Course name: Human Anatomy
Course Code: F,01.O.001 F. 02.O.001
Type of Course: Compulsory discipline
Total number of hours: 170 hours,
Including: I semester-102 hours, including: lectures -34 hours, practical hours - 68 hours
II semester-68 hours,including: lectures -17 hours, practical hours-51 hours
Number of tests provided for the courses: 5 credits, including: I semester - 3, II semester - 2
The teaching staff:
MD, associate professor – T.Hacina,
MD, assistant – S.Brenișter,
Assistant – A.Babuci,
Assistant – L.Globa,
Assistant – A.Bendelic
The purpose of the discipline ”Human Anatomy”:
The study of morpho-functional peculiarities of organs and organ systems in different periods of
postnatal development and the use of this knowledge in learning basic and clinical disciplines for
preventing different diseases and for their proper diagnosis and treatment. A special attribution refers
to the educational role in professional training and to self-education when studying our body , which
approaches us to the principle of Socrates "Know Yourself".
Objectives of formation of students' knowledge of the discipline „Human Anatomy”
On the level of understanding and comprehension students need to:
- realize the formation of clear and accurate ideas about the human anatomy, its evolution and
branches , its role and place among the basic and clinical medical disciplines and about anatomy
on live.
- know traditional and modern methods of anatomical exploration
- possess and reproduce information about the human organism as a whole unit , its relationship with
the environment, its constituent elements (tissues, organs, organ systems, appliances)
- reproduce knowledge about the essential stages of development of the body, ontogenesis and
phylogenesis of organs and organ systems apart
- comprehend and reproduce general definitions about the norms, variants of norms , abnormalities
and the importance of their application
- possess and reproduce information about the human body proportions, constitutional types, and the
importance of their application
- possess and reproduce information about individual peculiarities, age and sex of all anatomical
- reproduce information about the general structural peculiarities of the systems and organ systems.
- reproduce knowledge about the structure of anatomical formations on macro and
macromicroscopic levels , their function, topography, its radiographic, ultrasound, MRI,
endoscopic projection and aspect on live .
On the level of application students need to:
-identify anatomical formations;
-arrange all anatomical formations into their correct anatomical position
-demonstrate the structural aspects of body regions (the dissected corpse), anatomical preparations,
molds, etc.
- identify anatomical structures on radiological (radiograms, tomography) and sonographical
images, obtained by MRI;
- determine on live the parts of bones, muscles, joints, vascular and nervous parts of various body
- palpate on live the prominent formations of bones, muscles, joints;
- palpate the pulse of the arteries of the head, neck and extremities and indicate their points of
compression in order to prevent the bleeding;
- reproduce schemes referring to the structure, topography, projection and classification of
anatomical formations;
- solve problem situations and tests on the structure, topography, functions , live aspects of
anatomical formations;
- possess basic skills of dissection in the dissecting-room and producing preparations for studies.
On the level of integration students need to:
- Appreciate the importance of knowledge in human anatomy in learning basic medical disciplines;
- Recognize the applicability of anatomical knowledge for diagnosis and treatment of diseases.
Conditions and preliminary requirements:
Anatomy is a fundamental science of medical education, studying the human organism and its
ontogenetic development, which is closely related to the environmental changes and daily activities
of each individual. By using the methods, which come to support each physician (palpation,
percussion, radiological, endoscopic, CT, ultrasound, ultrasonic methods and others) Anatomy
becomes the science of all living forms, and the basis for other disciplines of medical education,
including the vocabulary of over 5000 terms. Modern medicine does not require from today's
anatomy the an abstract human structure and form, but real data about individual structure.
Therefore , Anatomy is the science of living forms, of changing and reorganization of human body.
It includes systematization and integration of knowledge about the mutual connection and influence
of somatic and visceral systems, about the influence of various external environmental factors on
musculoskeletal and visceral activity and on the central nervous system.
For a good comprehension of the discipline, there will be needed a good knowledge of biology and
anatomy, obtained in undergraduate studies.
The basic contents of the course for the first semester
Lectures: 34 hours
Nr. of
Anatomy as a fundamental science in the study of medicine. Introduction to the 2 hours
study of anatomy. Elements of the human body.
General Osteology: Bone Development. Structure and classification of the 2 hours
bones, bone as an organ, chemical composition, bone, periosteum.
The skeleton of the trunk and limbs.
