues included… a) Validity of the mission b) Financial cost c) Relationship with other allies d) Threat to Canadian lives __________________________________________________________________ Ultranationalism: An extreme form of nationalism that often includes elements of racism and fanaticism. Ultranationalists move from valuing their own nation and its interests to hostility toward people who are not of their nation. Examples include Adolph Hitler, Joseph Stalin, Hirohito and Tojo. Ultranationalism under Stalin: Drastic economic and social changes that lead to unemployment and poverty can spark extreme nationalism. In Russia, hardship was brought upon millions by a civil war (after the Russian Revolution) and World War I. Thus, changes needed to be made to help the economic situation for all. In 1928, after a four year power struggle with Leon Trotsky, Joseph Stalin became leader of the Communist party in the USSR (Russia) and implemented the following in an attempt to change the economic situation… - Confiscated land from farmers and created collective farms for the state. This resulted in many who objected to collectivization being executed and deported to Siberia or Central Asia (approx. 5 million). - Replaced the loyalties of over 100 nationalist groups in the Soviet Union with Soviet nationalism. Anyone who objected to this change were persecuted as a “criminal of the nation.” - Ukrainians were persecuted and to be assimilated into the Soviet nationstate. Ukrainians were forced to give up their land to the state as well their language was outlawed.. Those who refused, Stalin would confiscate their crops (between 3-10 million starved to death) 25 - Stalin ‘purged’ the Communist party of any opposition, or people deemed “enemies of the people”. Thousands of Russians were executed and millions sent to the ‘gulag’ (slave-labour camps). This became known as the ‘Great Purge’. Propaganda: Defined as information and ideas that are distributed to achieve a specific goal. Propaganda is used to manipulate human emotions (like fear and insecurity) as well as persuade people to behave in certain ways. It is predominately used during times of war however they are not limited to wartime only. Often these are satirical, dishonest, misleading and can include… o Calling opponents names to arouse anger and fear (e.g., ‘terrorists’) o Playing down one’s own failures and using words to hide the true meaning of their actions (e.g., ‘holy war’, ‘just war’) o Using symbols to appeal to peoples beliefs and values (e.g. ‘national flag’) o Stimulate fear in people so one will support their actions (e.g., ‘strict law and order the only way to ensure peace’) - Forms of Propaganda: Forms of media including posters, speeches, slogans, songs, newspaper articles, radio, and film. - Types of War Propaganda: o Bandwagon Propaganda: Viewers are to support or join the nation or nation-state’s cause. o Demonizing Propaganda: Used to stimulate hatred toward the opposition. Often showing the atrocities they have or may commit. - Joseph Goebbels: Appointed as the Minister to Enlightenment and Propaganda under Adolph Hitler with Nazi Germany. Goebbels was a gifted speaker, who controlled and used the media to distribute the Nazi message to all Germans. The Nazi regime used films, including Triumph of the Will, Baptism by Fire, Victims of the Past, and The Eternal Jew, as 26 well as newspapers, like Der Stürmer, to promote the Nazi ideology as well as hatred toward the Jewish population. Development of Ultranationalism: Three main factors combine together in a close time period develops ultranationalism. These factors include… - Countries in Crisis: Time period when the economic situation in nationstate deteriorates including high unemployment and governments having difficulty providing for their citizens. o Great Depression: Massive global economic collapse as a result of the stock market crash of 1929. Provided an excellent opportunity for ultranationalism. - Charismatic Leaders: Dictators emerged in the 1920s and 1930s suppressing opposition, and inspiring enthusiasm and devotion from their followers. Individuals including Adolph Hitler, Joseph Stalin, and Tojo are all considered charismatic leaders due to their ability to inspire, captivate, and manipulate an audience. - Instilling Ultranationalist Values: Domestic and foreign policies were adopted to foster ultranationalism. Police are used to ensure these values of extreme devotion were protected. Education was used as a propaganda tool against the young. Culture, art, and media were used to spread ultranationalist goals. Case Study: Japan in the 1930 - 1940s Japan, a Country in Crisis: After World War I, the economic situation in Japan slowed during the Great Depression. Many Japanese lost their jobs as a result of many countries no longer needing Japanese exports. This, combined with a rice famine in 1932, created a dire situation. Politicians were blamed for the hardship. In an attempt to stimulate trade partners, and gain raw materials, Japan invaded Manchuria in 1931 and by 1937 the Japanese government was at war with China. Japan’s Charismatic Leaders: Hirohito, the Son of Heaven, was an admired individual but allowed the commanders of the Japanese armed forces to make political decisions prior to World War II. These commanders invaded China to regain territory that, in their opinion, was rightfully Japan’s and ensure that Japanese industries continued with a constant supply of raw materials. In 1941, 27 Tojo became prime minister and transformed Japan into a military dictatorship with the intent to ‘dominate Asia though military might.’ Japan, Instilling Ultranationalist Values: Military leaders of Japan instilled the following to support ultranationalism … - A return to ancient values like worship of the emperor, belief that the Japanese are superior to all others, and expansionism is a mission from heaven. - Japanese education system focused on idolizing the past, pride in their race and culture, practicing duty and obedience (called The Way of Subjects). - Shinto, the national Japanese religion, united the people with the emperor. - Western books, ideas, values, and cultures suppressed and Nazi Germany’s ideas were praised. - Militarism and national defense were high priorities including blind obedience and dying for Japan was the highest honour. Case Study: Germany in 1930s – 1940s Germany, a Country in Crisis: As a result of the Treaty of Versailles, a massive debt to the United States (Dawes and Young Plans) to rebuild their country, and the Great Depression, the Germans were economically in chaos. Inflation was at an all time high, money became worthless (as a result of the government overprinting money), unemployment rose, and the standard of living plummeted. - Nazi Party: Germany, who had no strong government once it became a republic, looked for a leader to guide the nation back to prosperity. Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Worker’s Party (Nazi Party) gained support and was democratically elected in 1933. Germany’s Charismatic Leader: Once in power, Hitler dissolved parliament, declared the Third Reich (or Nazi Empire), and made himself a dictator that ruled all economic, social, political, military, and cultural matters (Enabling Act). 28 Freedom and privacy were restricted and Hitler’s goal became a promise to restore national pride to the German people. - Restoring German National Pride: Hitler planned to restore national pride by violating the Treaty of Versailles, rebuilding the armed forces, regain territories lost after WWI, and restoring the superiority of the “Aryan Race”. Perspective of the Nazi government on Germany’s standing in Europe Germany, Instilling Ultranationalist Values: Hitler used the following tools to support ultranationalism... - German operas promote German greatness. Modern art and music was condemned. Books against the nationalist movement were destroyed. - The ‘master race’ would build the Third Reich and rid Germany of ‘undesirables’ including socialists, Jews, homosexuals, people with disabilities, etc… - Schools and universities taught Nazi values and shielded from opinions against Nazi teaching. History books were rewritten to glorify German past. 29 - Passed laws which discriminated against the Jewish people including the inability to own property, being expelled from schools and universities, inability to become doctors, lawyers, or university professors. o Night of Broken Glass (Kristallnacht): Occurred on November 910, 1938 where gangs of Nazis destroyed Jewish businesses, synagogues, homes, and community centres throughout Germany and Austria. As well many Jews were beaten (some killed), and numerous windows of Jewish businesses were broken. Responding to Ultranationalism: In a desire to bring resolution to ultranationalists and their negative societal effects, there are three ways nationstates have dealt with extreme nationalist values and beliefs. These include… - Appeasement: Giving into a nation or nation-states demands. Practiced extensively during the interwar years (1919-1939) in an attempt to avoid another world war because of the massive financial and human hardships after World War I. The Sudetenland and Czechoslovakia: Prior to World War II, appeasement was used toward Adolf Hitler and Germany. Germany had been expanding its territory into the Sudetenland, a territory controlled by Czechoslovakia since 1935. Neville Chamberlain (Britain), Edouard Daladier (France), and Benito Mussolini (Italy) met Hitler to discuss the takeover. Hitler assured these individuals that German expansion would stop and as a result the Sudetenland remained with Germany. Winston Churchill, who was a Member of Parliament in Great Britain, thought the policy would not work and that Germany would strike again. Churchill was correct in that the policy of appeasement failed as Hitler took the rest of Czechoslovakia in 1939 and invaded Poland within the same year. o League of Nations Action Plan: Members of the League agreed to help one another and take action to maintain peace however were not forced to provide military forces. The League members promised do the following if one country invaded another… 30 a) order the aggressor to leave, b) impose trade penalties, c) use military force. Manchuria: Invaded by Japan 1931, China, who controlled the territory, appealed for help from the League of Nations against the Japanese aggressors. The League condemned the invasion but otherwise did nothing else to help the Chinese. This is considered a major failure of the League of Nations. Ethiopia: Mussolini, appointed as prime minister of Italy in 1922, became a dictator that ruled by suppressing opposition, instilling absolute loyalty, and conquering other territories. Italian forces invaded Ethiopia in 1935. The Italians were upset over the Treaty of Versailles which failed to give Ethiopia, and their European claimed territories, to the Italians after World War I. Both nation-states were members of the League of Nations and when the Ethiopian emperor, Haile Selassie, asked for help the League imposed a trade sanction on Italy. This failed as the United States never followed the trade penalties and Britain and France did not want to lose their alliance with Italy due to Hitler and Nazi Germany. This is considered another major failure of the League of Nations. - War: On September 1st, 1939 Hitler invaded Poland. This offensive made Britain and France realized that appeasement toward Germany had failed. Britain and France officially declared war on Germany on September 3rd, 1939. Seven days later, on September 10th, 1939, Mackenzie King, the prime minister of Canada, exhibited their sovereignty by stating to all Canadians that they would join the war effort. o Total War: Canadian national interest turned to supporting the war effort. Canada focused its attention on defeating the “evil Germans” and “protecting the freedom of mankind.” Government policies were focused on “a total effort for total war.” Citizens were encouraged to enlist in the armed forces and work in industries that supported the war effort. Propaganda campaigns were used to recruit and persuade people to invest in the war effort. 