# es midterm study guide 2010

```*remember this is an outline – study your notes, review book and know how to use the ESRT!
MEASUREMENT/LAB/INTRO:
 measurements in metric
system (mm, mL, C°
etc…)
 how to measure volume
mass (triple beam
balance), temperature
(thermometer)
 density = mass/volume
 density of water = 1
g/mL
 percent error =
(measured value – accepted
value / accepted value X 100)
 latitude = ° N, °S
 longitude = ° E, °W
 Geology: the study of
the Earth’s surface
(rocks) and interior
 Astronomy: the study of
the universe that the
Earth is a part of
 Meteorology: the study
of weather and the
Earth’s atmosphere
 Oceanography: the
study of the Earth’s
oceans
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 page 1 for equations
 page 1 is also a ruler!
 Page 13 –
thermometer/temp.
conversions
PROPERTIES OF EARTH –
SHAPE, SIZE, LOCATION OF
POLARIS:
 Earth smaller than Jupiter,
Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
 Know the shape of the
Earth mostly from pictures
from outer space
 Earth is not perfectly round
– oblate spheroid, slightly
flatter at the poles, slightly
bulges at the equator
 Also know rounded shape
from position of stars,
 Polaris – North Star; angle
to Polaris is the latitude the
observer is standing at
 At the equator, Polaris is
low in the sky – At the
North Pole, Polaris is
directly above (90° angle)
 Locations in NY see Polaris
between a 41 – 45° angle!
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 page 2,3 for NYS locations
 page 4 to remember shape
of Earth – the picture
shows an Earth that is not
perfectly rounded!
4 MAIN SYSTEMS OF THE
EARTH:
 lithosphere: all the
rocks, continents,
mountains
 two kinds of crust:
oceanic (mostly basalt)
and continental (mostly
granite)





hydrosphere: all the
oceans, lakes, rivers,
water
97% of water on Earth is
salt water
atmosphere: the gas
cloud surrounding the
planet
protectors earth from
mostly oxygen and
nitrogen

biosphere: everything
living

Earth mostly composed of
oxygen and silicon

Atmosphere mostly
nitrogen (78%), and
oxygen (21%)o
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 page 10 reminds that
lithosphere = crust
 page 11 chemical makeup
of crust (lithosphere),
hydrosphere (water), and
troposphere (part of
atmosphere)
 page 14 layers and
properties of the
atmosphere
MAPPING THE EARTH:
 cartography = map
making



Latitude  N°, S°
0° = equator, separates
Earth into North and
South hemispheres
The North & South poles
are at 90° N and S


Longitude  E°, W°
0° = prime meridian, runs
through Greenwich,
England, separates Earth
into East and West
hemispheres

Solar time = the time
determined by the sun /
solar noon = when the
sun is at the highest
altitude
In the western hemi its
earlier than Greenwich, in
the east its later, ex: if its
noon where you live, and
5:00pm in Greenwich,
you are 5 hours away, to
the west!
International dateline –
when you cross going
west (ex: from Hawaii to
(Sunday in Hawaii 
Monday in Australia) if
you’re moving east,
(Australia  Hawaii) go a
day behind


TOPOGRAPHIC MAPS:
 contour lines: show
elevation differences
 contour intervals: the
distance between each
contour line
elevation /distance
 isotherms = areas of same
temperature
 connect areas of same
value
 CONTOUR LINES NEVER
SHOULD CROSS
 Lines going inward
(hachures) show a
depression (ex: volcano)
 Topographic profiles  find
the elevation of all the
points that cross the line,
then mark the dots on the
graph lines and connect
them!

contour lines point up
stream!
MINERALS:
 atom = smallest part of
matter (anything with size
and volume)
 element = pure
substance that can’t be
broken down
 parts of an atom: nucleus
= center, protons (+) and
neutrons (0) in nucleus,
electrons (-) orbit around
natural materials, they
occur naturally, have
definite chemical
composition, are solid,
have atoms arranged in
orderly patterns
meaning no
plants/animals involved
 many form from melting
material in the earth
 some occur when liquid
containing dissolved ions
evaporates, leaving the
minerals behind
 ID Tests: color, streak,
crystal shape, cleavage,
fracture, Moh’s scale of
hardness, acid test (for
calcium carbonate),
magnetism, taste, odor,
specific gravity
(light/heavy)
silicon & oxygen
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 back page of reference
ROCKS:
bound together
 the way they are formed
determines the type of
rock
 3 types – igneous,
sedimentary,
metamorphic











igneous: form from
solidification of magma
crystal size and texture;
cooling slow crystals will
grow
intrusive (under ground),
extrusive (above ground)
mafic = dark, felsic =
light
Sedimentary: form from
compaction and
cementation of sediments
may form in layers
some have organic
material (limestone may
have shells or fossils)
Metamorphic: rocks
that have undergone
change from heat and
pressure
Makes rocks more dense
May show foliation
(layers) and distortion
Rock cycle: rocks can
change through melting,
heat, pressure etc… see
reference tables!