General Arthrosindesmology. Classification of joints between bones. Joint 2 hours
General myology. Development of the muscles. Muscle as an organ. Structure 2 hours
and classification of the muscles. Muscular labor, muscular chains and
crossings. Annexes of the muscles.
Functional anatomy of the muscles of the trunk and limbs.
General Splanchnology. Classification of the viscera. Parenchymatous and 2 hours
cavitary organs. Functional anatomy of the digestive system. Peritoneum.
Functional anatomy of the respiratory organs. Upper and lower respiratory 2 hours
airways. Pleura and mediastinum.
Anatomy of the cardiovascular system. Heart: structure, development, 2 hours
abnormalities. Arteries, veins and microcirculatory network. Collateral
Functional anatomy of the urinary system. Kidneys and urinary tract: structure, 2 hours
development, anomalies.
Functional anatomy of the reproductive system. Development and anomalies of 2 hours
2 hours
2 hours
genital organs.
Functional anatomy of the lymphatic and immune systems.
General overview of the central nervous system. the spinal cord and the brain. 2 hours
The reticular and limbic systems.
Functional anatomy of spinal and cerebral meninges; intermeningeal spaces. 2 hours
Cerebrospinal fluid, its production, circulation, absorption. Blood-brain barrier.
Functional anatomy of the endocrine glands.
Functional anatomy of the vegetative nervous system. Central and peripheral 2 hours
subdivisions of the VNS.
Characteristic features of innervation and vascularization of the visceral and 2 hours
somatic organs.
2 hours
2 hours
34 hours
B. Practical lessons (68 hours)
1 Orientation elements of the human body. Methods of anatomical exploration. 2 hours
Skeleton of the trunk. The vertebral column, common structure of the
vertebrae, regional particularities of the vertebrae. Sacrum and coccyx, ribs and
sternum. Exploration on a living person.
2. Bones of the shoulder girdle and free upper limb: clavicle, scapula, humerus,
radius and ulna, carpal bones, metacarpals and phalanges fingers. Exploration
on a living person.
Nr. of
2 hours
3. Bones of the pelvic girdle and free lower limb. Hip bone and its components. 2 hours
The femur and patella, tibia and fibula, tarsal and metatarsal bones, phalanges
of the toes. Exploration on a living person.
4. General arthrosyndesmology: synarthrosis and diarthrosis. Biomechanics of
the joints. Junctions of the spine and thoracic cage. Spine as a whole. Thorax as
a whole. Exploration on a living person.
2 hours
5. Joints of the shoulder girdle and free upper limb. Sternoclavicular and
acromioclavicular joints. The scapulohumeral (shoulder) joint. The elbow joint.
Proximal and distal radioulnar joints, radiocarpal joint. Joints of the carpals,
metacarpals and phalanges fingers
2 hours
6. Joints of the pelvic girdle and free lower limb. Sacroiliac joint and pubic
symphysis. The pelvis as a whole. The hip joint, knee joint. Joints of the leg
bones. Talocrural joint. Joints of the tarsal bones. Transverse joint of the foot
(Chopart’s joint). The tarsometatarsal joints (Lisfrank’s) and intertarsal joints.
Metatarsophalangeal and interphalangeal joints. Strengthen apparatus of the
foot. Foot as a whole.
2 hours
7. General myology, muscle as an organ. Classification of the muscles, 2 hours
muscular annexes. Muscles of the trunk and their fasciae. Muscles and fasciae
of the back, topography. Muscles and fasciae of the thorax. The diaphragm.
Abdominal muscles and fasciae. The weak places of the anterior abdominal
wall. Topography of the abdomen and thorax.
8. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the upper limb. Muscles and fasciae of
the shoulder girdle, arm, forearm and the hand. Topography of the axillary
region, arm, forearm. Synovial sheaths of the hand.
9. Muscles, fasciae and topography of the lower limb (pelvic girdle, thigh, leg 2 hours
and foot). Muscular and vascular lacunae, femoral triangle, femuropopliteal
canal (canalis adductorius), popliteal fossa, cruropopliteal canal, upper and
lower musculofibular canals. Retinaculi of the ankle region. Plantar
aponeurosis. Active and passive elements supporting arches of the foot.
10. The first assessment: osteology, arthrosyndesmology and myology.
2 hours
2 hours
11.General splanchnology. Classification of the viscera by development, 2 hours
topography, structure and functions. Cavitary and parenchymatous organs.