31 Furthermore, censorship was introduced to radio and newsprint to ensure that no essential information landed in ‘enemy’ hands. Also letters written from members of the armed forces and prisoners of war were read to ensure no information was leaked. o Conscription: Known as mandatory military service by civilians. Conscription Controversy: First introduced in World War I, conscription left Canada bitterly divided. Opposition to conscription came from farmers (who were worried about their land) and the Quebec Francophone community because they felt no allegiance to Britain or France. Language became an issue for the Quebec recruits. World War II Conscription: As casualties of World War II increased, Mackenzie King decided that the volunteers that were enlisting were not enough to cover the losses. Therefore, in 1942, King asked Canadians for permission to break his former promise of not sending conscripts to Europe. As a result, 63% of Canadian supported conscription however the nation was still divided… 79% of Anglophones favoured the plan, 85% of Francophones opposed conscription. o Internment in Canada: German, Japanese, and Italian people in Canada were considered ‘enemy aliens’. In 1942, Japanese Canadian who lived within 160km of the Pacific coast were rounded up and transported to internment camps in British Columbia and Alberta. The Canadian government sold Japanese homes, businesses, and property to other Canadians. This is an example of Canadians becoming caught up in racism and extreme nationalism (ultranationalism) during World War II. - Peacekeeping: Attempting to use non-violent negotiations to bring about conflict resolution. Responsibilities also include nation building. This has become a part of Canadian national interest and Canadians continue to partake in peacekeeping missions. The United Nations was formed after World War II to ensure that peace would remain in the world. 32 o United Nations: After the failures of the League of Nations, including preventing the Holocaust, world leaders were determined to create an international organization that would preserve peace in the world and help prevent atrocities from occurring. The first active UN mission revolved around the Suez Crisis of 1956. Suez Crisis: Involved the Egyptians government seizing the canal from the British and French owned company that built the waterway. The Egyptians felt that since the canal ran through Egypt it was in Egypt’s interest to gain benefit rather than the foreign owned company. In response the Israeli, British, and French forces invaded the canal zone to protect their economic interests whereas the Soviet Union backed the Egyptian claim. Lester B. Pearson: Canada minister of external affairs suggested that the UN send forces to keep the peace while the leaders worked out an agreement. The UN supported the idea and sent a force made up of a variety of nations including Canadian soldiers. This action resulted in a peaceful solution as the hostile countries withdrew. __________________________________________________________________ Crimes against Humanity: Are an extremely serious category of criminal human rights abuse. Crimes against humanity are distinguished from mere domestic crimes by virtue of their ‘mass nature’. In addition to having mass nature, in order to qualify under international law, it must be shown that the targeted groups, social, political, racial, religious, or other groups, were targeted for mass murder because of their status as a group. Many who commit these atrocities believe it is their national interest to carry out these acts. o Mass Nature: Defined by a large number of victims, and/or a systematic state policy. - Development of Crimes against Humanity: Ultranationalism leads to racism and treating people as if they are less than human. A racist or bigot often takes the first step in treating an entire group inhumanely beginning with segregating people, progressing to blaming the target for 33 societal wrongs, to eventual destruction of their culture, deportation, or mass murder. - Types of Abuses: The following acts, when conforming to the above criteria, are crimes against humanity. o o o o o o o Murder and extermination Enslavement and forced labor Deportation outside of the country Imprisonment without due process of law Torture Rape ‘Inhuman acts’ including… Medical experimentation, mutilation, food deprivation, sterilization, etc… o Persecution including… Removal of children from school, forced wearing of distinctive clothing, closure of religious institutions, banning of religious leaders, etc… o Property crimes including… Destruction and stealing of private property (e.g. homes, cars) or cultural property (e.g. mosques, holy books) Definitions of Human Rights Abuses: International Criminal Court, a division of the United Nations, defined the following as types of human rights violations… - Crimes against humanity: Widespread or systematic attacks on a civilian population including murder, extermination, enslavement, deportation, imprisonment, torture, rape, etc… - War crimes: The willful killing, torture, or inhuman treatment of individuals, willfully causing great suffering, or attacks against civilian populations or against those who are involved in a humanitarian or peacekeeping mission. - Genocide: The killing of members of a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group, causing bodily or mental harm, and inflicting on the group a life of physical destruction. 34 o Eight Stages of Genocide: First six stages are considered the Early Warning Phase whereas the last two stages are the Implementation Phase. 1. Classification: Distinguishing between nationality, ethnicity, race, or religion. Dividing society into “us” versus “them” 2. Symbolization: Use of symbols, language, names, or uniforms to show identification with a certain group (Nazi Swastika or the Star of David) 3. Dehumanization: Making the target group seem subhuman. Target groups are vermin, rats, disease, etc… Desensitizes humans to murder against the target group 4. Organization: State plans, organizes, arms, and financially supports those who will commit the genocide. 5. Polarization: Further dividing the target group from the rest of society. Laws passed against the target group. Propaganda is used to spread hate against the target group. Political moderates are silenced, threatened, intimidated, and killed. 6. Preparation: Death lists are created. Target group are forced to wear identifying symbols and are separated from society (ghettos). Death camps are created and weapons stockpiled. 7. Extermination: Murder is committed against the target group. 8. Denial: Claiming the genocide has not or is not occurring. Directly blame on the target group, deny the evidence of genocide, and deny the intent of genocide. Prosecuting Crimes against Humanity: Countries have determined that it is in their interest to end crimes against humanity and to protect peace, security, and the well-being of all. After World War II the Allies (Britain, France, and United States) set up military tribunals to try German and Japanese individuals for crimes against peace, war crimes, and crimes against humanity. 35 - United Nations and Crimes against Humanity: Has had difficulty trying to accommodate all requests of its member nations. Furthermore, they have been criticized for not acting fast enough in cases of genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. In 2002, the UN formed the International Criminal Court in an attempt to improve their record against human rights violators. o International Criminal Court (ICC): Formed to try and judge cases of those accused of crimes against humanity. The organization will only hear cases if no fair trials for the accused have occurred. Forty-five countries have signed on with the ICC however many nation-states, like the United States and China, have not signed on as they fear the ICC will interfere with their sovereignty. Ottoman Empire: Contained two distinct nations based around religious beliefs. The ruling Turks were predominantly Islamic and the Armenians were a Christian based nation. The Armenians maintained their culture, language, and religion for hundreds of years and desired self-determination. However, when their pursuit of self-determination failed, many thousand Armenians were killed in the aftermath. This extermination intensified during World War I as they were viewed as traitors for supporting the Russians against the Central Powers that included the Ottoman Empire. - Armenian Genocide (1915): The Young Turks, who controlled the Ottoman Empire, called for the massacre of Armenians. These orders, referred to as the Ten Commandments, included… o Kill all males under the age of 50, priests, and teachers o Girls and children to be converted to Islam o Ensure that those who escaped would be forever cut off from their homeland o Kill off all Armenians in the army In April of 1915, Turkish soldiers began carrying out orders. Armenian leaders were arrested. Hundreds of thousands were murdered and many were deported from their homes, forced to walk over rough terrain toward Syria and modern day Iraq where many died as a result. Of the 2 million Armenians fewer than 100 000 survived. 