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 Page 6 – rock cycle
 Page 6 – igneous
 Page 6 – particle size
 Page 7 – sedimentary
 Page 7 - metamorphic
EARTH’S LAYERS:
 inner core  outer core 
mantle  (asthenosphere)
 crust





inner core = iron, nickel /
solid
outer core = probably iron,
liquidy – known because S
waves won’t go through
mantle = plastic like,
magma molten material
crust = lithosphere
Moho - boundary
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 page 10 – all answers for
the composition of the
earth are on page 10!!
EARTHQUAKES:
 happen along plate
boundaries/faults
 point in earth where it
occurs = focus
 point above focus =
epicenter
 p waves = primary, first
to arrive, compressional
push pull, travel through
everything
 s waves = side to side,
secondary waves, second
to arrive
 can’t travel through
liquids or gases

difference in arrival time
of p and s waves =
distance from earth
quake

magnitude = how
damaging earthquake is,
every earthquake gets 1
intensity = how you feel
it, can be different, will
be more intense closer to
the epicenter

ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 Page 11 – travel time of P
and S waves
PLATE TECTONICS:
 Wegner’s theory –
continents were all once
together (Pangea) but are
separating
 Evidence: Mesosaur
fossils, rock formations,
dating
 Earth’s surface is
dozen large moving
plates and many smaller
ones
 Meet at boundaries /
convergent – coming
together / subduction
zone – ocean plate goes
under continental plate /
transform – one slides
past another / divergent
– moving apart
 Mid Atlantic Ridge – rift
– rocks closest to the
center of the ridge are
younger – they get older
as you move further away
(on either side – this is
symmetrical) / show
polarities in the rocks –
“frozen in time”, normal
polarity is NPole (+),
SPole (-) , in times of
reverse polarity NPole (–)
and SPole was (+)
 Convection drives plate
movement – magma in
the asthenosphere
 Hot spot – movement of
a plate over a constant
source of magma – found
central to a plate, not on
a boundary, creates
island chains (Hawaii), or
natural phenomenon like
geysers (Yellowstone)
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 Page 5 – Tectonic Plates
WEATHERING:
 chemical and physical
processes that change the
characteristics of rocks on
the Earth’s surface
 environment of a rock must
change / be exposed
 occurs when rocks are
exposed to the hydrosphere
(water) and atmosphere
(air).
 Physical weathering occurs
when rocks are broken in to
smaller pieces without
changing the chemical
composition of the rock
 Frost action/ice
wedging is the breakup of
rock caused by the freezing
and thawing (contracting
and expansion) of water
 Plant action is break up of
rock from plant roots
 Abrasion is the physical
wearing down of rocks as
they rub or bounce against
each other
 Exfoliation is the peeling
away of large sheets of
loosened materials at the
surface of a rock.
 Chemical weathering occurs
when a rock is broken down
by chemical action resulting
in a change in the
composition of a rock
 Oxidation occurs when
oxygen
 Hydration occurs when
water interacts
 Carbonation occurs when
carbon dioxide interacts
chemically with minerals.
When carbon dioxide is
dissolved in water, it forms
weak carbonic acid.
WEATHERING RATES AND
SOIL:
 Rocks weather into
sediments: boulders,
cobbles, pebbles, sand,
silt, clay, and colloids
 major products of
weathering is soil
 soil is a combination of
particles of rocks,
minerals, and organic
matter produced through
weathering processes
 result of the weathering
processes and biologic
activity, soil horizons
(layers) form
 climate effects
weathering – heat and
availability of water speed
up chemical weathering
 chemical happens most
rapidly in warm, moist
climates / physical
happens more in colder
climates with varying
temperatures
 harder minerals resist
weathering (ex: quartz,
feldspar) so they are
found in sediments
 smaller particles weather
faster – more surface
area coming into contact
with the weather
ESRT PAGES TO HELP:
 page 6 – relationship of
transpored particle size to
water velocity
 remember – also gives
range of particle sizes for
each sediment!
Vocabulary / Key Terms:
Intro/Measures
Earth Layers /Topo Maps
Weathering
density
inference
instrument
mass
measurement
observation
percent deviation
prediction
rate of change
volume
atmosphere
contour line
coordinate system
crust
depression
elevation
equator
field
hachures
hydrosphere
isobars
isoline
isotherms
latitude
lithosphere
longitude
meridian
model
ozone layer
pauses (atmosphere)
prime meridian
profile
topographic map
abrasion
boulder
carbonation
chemical weathering
cobble
exfoliation
frost wedging
hydration
Quakes/Tectonics asthenosphere
continental crust
convergent plate boundary
divergent plate boundary
earthquake
epicenter
fault
focus
hot spot
lithosphere
mantle
mercali scale
mid ocean ridge
moho
oceanic crust
p waves
plate tectonic theory
richter scale
s waves
seismogram
seismograph
tectonic plate
transform boundary
tsunami
uplift
volcano
Rocks/Minerals
banding
bioclastic
cementation
clastic
cleavage
contact metamorphism
crystal shape
crystal structure
crystalline
extrusive
foliation
fossil
fracture
hardness
igneous
inorganic
oxidation
physical weathering
plant action
sediment
soil
soil horizons
stream abrasion
intrusive
intrusive
luster
magma
metamorphic
metamorphism
mineral
mineral alignment
organic
precipitation (of minerals)
regional metamorphism
rock cycle
sedimentary
streak
texture
vesicular
```
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