Esophagus and stomach, divisions, topography, structure, functions.
Exploration of the stomach and esophagus of a living person.
12. Small intestine: divisions, topography, structural peculiarities. Distinctive 2 hours
relationship with the peritoneum of the duodenum, and mesenterial portion of
the small intestines.
Large intestine, portions, distinctive features, relationship with the peritoneum,
topography. Caecum and vermiform appendix. Colon, its parts. The rectum.
Exploration of the small and large intestine.
13. Liver and pancreas. Liver, structure, topography, functions, relationship 2 hours
with the peritoneum, liver ligaments. Gallbladder, structure, functions.
Intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ways. Pancreas, structure, topography,
functions, relationship with the peritoneum. Exploration of the liver and
pancreas of a living person.
14. Spleen and peritoneum. Spleen, structure, topography, functions. Parietal
and visceral peritoneum, abdominal cavity, peritoneal cavity and retroperitoneal
space. Supramesocolic and inframesocolic storeys of the peritoneal cavity.
Peritoneal derivatives. Greater omentum and lesser omentum. Mesenteries.
15. Respiratory system. Upper and lower respiratory airways, general 2 hours
characteristics. Trachea, bronchi, lungs - topography, structure, functions.
Exploration of the respiratory organs on a living persons.
16. Pleura and mediastinum. Parietal and visceral pleura, pleural cavity, pleural
sinuses and their functional importance. Mediastinum, classification. Anterior
and posterior mediastinal organs.
2 hours
2 hours
17. Urinary system. Kidney, its structure, topography, features, relationship 2 hours
with the peritoneum. Fixation apparatus of the kidney. Infrarenal and extrarenal
urinary ways. Ureter, urinary bladder. Male and female urethra. Exploration of
the kidney and urinary tract.
18. Female genitalia. Ovary, uterine tube, uterus, vagina: their structure,
topography, functions, relationship with peritoneum. Apparatus of fixation.
External genitalia.
2 hours
19. Male genital organs: testes, epididymis, scrotum, structure, topography. 2 hours
Spermatic cord, prostate, seminal vesicles, bulbourehtral glands, structure,
functions. External male genitalia. Topography of the pelvic organs in male and
female. Perineum, sex differences.
20. Endocrine system. Structure, topography and functions of the endocrine
glands: thyroid, parothyroid, pituitary, epiphyseal, adrenal (medulla and cortex)
glands. Endocrine component of the pancreas and gonads (ovary and testis).
2 hours
21. Assessment on viscera.
2 hours
22. General characteristic of the cardiovascular system. Pulmonary and
systemic blood circulation. The heart and pericardium, structure, topography,
exploration. Pericardial sinuses. Magistral and extraorganic blood vessels.
Arteries and veins.
2 hours
23. Parietal and visceral arteries of the trunk cavities. Branches of the ascending
aorta and aortic arch. Thoracic aorta and its branches. Abdominal aorta and its
branches. Exploration of the arteries and veins.
2 hours
24. Upper and lower limb arteries. Subclavian, axillary, brachial, ulnar and
2 hours
radial arteries. Arterial anastomosis of the upper limb. Internal and external iliac
artery. Femoral, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. Lower limb
arterial anastomosis.
25. Systems of the superior and inferior venae cavae. Portal system. 2 hours
Regularities of the vein formation. The superior vena cava. Pulmonary veins.
The inferior vena cava. Portal vein, its tributaries. Cavo-caval and porto-caval
26. Lymphatic system: lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, lymph vessels
and lymph trunks. Thoracic lymphatic duct and right lymphatic duct. Lymph
nodes. Parietal and visceral lymphatics of the trunk cavities. Superficial and
deep lymphatics of the upper and lower limbs. Exploration of the lymphatics.
27. Immune system. The central and peripheral immune system. Thymus and 2 hours
spleen, topography, structure, functions. Lymphoid formations of the digestive,
respiratory and urogenital systems.
28. Central and peripheral nervous system. Spinal cord, shape, topography,
internal structure. The segment of the spinal cord, spinal roots, spinal ganglia,
spinal nerves formation. Branches of the spinal nerves, principles of somatic
plexuses formation.
2 hours
2 hours
29. Brain, general characteristics. Brainstem. Medulla oblongata, pons of 2 hours
Varolio: external conformation, internal structure, conductive ways.