36 The Central Government now announced its intention of gathering the two million or more Armenians living in the several sections of the empire and transporting them to this desolate and inhospitable region. […] They knew that the great majority would never reach their destination and that those who did would either die of thirst and starvation, or be murdered by the wild Mohammedan desert tribes. The real purpose of the deportation was robbery and destruction; it really represented a new method of massacre. When the Turkish authorities gave the orders for these deportations, they were merely giving the death warrant to a whole race; they understood this well, and, in their conversations with me, they made no particular attempt to conceal the fact. -Henry Morgenthua Sr., American Ambassador to Constantiople o Recognition of the Armenian Genocide: This massacre is labeled by many as genocide. Canada was one of the first nation-states to recognize this designation. The Turkish government has never admitted to the ‘planned’ massacre of Armenians but do acknowledge that some did die between 1915 and 1916. They blame these deaths on inter-ethnic violence and the war. Ukraine: After the Russian Revolution, Ukrainian nationalism was on the rise. The terrain was ideal for growing wheat in Europe. The Kulaks supported the independence movement even though it was unsuccessful. When Stalin took power in the 1920s he determined that the Ukrainian land and livestock belonged to the Soviet Union which angered many Kulaks who refused to send wheat and livestock to the Soviet Union. - Kulaks: Wealthy farmers who owned livestock and land. - Ukrainian Famine (Holodomor): As a result of Kulak protest against Stalin, Stalin responded by shipping the wheat crop to Russia, selling it to foreign buyers, and closing the border between Ukraine and the USSR. This border closure ensured no farmer could leave to buy food or bring it back home to Ukraine. The Soviet army seized the seed grain and all remaining food from Ukrainian farms. Those who never cooperated were killed or sent to labour camps. By the end of 1933, the Soviet granaries were full of Ukrainian wheat however up to seven million Ukrainians died of starvation. Stalin denied that he deliberately starved the Ukrainians, this denial continued well after Stalin’s death by the Communist Party. 37 o Recognition of the Ukrainian Famine: The Holodomor was declared genocide in November of 2006 but the Russians do not accept this judgment. Furthermore, Canada recognized the Ukrainian famine as genocide in 2008. The Holocaust: During the Second World War, Hitler ordered the extermination of the Jewish people. Hitler used scapegoating as the reasoning behind the extermination as well as Hitler ultranationalist dream to build a German empire of pure ‘Aryans’. During this period over six million Jews were killed and the Nazis also persecuted the Communists, homosexuals, people with disabilities, Freemason’s, Gypsies, etc… In April 1945, the death camps of Aushwitz-Birkenau, Buchenwald, and Bergen-Belsen were liberated by the Allies. They discovered unburied bodies piled in large open pits and many Jews suffering from disease and starvation. - Scapegoating: Placing blame on a group of people for a nation-state’s problems. - International Ignorance: In the 1930s, the world turned a blind eye to German persecutions as most countries focused on their own nation due to the Great Depression. Furthermore, anti-Semitism was prevalent in all countries. Many countries, including Canada, refused to accept Jewish refugees because of the sheer number. During WWII, the international community learned more about the genocide, however little was done to help. Some suggested bombing the camps and rail lines. o Anti-Semitism: Hatred or discrimination of individuals with Jewish heritage. The Rape of Nanking: In 1937, Japan invaded the Chinese city of Nanking and murdered an estimated 300 000 men, women, and children on orders from high ranking Japanese officials. The city was littered with ‘dead bodies’. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: In August of 1945, Japan would be a victim of mass devastation as a result of two atomic bombs. ‘Little Boy’ and ‘Fat Man’ bombs killed 140 000 people immediately however thousands of people continued to be sick and die as a result of the radiation. Leukemia and cancer became prominent in survivors of the initial blast. 38 - Controversy over the Atomic Bombs: Some felt that if the Americans had not dropped the atomic bombs, 250 000 American lives would have been lost during an invasion of Japan. They feared the ultranationalist warrior values of the Japanese would never had resulted in Japanese surrender. Atomic bomb makers figured that the Americans should have warned the Japanese of the destructive power of the bomb ahead of dropping them (as a deterrent). o Harry Truman: President of the United States of America, made the decision to drop ‘Fat Man’ and ‘Little Boy’ because he felt it was necessary to use every weapon available to stop the war in the Pacific and save as many lives a possible. This decision is much debated. o Dwight Eisenhower: Commander of the Allied forces in Europe and future president of the United States disagreed with the dropping of the atomic weapons altogether. Yugoslavia: At the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the delegates created the state of Yugoslavia by joining various nations within one nation-state even though they had a history of conflict between the various groups. As communism collapsed in the late 1980s, Yugoslavia too began to break apart as many nations declared independence including Bosnia, Herzegovina, Croatia, and Slovenia. - Slobodan Milosevic: A strong Serbian nationalist, believed the Serbs formed an ethnic nation and all non-Serbians should leave Serbian territory. He began a process of ethnic cleansing in 1992 where Serbs were killing any non-Serbs. o Bosnian Genocide: Milosevic also sent Serbian troops into the neighbouring territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina to ensure all non-Serbs would be killed or pushed out of these areas as well. After Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence, Milosevic attacked the Bosnian capital of Sarajevo using bombardments and sniper attacks targeting citizens. In February 1996 the siege ended with over 11 000 people having been killed within the city. United Nations Response to Bosnia: In June 1992, the United Nations Security Council had warned the Serbians to stop attacking Sarajevo or face military action. This did not 39 deter the Serbians. Once the peacekeepers arrived the killing continued. The UN attempted to establish safe areas where citizens were protected and provide humanitarian aid. However the UN had to remain neutral to ensure supplies could enter the city. The Hague Trial: The Security Council set up a criminal tribunal to try Serbs for their crimes against humanity and genocide. Milosevic, however, died while on trial he commander of the Bosnia-Serb forces were sentenced to 33 years in prison for murder, inflicting terror, and committing inhuman acts. Iraq: In 1982, Saddam Hussein, the leader of Iraq, had an entire village of Shiite Muslims gassed because, in the Iraqi democratic elections of 1981, this entire village voted against the dictator. As punishment, he had the entire village executed. Afghanistan: The Taliban, the extremist ruling government until 2001, destroyed and outlawed all Buddhist Temples. Furthermore, the act of practicing the Buddhist religion was against the law. Also, the role of women was significantly reduced. Women were stripped of all their rights and relegated to ‘animal-like’ status. Genocide and Mass Murder in the 20th Century Armenians Bengalis Burundians Cambodians Chinese 1.5 million dead 1.5 million dead 250 000 dead 1.7 million dead 25 million dead East Timorese Guatemalans Ibos (from Nigeria) Indonesians Jews 200 000 dead 200 000 dead 1 million dead 500 000 dead 6 million dead Kosovars North Koreans Roma and Sinti (Gypsies) Russians Rwandans Slavs Sudanese Ugandans Ukrainians 10 000 dead 2 million dead 250 000 dead 25 million dead 800 000 dead 6 million dead 2 million dead 500 000 dead 3-10 million dead 40 Heroes during Crimes against Humanity: Individuals, like Paul Rusesabagina, Feng Shan Ho, and Oskar Schindler, who risk their own lives to protect those who are facing persecution and suffering as a result of crimes against humanity. - Paul Rusesabagina: During the Rwanda Genocide in 1994, Tutsis and moderate Hutus took shelter in Rusesabagina’s hotel he managed. Even though he had an opportunity to flee the genocide, Rusesabagina chose to stay, and through bribing military officers, was able shelter approximately 1200 from execution at the hands of the extremist Hutus. He also contacted people of influence outside of Rwanda to get help. - Feng Shan Ho: Chinese consul to Vienna who, during the Nazi occupation of Austria in 1938, helped secure work visas for Jews so they could leave Austria to Shanghai. The Nazi authorities required these visas for any Jew to leave Austria. Even after he was told to stop issuing visas he continued until he eventually lost his job. He is responsible for allowing 18 000 Jews to escape Austria. - Oskar Schindler: During the Nazi occupation of Poland, Schindler, hoped to benefit from the Nazis by becoming a member and a Nazi spy. He ran a munitions and enamel factory for the Nazis. He employed 1200 Jews as labourers however when the Nazi emptied the ghettos and sent the Jews to death camps Schindler did protected those workers in his factory. By lying, using bribes, and spending his own fortune he was able to save Jews from the death camps. Schindler even managed to save a thousand people who were already at death camps. At the end of the war, Schindler was broke but had saved numerous Jews from Nazi execution. __________________________________________________________________ National self-determination: Refers to the right to gain, or keep, the right to control one’s own nation or nation-states affairs. According to the Charter of the United Nations the ‘principle of equal rights and self-determination is for all peoples’ and the International Court of Justice states ‘self-determination does not only apply to countries but people as well’. This can however create conflict between the sovereignty of a nation-state and a people’s right to selfdetermination. - Woodrow Wilson: Supported the ‘free self-determination of all nations’ after World War I. Many nations, however, did not receive self- 41 determination out of the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 including Iraq, Syria, and Palestine. - Kosovo: Originally controlled by Yugoslavia, Kosovo became a Serbian state in the 1990s. The majority of Kosovars are ethnic Albanians (Muslim) whereas the minority is mostly ethnic Serbians (Christian). This ethnic and religious division has created centuries of conflict. The Albanian Kosovars declared independence in 2008 and this caused the Serbian Kosovars to fear that they would lose their rights and ancient culture. o Recognition of Kosovo’s Independence: According to China and Russia, Kosovo’s independence is a threat to Serbia’s integrity and nation-state status. This declaration placed the Canadian federal government in a difficult situation because if they recognized Kosovo as an independent nation, which they did one month later, they might have encouraged the Quebec sovereignist movement. In 2010, the UN determined that Kosovo’s declaration of independence was a legal action even though the Security Council is divided on the issue. 107 UN Member States recognize the Republic of Kosovo including Canada, Britain, and the United States. Aboriginal Self-Determination in Canada: As a result of colonization in the 1600s, the French and British sent settlers to establish territory in Canada. As a result the Aboriginal people became the minority. Aboriginals lost land and had their self-determination aspirations suppressed. In 1982, Canada established a new constitution, which affirmed Aboriginal and treaty rights. - First Nations: First Nation desire for self-determination in Canada does not involve seeking independence but only self-government. The Assembly of First Nations states that self-determination involves the right to determine political status and pursue economic, social, and cultural development. First Nations desire the use, and ability to benefit from, wealth gained from natural resources as well as make decisions regarding First Nation education, jobs, and industries. - Inuit: Nunavut is an example of the how the Canadian government came to an agreement over the Inuit’s pursuit of national self-determination and self-government. Furthermore, the education system in Nunavut 42 promotes their culture, tradition, and languages as well as help prepare young people develop skills to help the economy. o Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami: Founded in 1971, their goal is to promote the interest of the Inuit people and advocate for selfdetermination. This organization is responsible for the creation of Nunavut. Today the organization looks after the Inuit Broadcasting Corporation, operation of airlines, investments in northern businesses, etc… Nunavut Land Claims Agreement: Outlined how the Inuit help make decisions about how their land and its resources are to be used. Even though Iqaluit is the capital, decisions are made by a consensus agreement (no political parties) and there are many key government departments across the territory, not just in Iqaluit. - Métis: The Métis Association of Alberta, formed in 1932, advocated for the Métis people. They were successful in acquiring the Métis Population Betterment Act in 1938. More recently the Métis have gained outright ownership of 500 000 hectares of settlement land from the Alberta government however the fight for the right to self-determination and selfgovernment continues. o Métis Population Betterment Act: Created a legislated land base for Métis people. The Alberta government would own the land however the Métis would have a degree of self-government over the territory. Quebec Self-Determination: The Quebec government desires the French in Quebec to be regarded as a ‘distinct society’ within the Canadians constitution because of major linguistic and cultural differences. - Aboriginals in Quebec: Quebec’s desire for self-determination infringes upon Aboriginal’s desire for self-determination. Eleven different Aboriginal groups residing with the province for Quebec are looking for self-government from Quebec. These conflicts lead to some Aboriginal separatists saying ‘if Quebec seceded from Canada, they would secede from Quebec.’ 43 Decolonization: Refers to the process of a ruling country (motherland) leaving a colony. Often people of the colony would form their own sovereign nation-state. This, however, can have adverse effects when different ethnicities are forced into a single nation, like the Former Yugoslavia which was created out of the Ottoman Empire after World War I. Successor States: A country that is created from a previous state. The UN states people who existed under an old nation-state have the right to form a new state, or to choose their nationality, if the former country is divided into more than one state. Decolonization of Indochina: The region in Southeast Asia (Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia) that was controlled, as a result of colonialism, by the French beginning in the late 1800s. During World War II, the region started to become focused on independence, starting with Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam. - Vietnam Independence: War broke out between France and Vietnam over independence and in 1954 the French were defeated. Vietnam was divided into the communist China and Soviet Union supported Democratic Republic of Vietnam and the American supported Republic of South Vietnam. o The Vietnam War: In 1965, the US government upped its support for the South Vietnamese by sending in 200 000 American troops. Over the next four years the conflict escalated to the point when 500 000 troops were in Vietnam. Debate over Vietnam: Supporters of the conflict in the USA felt that the Vietnam War was preventing the spread of communism. The American perception was that if Vietnam fell, all of Southeast Asia would fall to communism. This was believed to be in American national interest. However many felt that this was a conflict that the Americans should have not been apart of as they had no right in interfere in Vietnam. Furthermore the American cost (lives and money) was too large to accept. - Khmer Rouge in Cambodia: From 1975 to 1979 Cambodia had been under the control of Pol Pot and his brutal Communist party, called the Khmer Rouge. 1.5 million people were murdered or died of exhaustion, 44 disease, or starvation. Once Pol Pot’s government fell in 1979, the country remained unstable and the Khmer Rouge continued to fight against the Vietnamese in a guerilla war. o Prosecution of the Khmer Rouge: Self-determination involves the right to security and to try individuals who commit crimes within their state. The United Nations set up a criminal tribunal for the violators of human rights .The judges combined both UNappointed and Cambodia judges who often had disagreements on how justice should be handled as a result of Cambodian traditions. British Colonialism: Exerted control over the lives of the Indigenous people that resided in the colonies of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Sri Lanka. - British India: In 1858, Britain gained control of the East India Company’s stake in India and, without concern for Indian people’s national interest, took control of the territory. The people of India had no political power and their desire for self-determination was ignored and suppressed. o Indian National Congress: Formed in the late 1800s, a group, which contained both Muslims and Hindus, that advocated for independence. Mohandas Gandhi became President of the Congress in 1921. Mohandas Gandhi: Indian nationalist who, in an attempt to gain India’s independence, promoted a non-violent and noncooperation movement. o All India Muslim League: Originally Muslims, who were a part of the Indian National Congress, created their own organization that advocated for an all-Muslim nation-state separate from the Hindu state of India called Pakistan. Gandhi disagreed with this organization as he believed that Hindus and Muslims could live together peacefully in one state. - Decolonization of British India: On August 15, 1947 the successor state of India was established and two days later Pakistan became the second successor state. Violence continued between the two religious nations resulting in over a million killed and over a million refugees. 45 - Kashmir: A nation that resides in the Himalayan Mountains that has lost their desire for self-determination. The Kashmir people were to hold a plebiscite on whether they should join India or Pakistan after decolonization. However India invaded Kashmir and the plebiscite never occurred. Violent conflicts have resulted due to this occupation. Many Kashmir people now call for independence as opposed to the choice of joining India or Pakistan. Over 10 000 Kashmir’s have disappeared by being captured by Indian forces. Tibetan Self-Determination: In the 1950s, China took control of the Tibetan government, suppressed their Buddhist religion, and destroyed their places of worship. This resulted in thousands of Tibetans being killed by the occupiers. The Dalai Lama and his government have been advocating for UN help however they have received little help. Tibet continues to protest for self-determination to this day. - UN Response to Tibet: The UN has denounced the Chinese occupation, spoken against the Chinese invasion, and passed resolutions upholding Tibetan self-determination. - Qinghai–Tibet Railway: 1,142km section of railway, completed in 2006, which connects Golmud, Qinghai to Lhasa, Tibet. This allowed mass Chinese migration into Tibetan territory resulting in assimilation becoming a major fear of the Tibetan people. 