Cerebellum, gray matter and white matter. The fourth ventricle, its
ommunications. Rhomboid fossa. Cranial nerves nuclei. Mesencephalon and
30. Cerebral hemispheres. Relief of the cerebral cortex. Olfactory brain, the
corpus callosum, fornix. Basal nuclei. White matter of the hemispheres. Lateral
ventricles. Cerebral and spinal meninges. Cerebrospinal fluid. Blood-brain
2 hours
31. Nerves of the trunk and upper limb. Thoracic spinal nerves and their 2 hours
branches. Brachial plexus, its formation. Long and short branches of the
brachial plexus. Exploration on a living person.
32. Nerves of the pelvis and lower limb. Lumbar plexus, its formation, long and
short branches. Sacral plexus, branches, areas of innervation. Exploration.
2 hours
33. Vegetative nervous system: its structural and functional peculiarities. 2 hours
Sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, their central and peripheral
portions. Preganglionic and postganglionic nerve fibers. General notions about
visceral innervation. Nervous plexuses of the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic
34. Assessment of knowledge acquired from practical classes: 22 – 33.
2 hours
68 hours
The basic contents of the course for the second semester
C. Lectures: 17 hours
Nr. of
Skull development. Skull and facial cranium. Developmental abnormalities.
Morpho-functional features of the skull.
Age and gender features of the skull bones. Periods of intensive development of
the skull. Skull topography. Skull joints. Oral cavity. Functional anatomy of
Muscles and fasciae of the head. Muscles of mastication and facial expression,
development and morphofunctional peculiarities. Topography of the head.
Interfacial spaces of the head. Biomechanics of the temporomandibular joint.
Muscles and fasciae of the neck. Neck topography. Interfascial spaces of the
neck and their importance in spreading of suppurative processes
Functional anatomy of the arterial and venous system of the head and neck.
Head and neck lymphatics. Arterial and venous anastomosis in head and neck
regions and their practical importance.
Functional anatomy of cranial nerves. Cranial nerve connections with the
autonomic nervous system. Particular feature characteristics of cranial nerves.
Somatic and autonomic innervation of the muscles, joints and organs of the head
and neck regions. Cervical plexus, its formation principles, areas of innervation.
Functional anatomy of the sense organs. General characteristics and
classification of the analyzers. Conductive paths of analyzers.
1 hour
Total 17 hours
D. Practical classes (51 hours)
Nr. of
Skull - compartments, structural features skull. Skull bones: occipital, frontal,
parietal and sphenoid.
3 hours
Temporal bone and ethmoid bone, structure, foramens, cavities.
3 hours
Facial skull bones: maxilla, mandible, zygomatic, nasal, palatine, lachrymal,
inferior nasal cone, vomer and hyoid bone.
3 hours
Overall skull: cranial calvaria, endobase and exobase of the cranium, orbit,
nasal cavity, oral cavity bone formation. Temporal, infratemporal and
pterigopalatine fossae.
3 hours
Age and gender features of the skull. Articulation of the skull,
temporomandibular joint and its biomechanics.
3 hours
Muscles of the head and neck. Mimic and masticatory muscles. Peculiarities of
structure functions. Mimics. Neck muscles. Occipitovertebral muscles. Fascia
and topography of the head and neck.
3 hours
Oral cavity, tongue, teeth, salivary glands. Pharynx, topography, structure,
functions. Deglutition. Nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses, structure, functions.
Larynx, structure, topography, functions.
3 hours
The first assessment. Common carotid artery and its branches. External carotid
artery. Internal carotid artery, branches, paths, areas of vascularization,
anastomoses intra-and intersystemic.
3 hours
Subclavian artery and its branches. Vascularization of the head and neck organs.
Arterial anastomosis of the head and neck. Pulse palpation sites on the head and
neck arteries.
3 hours
Veins and lymphatics of the head and neck. Brain veins, venous sinuses of the
Dura matter. Venous connections of intracranial and extracranial system
(emissary and diploic veins). Superficial and deep veins of the head. Jugular
veins: anterior, external and internal. Head and neck lymphatics.
3 hours
Trigeminal nerve (V) nuclei, fibril structure, trigeminal ganglia. Path branches,
areas of innervation, connections. Conductive path of the trigeminal nerve.