46 Map of the Qinghai-Tibet Railway Unintended Consequences of Self-Determination: People can lose their homes, security, economic prosperity, cultural heritage, necessities for life, and even life itself in the fight for self-determination. - Refugees: While people may be fighting for self-determination, many are forced to leave their homes because of war, persecution, and other threats. They often travel in unsafe conditions through rough terrain or on unsafe boats with the threat of attack and an unclear future. Once they find a safe haven food, shelter, and health care became issues for refugees. Furthermore if they return home, often their communities are in shambles and a difficulty earning a living. o Host countries: Countries who take in refugees. Internal conflicts might break out and refugees might end up traveling from one war zone to another. The influx of refugees also put a major strain on a country’s resources. The UN, Red Cross, and Red Crescent are organizations that provide relief and supplies to refugee camps in host countries. - Afghan Refugees: Largest group of refugees in the world. Many fled after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979 and many have fled areas of conflict under Taliban control. Pakistan has received two million 47 refugees and Iran has taken 1.5 million refugees. These mass amounts of refugees have hurt economic interest in Iran and Pakistan, even with outside help from the UN and non-government organizations. As a result, Pakistan and Iran have closed or forced refugees out of its camps to return home to possible conflict or find a new refugee camp. Map of the Displacement of Afghan Refugees __________________________________________________________________ Theme Three: To What Extent Should Internationalism Be Pursued? Human Motives: People are motivated by both needs and wants. These encourage people to improve their lifestyle through schooling, skills, or work. - Need: Basic elements used for survival including food, water, shelter, etc… - Want: Items that people desire, regardless of whether they contribute to survival including cell phones, new clothes, fulfilling jobs, etc… - Maslow’s Hierarchy: Describes how humans pursue their needs in order, starting with survival and finishing with self-achievement. 48 Nations and Nation-states Motives: Successful nation-states are motivated by the need to satisfy their citizens by providing economic stability, peace and security, self-determination, and humanitarian activities. - Economic Stability: Ensuring high employment helps provide economic security for nation-states by providing jobs for its citizens. High employment not only provides prosperity for the citizens but the nationstates as well because the state is able to collect more tax and pay for government services. - Peace and Security: People desire to feel safe in the streets and in their homes as well as live without fear of physical or psychological harm. Without safety and security, many do not attend school or work inefficiently. This hurts the nation-state’s economy. Wars kill and injure citizens, devastate infrastructure, and hurt economic stability. People desire to be free from conflict and ruthless governments. A way to ensure 49 security is to join organization that ensures collective security like NATO or the UN. - Self-Determination: Nations and nation-states are no different than individuals who desire decision making power. This longing for the ability to make their own decision can include self-government or outright sovereignty. - Humanitarianism: Providing relief to nation or nation-states that are suffering and protect those in need. Natural disasters, war-torn countries, and disease can bring immense suffering thus governments, who are able, often provide humanitarian aid like supplies, shelter, money, and accepting or protecting refugees. Zimbabwe and Botswana: Although geographically neighbours and share many economic and geographic features, Botswana has greater politically stability and economic prosperity. After independence from Britain, both had agricultural industries that could bring promise for a successful future. - Botswana Independence: Peacefully gained independence in 1966 and, with the discovery of diamonds in 1967, created an economic boom allowing the government to provide services for its people. - Zimbabwe Independence: A violent civil war was needed for Zimbabwe to achieve independence in 1980.The Zimbabwean leader Robert Mugabe created a one-party state which eliminates opposition and violates the rights of his citizens. He seized the farms of white landowners and gave the land to his supporters. Agricultural production dropped rapidly as did foreign investment and the economy plummeted. - Botswana Social & Economic Situation: Botswana has experiences four decades of prosperity and even though they have a high HIV–AIDS rate, the government has established progressive programs to deal with the disease. - Zimbabwe Social & Economic Situation: Zimbabwe is regarded as a ‘failed state’ because it cannot meet the needs of its citizens. Many live in urban slums and shantytowns with large crime rates. The government has attempted to crack down on these areas resulting in many people being evicted and beaten for resisting. Unemployment and inflation 50 increased at a dramatic rate. Many have fled to Botswana to look for work however they were not welcomed. Botswana’s unemployment rate was over 20 percent and their government did not want its citizens to lose jobs to foreigners. Therefore, in 2003, Botswana built an electric fence along its 500 kilometer border with Zimbabwe to keep Zimbabweans out. Motives Shape Nation and State Responses: Meeting people’s needs are the focus for responding to international issues. - Isolationism: When a country opts out of participating in any international affairs (political, social, economic, and military). Most countries choose to follow isolationist policy in only some areas but not all. o Example: Japan, until 1854, ‘completely closing its doors’ to the outside world. - Unilateralism: Pertains to a nation acting on its own to deal with an international issue. o Example: During the Cold War, the nuclear arms race between the USA and Soviet Union sparked a nuclear arms race between the nation-states and their allies leading to fears of global destruction. Countries decided on disarmament unilaterally, without international agreement. - Bilateralism: When two countries are motivated by the same issue or need and decide to take action together. o Example: Canada and the United States entered into agreement over the concern over acid rain as an environmental pollutant called the Canada-United States Air Quality Agreement. - Multilateralism: Involves several countries working together to solve a common issue or need. Middle-power countries who band together - like Canada, Australia, and Chile – gain a degree of global influence when working together. Also allows for member states to protect their right to sovereignty and decision-making power within an international agreement. 51 o Example: The United Nations and World Trade Organization. - Supranationalism: Involves following decisions made by an international organization made up of independent officials or representatives that are elected by member states. Supranationalism forces member states to give up a degree of sovereignty and selfdetermination to the organization allowing decision making power over member states, therefore members are forced to follow any decisions made by the organization. o Example: The European Union because member states must give up control of some of their own affairs and follow EU decisions. Internationalism: Thinking globally means embracing internationalism. All members of the global community must accept collective responsibility for global challenges while respect the varying motives of nations and states to find a solution. o World Health Organization (WHO): Founded in 1948, focuses on human health issues, like diseases and influenza, which are global concerns. The WHO collects and organizes information on these medical concerns as well as statistics about nutrition, sanitation, health of mothers and children, etc… Furthermore, modern travel allows diseases spread much quicker today than ever before. The WHO plans for approximately three (3) to four (4) pandemics every hundred years. The WHO has set up an international group, the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network. During the SARS outbreak, the WHO coordinated all efforts to control the spread of SARS around the world. However many believe the WHO’s warnings of potential pandemics is alarmist. Alarmist: One who signals an alert without sufficient reason. This often causes unnecessary panic and fear. o Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network: Links health organizations of various countries as well as plan and coordinate international responses. 52 Smallpox: The WHO has completely eradicated (destroyed) smallpox, a disease that killed tens of millions worldwide, in the late 1970s through a vaccination campaign that began in 1966. Black Death (Bubonic Plague): Historical example of an pandemic that killed over 125 million people in 1300s. Spanish Flu: Another historical example of a killer flu virus that killed 50 million in 1918. - Right to Play: A non-governmental organization (NGO) developed by Olympic athletes and organizers in 2003, dedicated to ensuring that children everywhere have the opportunity to play without safety concerns due to landmines, abandoned military equipment, or unexploded ammunition/shells. Uses games and sport to educate children about diseases and healthy living as well as educate adults on how to continue to maintain sport programs. o Non-Governmental Organization (NGO): Organizations that are not affiliated with any government and often operate on a not-forprofit basis. - The Arctic Council: A cultural organization that promotes sustainable development and protecting the fragile environment, specifically monitoring climate change. Involves members from Arctic nations (Canada, Russia, USA, Iceland, etc…) as well as members representing Arctic Indigenous People. Benefits to Nations and States - Peace and Security: After World War I and World War II, nation-states established collective security organizations including the League of Nations, which later failed, and the United Nations. The UN, and its 193 members, discuss disputes and listen to grievances of member states in an attempt to avoid armed conflict. Benefits to Nations and States - Economic Stability: The UN created two organizations that look after the financial aspects of our globe, the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD), which is a part of the World Bank, and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) (see pg. 60). The purpose of 53 these organizations it to help Europe and Asia recover from the devastating economic affects of war and provide economic stability to the world. - General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): Promotes economic stability by reduced tariffs (taxes) on importing goods. This allows developing states easier access to good and services. In 1995, GATT became the World Trade Organization. (see pg. 60) Benefits to Nations and States - Self-Determination: Indigenous selfdetermination is achieved through working with international organizations like the International Working Group on Indigenous Affairs and the United Nations. The UN has adopted a document that affirmed the right for the Indigenous peoples to pursue self-determination. Benefits to Nations and States – Humanitarianism: Internationalism allows for countries and