3 hours
Facial nerve (VII). Topography, branches and regions of innervation. Inside and
extracanalicular branches. Conductive path of the facial nerve.
3 hours
Cranial nerves: glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X), accessory (XI) and
hypoglossal (XII). Origin, paths, branches, areas of innervation. Taste analyzer.
3 hours
Intrasystemic and intersystemic connections of the cranial nerves.
Cervical plexus, forming, structure, topography, branches of cervical plexus,
innervation zones. Innervation and vascularization of skin, muscles and organs
of the the head and neck.
3 hours
Organ of vision. Eyeball, structure, topography. Chambers and reflecting media
of the eyeball. Eyeball annexes. Conductive path of the visual analyzer. Cranial
nerves: optic (II), oculomotor (III), trochlear (IV), access (VI). Olfactory
3 hours
Vestibulocochlear organ. Auricle, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane,
tympanic cavity and its contents, communications, bone and membranous
labyrinth. Vestibulocochlear nerve (VIII). Conductive path of the acoustic and
balance analyzers.
3 hours
Assessment of knowledge ofthe section "Anatomy of the head and neck" and
the third assessment.
3 hours
Total 51 hours
Recommended Bibliography
Basic sources:
1. M.Prives, N.Lysenkov, V.Bushkovich “Human Anatomy”, v. I,II, 1989
2. R.D. Sinelnikov
“Atlas of human anatomy” v. I,II,III,IV M-1990
3. Keith L. Moore, Artur F. Dalley, Anne M.R.Agur “Clinically Oriented Anatomy”, 6-th edition,
Additional sources:
“Gray’s Anatomy” 27-th edition
Gray’s Atlas of Anatomy. Richard L.Drake, A.Wayne Vola, Adam V.M. Mitchell, Richard
M.Tibbitts, Paul E. Richardson. International Edition, 2008.
3. Frank H. Netter “Atlas of Human Anatomy”4-th Edition, 2006
4. Artur C.Guyton “Anatomy and Phyziology” Philadelphia, New York,Chicago, 1985
5. Romanes G.J. “Cunningham’s manual and practical anatomy”
Volume I “Upper and lower limbs”;
Volume II “Thorax and abdomen”;
Volume III “Head, neck and brain”
6. Gardner Ernest “A regional study of Human structure”
7. Heinz Fencis “Pocket atlas of Human anatomy”
8. James E. Angerson M.D. “Grant’s atlas of anatomy”
9. Wilhelm Firban, Roland Sehmield “Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy”
10. Yohaness Sobotta “Human anatomy ”, Munhen-Wien-Baltimor, Bonn, Germany, 1977
Methods of Teaching and Learning:
The discipline “Human Anatomy” is taught by using classical methodology: that is lectures and
practical classes. The theoretical course is taught on lectures by the course lecturers. At practical
classes, students together with their group teacher will study the preliminary made anatomical
preparations, will use drawings, molds, tables, will complete their notebooks for practical works
,will individually perform preparations on a subject, which will be shown to their colleagues later.
Suggestions for individual activity
Passive listening of course lectures is one of the least effective methods of learning, even in
case of using modern methods of teaching. Therefore , to achieve the goals a variety of methods of
learning are in need. Practical performing of any task is more efficient than just reading about how
to perform it, but it is even more efficient to teach others to do so. Those who wish to succeed in
learning Human Anatomy Course need to work with illustrative material insistently and actively.
Regarding the methodology of learning, the department will propose a few useful tips to follow:
1. At first it is necessary to get acquainted with the theme and subjects that you have to answer
using your notebooks for practical works.
2. Read carefully the material from the book , make notes.Try to formulate the key moments by
your own . Study diagrams and pictures from your books and notebooks. Apply your knowledge
on anatomical preparations. Answer the questions and tests written in the notebooks for
practical work. Think of the connection between the gained information and a human being.
3. Come to lectures and practical classes not only for presence! If you do so, there might be a little
probability that you’ll meet all the requirements. Write down carefully all the information at the
lectures, comprehend it thoroughly , always ask yourself if you understand what it is spoken
about and if the studied material corresponds to what you studied before and appreciate your
level of knowledge.
4. Remember! Teachers are happy when students ask questions on the subject. Participate in
conversations, put questions to the teacher, colleagues and yourself. This means that you try to
understand and process the taught material.
5. For a more productive study divide into groups of 2-3 students in order to meet regularly for
discussions on the material studied from lectures and practical classes, prepare for tests and
As a rule, working in small groups can help you get a more comprehensive, clearer and steady
understanding than working individually. In addition to, the ability to explain the learned
material to colleagues will develop memory and speech which are useful things for future.
6. Human Anatomy Discipline requires good knowledge from students. It should be mentioned
that it contains about 5000 terms, most of which need to be memorized. These requirements
imply a rational use of time, so you have to manage your time and find a reasonable balance
between the effort made for acquiring useful knowledge and other responsibilities to the social
and personal life. A deep knowledge of the discipline requires that each hour of work spent
directly with a teacher should be supplemented with 1-2 hours of individual study. Therefore,
for the sufficient acquirement of the discipline Human Anatomy students should work
individually for approximately 8-10 hours a week.
Methods of Evaluation
During two semesters of study of Human Anatomy there will be 5 assessments (formative
testing), as follows:
I semester:
Evaluation1- Osteology, Arthrosyndesmology, Myology.
Evaluation 2- Splanchnology and Endocrine system.
Evaluation 3 – Cardiovascular, Lymphatic, immune systems. Central and peripheral nervous
II semester
Evaluations 4 and 5 – Anatomy of the head and neck
So in this way, the formative testing consists of five assessments provided for two semesters.
Each test is marked separately with scoring from 0 to 10 and can be taken twice.
The average is formed by summing up the gained points from semester evaluations divided to
The tests include checking of assessed knowledge gained from practical work and theoretical
course on a specific chapter of study and include the demonstration and annotation of natural
anatomical preparations, the description and annotation of various schemes and drawings from the
notebooks for practical work.
On promotional exam in Human Anatomy (quarterly and annually) only the students who
scored 5.0 and more for the semester and who recovered all missed practical classes are admitted.
Students who have absences from lectures will be given additional questions discussed at course
Traditionally the exam ( the summative evaluation) in Human Anatomy consists of practical
and oral testing.
Stage I (practical test) includes the checking of students’ practical skills and their demonstration
of anatomical formations studied at practical classes. The testing is performed by using cards which
contain 10 questions. Three of them are underlined and are the most important ones for the
assessment. If the students do not know them they are not admitted to the second stage of the
exam – that is testing on theoretical knowledge. The demonstration or description of anatomical
parts begin immediately after the respondents draw out the exam card , without being given time
to prepare. When considering the answers to the exam questions, the examiner receives a special
file where the points for each answer are fixed as well as the total amount of points.
Stage II (oral test) consists of the oral checking up of theoretical knowledge and it iscarried out
in the presence of two examiners. The exam cards contain 3 different tasks, studied during the
semester at lectures and practical classes. The evaluation of theoretical knowledge shall be
performed in accordance with the total number of points received from those three topics marked
with grades from 0 to 10.
The subjects for the exams (the Ist and IInd stage) are approved at the chair meeting and are
announced to students at the beginning of the semester.
The general mark is decided according to three factors: semester medium mark (with 0,5
coefficient), practical test ( Ist stage) – coefficient 0,2 and oral test (IInd stage) with the coefficient
0,3. The knowledge evaluation is appreciated with marks from 10 to 1, (without decimals) as
- mark 10 or “excellent” (equivalent ECTS-A) will be offered for the assessment of 91-100% of
the material;
mark 9 or ”very good” (equivalent ECTS-B) will be offered for the assessment of 81-90% of
the material;
mark 8 or “good” (equivalent ECTS-C) will be offered for the assessment of 71-80% of the
mark 6 and 7 or “satisfactory” (equivalent ECTS-D) will be offered for the assessment of 6165% and 66-70% of the material;
mark 5 or “weak” (equivalent ECTS-E) will be offered for the assessment of 51-60% of the
marks 3 and 4 (equivalent ECTS-FX) will be offered for the assessment of 31-40% and
respectively 41-50% of the material;
marks 1 and 2 “unsatisfactory” (equivalent ECTS-F) will be offered for the assessment of 030% of the material;
The absence at the exam without any reason means “absent” and is equivalent to “0”(zero).
The student is allowed to pass the exam twice.
Language of teaching:
Romanian, Russian, English
Related flashcards
Blood cells

15 Cards

Body fluids

27 Cards

Plant anatomy

13 Cards


21 Cards

Create flashcards