organizations to respond faster to humanitarian emergencies. - United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF): Provides financial aid, medical supplies, and food to help mothers and children in developing countries. Formerly known as United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund. - Tsunami in Southeast Asia: Earthquake, and subsequent tsunami, that killed over 200 000 people on December 26th, 2004. Humanitarian and relief agencies, including the Red Cross, provided food, clean water, and supplies as well governments and individuals also responded by donations of money and supplies for rebuilding. __________________________________________________________________ Foreign Policy Development: Nation-states make decisions on how they will live in the world including bilateral or multilateral agreements or decisions about how to deal with other countries. These decisions regarding a country’s foreign policy affect citizen’s lives including food, clothes, etc… - Influences on Foreign Policy: Dictatorships, absolute monarchies, or military committees make foreign policy decisions easier than democracies because democratic states must take into consideration beliefs, values, and goals of it citizens. Democracies allow citizens to free speech and the ability to vote. 54 - Foreign Policy Goals: States that have clear foreign policy goals will provide a better future for its citizens, organize strong global influence, and play an important role in the world. - Globalization: Multinational corporations, international business, humanitarian, and labour organizations have taken the lead over governments and diplomats in international affairs. Sovereignty and Internationalism: Countries are hesitant to take an international approach as it can mean giving up some control over aspects of their sovereignty thus making balancing national interest and internationalism difficult. Promoting Peace: Is the best way for a nation-state to use foreign policy to promote internationalism. There is a strong correlation between peace and economic stability therefore supporting states to become economically successful and self-supporting is important. Furthermore states who threaten world peace are often given economic sanctions to force them to co-operate. - Economic Sanctions: Cutting off trade with a country in an attempt to force a particular course of action. These sanctions are often ineffective because alliances often help these states work around the sanctions. o Example: UN placing sanctions on Iraq and Saddam Hussein in 1990 after the invasion of Kuwait. - Peacekeeping: States who join the United Nations, agree to support the action of the Security Council. UN Member States must keep armed forces available to be used by the Security Council in case of conflict. The Suez Crisis in 1956 was the first example of peacekeeping. Security Council: The most powerful division of the UN that is in charge of promoting collective security for all the UN members. Involves permanent and non-permanent members. Permanent Members: Five (5) countries that have a continuous membership on the Security Council. These include Britain, France, United States, China, and Russia. 55 Non-Permanent Members: Ten (10) countries who have a two-year membership on the Security Council. Each year five (5) new members are appointed to the Council as the former five (5) memberships end. o Role of Peacekeepers: Peacekeepers are sent into conflict zones after ceasefires have been reached. They act as a buffer zone between warring groups often providing humanitarian aid (food, shelter), and carry out agreements made by the UN. Peacekeeping rules involve… Consent: Respect the sovereignty of the host country. Impartiality: Remain neutral. Self-Defense: Fire only when fired upon. o Questioning Peacekeeping: Failures in Yugoslavia and Rwanda brought forth questions on the effectiveness of peacekeeping missions and whether peacemaking should become the standard in dealing with conflicts. Role of Peacemaking: End armed conflict and human rights abuses. They do not need to remain neutral, shooting to kill without being shot at, and they do not require consent to be in the country they are sent to. Example: UN forcing the Iraqi invaders out of Kuwait in 1991. Promoting International Law and Agreements: A body of international law has developed to deal with situations when foreign policy goals of one state conflict with others. These international laws are based on international treaties, agreements, conventions, and UN resolutions. o Example: Arctic sovereignty claims put forth by Russia, Canada, etc… - International Court of Justice (World Court): Interprets international law and attempts to settle disputes peacefully however many states do not accept the rulings given because of the threat to national interest and sovereignty. 56 Promoting Foreign Aid: Billions of dollars are used for medical supplies, food, clothing, and building supplies to help developing countries. The great impact foreign aid can have is when countries co-ordinate their efforts, specifically both the countries giving the aid and those receiving it on how to effectively use it. - Foreign Aid Contributions: Lester B. Pearson suggested that every state should give should give 0.7% of their Gross National Income (GNI). o Gross National Income (GNI): Is made up of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) plus income earned from a country’s investments abroad. Gross Domestic Product (GDP): The total value of all goods and services produced within a country. o Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA): Former department within the Canada government in charge of administering foreign aid. Canada provides approx. 0.33% of GNI and there is disagreement of whether or not Canada should contribute more to foreign aid. In 2013, CIDA was merged into the Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development. - Criticism of Foreign Aid: Political interests and economic interests are often ulterior motives for providing aid. This can lead to aid that is not being provided in the best interests of the citizen in need. o Tied Aid: Aid that is given with ‘strings attached’ (‘If I give this to you, you have to do this for me’ mentality). Tied aid is criticized as the donor country may not give the best products or services at the cheapest price. With no tied aid, the receiving country can get the resources from any source. o Corrupt Governments: Often take the aid money, supplies and keep it instead of giving to those in need or cause delays in getting the aid where it is needed. Department of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development (DFATD): Department within the Canadian government that is responsible for finding a balance between national interest and internationalism. Canada needs to look after both their 57 relationships with other countries as well as the interest of its citizens. Often, based on global events including when states violate international agreements, conditions of any Canadian international policy can become ineffective. - Landmines: An example of a weapon that, when used during conflict, can remain an issue long Development Canada must to consistently reevaluate Canadian foreign policy and role in after the war has ended often remaining active long after the ceasefire has come to be. These pose a threat to civilians and are costly, as well as dangerous, to remove. The Canadian and American governments plus the European Union have given financial support to remove landmines in Afghanistan as mines have killed or wounded dozens of Canadian soldier and thousands of Afghan citizens. o UN Convention on Inhumane Weapons: The UN attempt, in 1980, to establish rules for landmine use including their removal after the war was completed. This has been ignored by many nation-states. Furthermore in 1996, the desire to completely ban landmines received little support from UN Member States. o International Campaign to Ban Landmines: Founded in 1992, is an organization that attempts to ban landmines. This is supported by over 1400 NGOs and ninety (90) countries. o The Ottawa Treaty: Created in 1997 by former Canadian foreign affairs minister Lloyd Axworthy, and the Princess of Wales, Diana Spencer (as well as other landmine activists), attempted to ban the use of landmines and required governments contribute to the removal of existing mines. There are over 160 countries who agreed to this agreement however China, the United States, Russia, and India have not agreed. __________________________________________________________________ World Conditions and Internationalism: Challenges are no longer bound by within the border of one single country. Threats like disease, terrorism, and climate change require countries to co-operate to find multilateral solutions. Furthermore, the technological advances in travel and telecommunications promote internationalism. 58 o Example: The SARS outbreak in 2003 started with one man dying in China however, due to world travel, the outbreak spread into a world-wide epidemic. Effect of Technology and Communication: Focuses on how technology can empower people and contribute to their autonomy in an ever growing internationalist approach. - Communication - Global Village: Marshall McLuhan (Canadian media philosopher), in the 1960s, developed a theory on global communication. McLuhan believes communication has created a new ‘nation’ that allows for rapid communication globally. No longer are there social, political, economic, or physiological isolation of many parts of the world. The Internet, fiber optics, and cellphones support this perspective. - Communication - Voluntary Balkanization: Marshall Van Alstyne (Professor at Boston University) suggests that the Internet has shown that users seek out connections with like-minded individuals. This causes people to less likely trust the decisions made by those who have differing values. o Balkanization: Defined as the separation of people into isolated and hostile groups. Kofi Annan and United Nations: Former secretary-general of the United Nations, stated the UN must adapt to changes of the world. This resulted in diplomats and leaders discussing the future of the UN and decided that it needed to become more involved with the internal conflicts. The UN has a responsibility to protect people that violate or fail the rights and welfare of their own citizens. - Nuclear Weaponry: The UN has been trying to limit the development of nuclear weapons around the world and though the United States, Russia, and China have these weapons the UN does not want more produced. o Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty: Designed to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons but allowed the development of nuclear power plants for electricity. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) looks after the terms of the treaty. 59 - Iran: Though Iran signed the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the IAEA stated the Iran has been secretly developing enriched uranium used for nuclear weapons and generating nuclear power. This aroused suspicion from the Western states which subsequently called for Iran to stop the production of enriched uranium. Iran ignored the request on the justification that it is in their national interest. Furthermore, Iran’s former president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad, called for the destruction of Israel, denied the Holocaust, and threatened the United States. Thus many believe nuclear weapons will be aimed at the state of Israel and other countries including the United States. o UN Response to Iran: The UN Security Council called for Iran to stop their nuclear program and have imposed sanctions on the state when the Iranian government refused. - United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO): Promotes international co-operation in the fields of education, science, culture, and communication and create respect for shared values and dignity of all civilizations. UNESCO also protects human cultural features, as well as natural and man-made sites around the world. Cultural sites: Show creative genius or great architectural influence. An example is Head Smashed in Buffalo Jump. Natural sites: Exemplify a major stage in the earth history, contain threatened species, or have extreme beauty. Examples include Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks, Waterton Glacier International Park, and the Dinosaur Provincial Park. o Threats to UNESCO Sites: Declarations of World Heritage Sites attempt to protect these elements of beauty. However these can interfere with nation-states plans that have sovereignty. The challenge is balancing common human interest with national interests. Economic Organizations: International trade agreements and organizations including the World Trade Organization and the European Union are driven by the idea of a ‘trickle-down theory’. 60 o Trickle-Down Theory: Suggests that when people in developing countries have more money to spend, they will buy goods and services from countries that are less developed thus helping to strengthen the world economy. - World Trade Organization (WTO): Created in 1995, formerly known as GATT, outlined the rules on how to conduct trade between nations, resolve economic disputes, stimulates economic growth, and reduce inequalities. Some believe the WTO is beneficial in promoting growth and development to improve standards of living and poverty but others believe the WTO threatens national identity and the pursuit of national interest. Many also feel that the WTO benefits the developed countries because the rich countries receive cheap goods that often cost developing countries millions of dollars to produce, thus only helping the rich and leaving the poor to continue to suffer. By 2014, 159 countries have signed onto the WTO. - International Monetary Fund: Created in 1945, the IMF attempts to bring about economic stability through promoting international free trade and government spending reductions. The IMF also attempts to promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, as well as reduce poverty around the world. It calls for developing countries to open up markets to outside countries and reduce budget deficits by cutting education and health care programs. However, the IMF often reduces decision-making power of governments by forcing changes to how governments spend their finances. - The European Union (EU): Came into effect in 1991 with goals to promote peace, security, justice, and create a large free-trade zone within Europe. By opening up free trade this provides member countries the ability to play an important role in world trade. However the idea of one constitution for all EU members has caused controversy as many feel they will lose partial sovereignty since they will not be able to pass laws that are contrary to the EU constitution. o The Euro: The currency of the EU. Not all members have adopted the Euro because many fear of losing their national identity and sovereignty. 61 La Francophonie: Organization of governments that have French as an official language to promote the French language as well as its cultural and linguistic diversity. It also promotes human rights and international co-operation. This organization also includes provincial governments (Quebec and New Brunswick). North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): A collective security organization developed during the Cold War. NATO members agree that an attack on one of its members is an attack on all its members. NATO involves both peacekeeping and peacemaking. __________________________________________________________________ Contemporary Global Issues - Access to Water: The UN has declared that clean water is a fundamental human right because, according to the UN, approximately 1.1 billion people have inadequate access to water and 2.5 billion have inadequate access to sanitation systems. Furthermore, 2 million children have died as a result of diseases caused by unclean water and poor sanitation. - Control over Water: Because of sovereignty, countries control and use the water within their borders. They can sell water, create hydroelectric power, and rules for dumping sewage. However many feel that countries that have access must export their water because the global water supply is diminishing. - Canadian Fresh Water: Canada has approximately 20% of all the fresh water in the world giving Canadians plenty of access. The Canadian government has opposed the UN resolution on water and discourages bulk water exports. Some Canadians suggest that the Canadian government must introduce strict legislation to control its water or it will lose sovereign control over water however environmentalists, and other advocates, feel that Canada must change its position or the world will face dire consequences. International Organizations and Global Issues: Often global issues are too complex for governments therefore they solicit the help of international organizations to help solve the problems of poverty, hunger, disease, debt, climate change, human rights, and conflict. o UN Millennium Developmental Goals: Eight (8) international goals, created by the UN, in an attempt to help combat global 62 issues like hunger, poverty, education, child mortality, and equality by 2015. - Poverty: Poverty causes numerous problems including hunger, disease, and conflict. In 2006, the World Bank estimated that more than a billion people live in absolute poverty. According to Oxfam, an international NGO, the causes of poverty include… Lack of Education: Many schools charge fees that families cannot afford therefore people who do not have a basic education cannot find a job and are stuck in a cycle of poverty. Lack of Resources: Many farmers do not have access to land, markets, water, or credit. Conflict and War: Many are displaced due to war and cannot find work or make money as a result. Trade Laws: High tariffs and bans on certain imports cause the selling of goods to be difficult. Discrimination: Often minority groups have limited access to jobs, resources, or government help. o Absolute Poverty: A condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, and education. This depends not only on income but access to services. - Hunger: Also includes malnutrition and starvation, is caused by poverty. The United Nations established a ‘World Food Summit’ in 1996, which attempted to feed half of the world’s hungry population by 2015. This was reaffirmed with the Millennium Developmental Goals, that stated eradicating extreme hunger and poverty is of international priority. Furthermore in Canada, 12% live below the poverty line with many going hungry. In 2013, on average over 800 000 Canadians relied on food banks every month. 63 - Disease: Individuals, who are malnourished as a result of poverty, have difficulty fighting diseases because of a low immune system. Furthermore poorer countries do not have the education to understand disease prevention or have money to treat diseases and provide health care, whereas developed states have reduced incidences of disease and a lower mortality (death) rate. o AIDS: Once thought to be a death-sentence, medication has allowed people to survive with the disease however few Africans can afford treatment and many countries do not have the resources to deal with the pandemic. At the 2005 UN World Summit leaders pledged to achieve universal access to AIDS treatment by 2010. To achieve this goal, drugs to help AIDS have become cheaper in hopes that more people will have access. NGOs and AIDS: Organizations including the Gates Foundation, and the Clinton Foundation have launched awareness, prevention, and treatment programs for AIDS across the globe. - Debt: Countries that borrow more money than they produce leads to economic crisis. o Jamaica: Borrowed huge sums of money from the World Bank and International Monetary Fund which they thought could be pay off however their the Jamaican economy performed less than expected and the half of Jamaica’s tax revenue simply went to interest on those loans. This led to the IMF and the World Bank implementing sanctions resulting in the cutting of services to Jamaican citizens. o Odious Debt: Debt that is created by a tyrannical leader to strengthen their regime and not to meet the needs of the people. Probe International, and many governments, feel that countries that have odious debt from previous dictator should not be required to repay the money owed. However some feel this ‘debt forgiveness’ will worsen the situation of poor countries as a result of transferring scarce resources to countries who have a history of misusing aid. 64 Probe International: An NGO that monitors Canada’s contribution to foreign aid. This organization describes odious debt as the following… The debt was incurred without the consent for the people of the state, The debt did not benefit the people of the state, The lender was aware of these two conditions. Climate Change: Due to ocean currents and prevailing winds, one country’s pollution affects everyone around the globe. High amounts of energy (leading to greenhouse gas emissions) and the cutting down trees in tropical rainforests for agricultural development (leading to less carbon dioxide being converted to oxygen) are causing the melting of polar ice caps in both the North and South Poles. This leads to potential flooding and further climate change. - Kyoto Protocol: An international attempt to reduce greenhouse gas emissions around the world. The protocol calls for countries to reduce their emissions by 20% by 2020. Furthermore, many countries, including Canada, USA, and Australia, feel the Kyoto Protocol places their countries at a disadvantage because their domestic businesses would have to compete with businesses from China and India that were not required to follow Kyoto’s emission standards. Canada, who originally agreed, stated that due to the cost ($51 billion) it will not be able to reach this target and officially withdrew in 2012.. - Human Rights: In 1948, the UN adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights outlining rights and freedoms that every individual has. Before the UN can take action to protect against violators of human rights, all five permanent members of the UN Security Council must agree to act. If one state vetoes a proposal, the UN cannot act to help human rights. o Myanmar: In 2007, protestors, mostly Buddhist monks, wanted greater say how their country was being run. These protestors were fired upon by the Myanmar army under orders of the government. Thousands of monks were killed as well as thousands arrested. Once the world started to see the atrocities being committed the UN demanded the release of political prisoners, began talks with the protestors, and demanded a stop to human rights abuses. China 65 and Russia vetoed the decision and subsequently no action was taken. - Conflict: Chief goals of the UN is to help countries work together to ensure peace and security however the complex nature of these issues can cause finding an effective course of action difficult. o Darfur Population: Within the Darfur region of Sudan, 60 percent of all people are farmers and the majority is of black skin. The remainder of the population were nomadic, or semi-nomadic, herders of Arabic decent. Both groups were competing for land west of the Nile River. Darfur Civil War: In March of 2003 violent outbursts started when the Sudan Liberation Army and rebel groups began attacking government targets. The SLA claimed Sudan’s government favoured Arabs over the black farmer. Government-backed troops and the Arabic Janjaweed militias have been accused of genocide for killing black Sudanese people. By 2007, approximately 200 000 people were killed and 2.5 million fled their homes. UN Response to Darfur: The UN tried to negotiate a peace between the two warring groups and the Security Council placed sanctions upon Sudan. Furthermore, the International Criminal Court began investigating war crimes and issued arrest warrants for Sudanese government officials and the Janjaweed leader. African Union: An organization of African countries that sent peacekeepers to Darfur however it was not effective in its response. Individuals Role in Solutions to Global Issues: Citizens are becoming more linked with nation-states and international organizations. There is an opportunity for individuals to influence policy as they can pressure governments and international organizations to find solutions to global issues. __________________________________________________________________ 66 Theme Four: Historical and Future Perspectives of Canada Historical Perspective - Louis Lafontaine: Formerly of Lower Canada, Lafontaine became Prime Minister of the United Province of Canada in 1842. He promoted and maintained the French language without the use of violence. He envisioned a unified Canada where French and English would co-exist together. - United Province of Canada: Formed in 1841 when the British provinces of Lower Canada and Upper Canada joined into one entity however tension continued between the French and English. o Lower Canada: Established in 1791 as a province in the British Canada. Consisted of modern day portions of Quebec, along the St. Lawrence, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Labrador. o Upper Canada: Established in 1791 as a province in British Canada. Consisted of modern day Southern Ontario and land above the Great Lakes in Ontario. Historical Perspective - Robert Baldwin: Representative from Upper Canada who also believed in an equal Canada where the French and English co-existed. Worked with Lafontaine to create responsible government. - Responsible Government: Refers to a system in which the government is responsible to the elected representatives of the House of Assembly (House of Commons). The principles are fundamental to the functioning of the Canadian constitution. The powers of the governor general, the Queen’s representative in Canada, are limited – a concept which exists nowhere in any legal document. Those who exercise executive power (Prime Minister and Cabinet) must obtain the support of the House (House of Commons) for the use of that power. o Representation by Population: Idea where seats in parliament are allotted based on the population of a specific area. Areas with more citizens have more representatives in government. This causes 67 tension in the West as many feel there is too much representation in Ontario and Quebec than other areas. Historical Perspective - Sir John A. MacDonald: First Prime Minister of Canada, felt the only solution to the French/English question was use constitutional reform to unite Canada. He also dreamed of uniting a country, not only through ideas but with steel – the Canadian Pacific Railway. MacDonald used the railway as a tool to convince provinces to join Confederation after 1867. Historical Perspective - Louis Riel: Leader of the Métis people of Manitoba in the mid-1800s. He was concerned with the Canadian government’s intention to expand into Western territories without regarding for Métis heritage. In 1869, he created a document outlining the Métis Bill of Rights and conditions for which Manitoba would be become a province. Historical Perspective - Clifford Sifton: Promoted immigration in Western Canada. He was concerned about the issues the settlers faced and worked to defend these people. Sifton felt settlement in Western Canada is crucial to defending the West and opened doors for a massive immigration policy allowing thousands of European immigrants to head west. Historical Perspective - Henri Bourassa: Advocated that Canada should be a united Anglo-French country. He believed that French citizens should not be assimilated into English culture, and that the preservation of the French culture is vital to Francophone participation in Confederation. He did not desire a separate French state but unity with Canada. Furthermore, Bourassa resented the British influence in the Canadian government. His argument surrounded the idea that Canada should make their own decisions regarding whether to enter conflicts like World War I. Historical Perspective - Pierre Elliot Trudeau: Prime Minister of Canada who served for two terms, 1968-1979 and from 1980-1984. Trudeau introduced controversial laws focusing on gay rights, divorce, and abortion. He had a strong stance toward a united Canada, French and English, and strong opposition to a separate Quebec. - Official Languages Act: Passed in 1969, made Canada an officially bilingual nation, French and English. Used to help appease the separatist movement however as created tension elsewhere fueling Western alienation. 68 - October Crisis: In October 1970, a terrorist organization named the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ) used violent protests demanding Quebec separation. FLQ members bombed mailboxes, railway tracks, and Montreal City Hall among other government buildings. As well the FLQ kidnapped two government officials, James Cross and Pierre Laport (who was murdered). Trudeau took a tough stance against the FLQ and refused to give into the FLQ demands and implemented the controversial War Measures Act. o War Measures Act: Took away many civil liberties from civilians including the ability for the police to arrest without warrant. Furthermore instituted martial law where the military patrolled the street to protect citizens and property. - Multiculturalism Policy: Passed in 1971, promoted pluralism and tolerance for different cultures, ethnicities, and religions in Canada. - Canada Act, 1982: Passed by the British parliament, under the request of Trudeau and the Canadian government, the act provided Canada their complete sovereignty. This allowed the Canadian government to amend their constitution without consent from the British parliament. Known as the patriation of the Canadian constitution. o Constitution Act, 1982: Amendments made to Canada’s constitution, at the time of patriation, which included adding the Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Future Perspective – Multination Model: Involves governments being organized so that minority groups will have a form of self-government and may form a majority in certain areas within Canada. o Example: Quebec has a French majority with its own provincial government, even though French-speaking people make up a minority within Canada. Future Perspective – Separatism Model: Would include Quebec forming a sovereign nation within Canada. Quebec it would have its own system of governing and laws but keep some ties with Canada would remain specifically defence and currency. 69 Future Perspective – World Leader Model: Promoting development and change in areas like human rights, environmental protection, and economic stability. Due to globalization, nations-states are becoming more dependant each other and Canada could have a reputation as a leader in these, and other, areas. Future Perspective – North American Integration Model: Since the creation of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994, Canada, United States, and Mexico have begun to integrate their economies. These three countries have an opportunity to coordinate on other areas as well including immigration, development and enforcement, and environmental policies. o North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA): Agreement between Canada, United States, and Mexico that created a North American trade bloc that helped to eliminate trade barriers between the countries. As well these three countries have passed side agreements focusing on environmental issues, copyright laws, and labour laws. - Controversy over North American Integration: Some suggest that the benefits of integration would be outweighed by the negative results, such as losing sovereignty, however others suggest it is essential for keeping competitive with other parts of the world, like the EU, that are moving toward integration.