Passage 1
Dada and Pop Art
Dada was a subversive movement in the arts that flourished mainly
in France, Switzerland, and Germany from 1916 to 1923. Dada was based
on the principles of deliberate irrationality and anarchy. It
rejected laws of beauty and social organization and attempted to
discover authentic reality through the destruction of traditional
culture and aesthetic forms. The movement's founders included the
French artist Jean Arp and the writers Tristan Tzara and Hugo Ball.
At a meeting of young artists in 1916 in Zurich, one of them inserted
a paper knife into a French-German dictionary. The knife pointed to
the word dada, a French baby-talk word for a hobbyhorse, which the
group saw as an appropriate term for their anti-art.
Dada emerged from despair over the First World War and disgust
for the conservative values of society. Dada was the first expression
of protest against the war.
Dadaists used absurdity to create
artworks that mocked society yet defied intellectual analysis, such
as the use of "found" objects in sculptures and installations.
The forerunner of the Dadaists, and ultimately their leading
member, was Marcel Duchamp, who in 1913 created his first "readymade", the Bicycle Wgeel, consisting of a wheel mounted on the seat
of a stool. In his effort to discourage aesthetics, Duchamp shocked
the art establishment with these ready-mades--manufactured objects
that he selected and exhibited--including a bottle rack and a comb.
The Dada movement extended to literature and music and became
international after the war.
In the United States the movement
was centered in New York City. Dadaists on both sides of the Atlantic
had one goal in common: to demolish current aesthetic standards.
Fifty years after the Dadaists, another generation of artists
reacted to the standards and values of society. However, instead of
rejecting ordinary things, the young artists of the Pop movement of
the 1960s embraced them. Pop artists were curious about the
commercial media of ads, billboards, newsprint, television, and all
aspects of popular culture. Thus, the barrier between "high" and
"low" art collapsed, which the Dadaists had aimed for and the Pop
artists attained with an energy not seen before.
Pop art received its name from critic Lawrence Alloway, who
considered Pop to be the culture of the mass media, photographs, and
posters--a style that must be popular, transitory, and witty. The
subject matter of Pop art was derivative, depicting something that
had already been published or produced, such as comic strips, softdrink bottles, and photographs of movie stars. Pop art caught on
quickly; it was art about mass consumption that was eagerly consumed
by the masses.
The most popular of the Pop artists was the painter Roy
Lichtenstein. Lichtenstein painted enlarged copies of the least
"arty" things he could find: romance and adventure comic strips. He
was the first American artist to react to comic strips, finding
beauty in these crude designs, along with a distinct sense of style.
Lichtenstein also painted other pictorial styles, including blowups
of other artists' brushstrokes and parodies of Cubism and Art Deco.
Andy Warhol, more than any other Pop artist, took on the mindnumbing overload of American mass culture. Warhol began his career as
a commercial illustrator, and in 1962 he had his first exhibition in
an art gallery, where he showed his 32 Campbell's Soup Cans. The
thirty-two soup cans are about sameness: same brand, same size, same
paint surface, and same fame. They mimic the condition of mass
advertising. All of Warhol's work flowed from one central insight:
mass culture is filled with images that become meaningless by being
repeated again and again, and in this glut of information is a role
for art. Warhol felt this and embodied it. He conveyed a collective
state of mind in which celebrity--a famous brand name or the image of
a famous person--had completely replaced sacredness in art.
anarchy: absence of any form of authority; disorder; confusion
aesthetic: relating to beauty; artistic
1. According to the passage, the main goal of the Dada movement
was to ______.
A. stimulate public interest in art
B. change the goals of art education
C. destroy traditional standards of art
D. make mass media the subject of art
2. The author mentions a "hobby-horse" in paragraph 1 in order to
A. explain the origin of the name "Dada"
B. illustrate how Dadaists created art
C. compare art to a children's game
D. give an example of a "ready-made"
3. According to the passage, one way in which the Dadaists mocked
society was by ______.
A. refusing to fight in the First World War
B. writing plays about social class
C. using "found" objects in works of art
D. criticizing the commercial media
4. The word "forerunner" in paragraph 2 is closest in meaning to
A. leading writer B. earliest artist
C. main critic D. fastest runner
5. The passage gives all of the following as examples of "readymades" EXCEPT ______.
A. a bicycle wheel B. a bottle rack
C. a soup can D. a comb
6. The word "them" in paragraph 3 refers to ______.
A. the Dadaists B. standards and values
C. ordinary things D. the young artists
7. It can be inferred from paragraph 3 that the Pop artists
A. reacted against the Dada movement
B. were more popular than the Dadaists
C. criticized art for being too commercial
D. succeeded in changing ideas about art
8. Which sentence below best expresses the essential information
in the highlighted sentence in paragraph 4? Incorrect choices change
the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.
A. Pop art could be produced and consumed more quickly than any
other mass media.
B. The public enthusiastically accepted Pop art, which portrayed
commercial Culture.
C. The mass media quickly reached large audiences, thus
influencing attitudes about art.
D. Large numbers of people bought Pop art, even though they could
not understand it.
9. Which artist created works based on other styles and the work
of other artists?
A. Marcel Duchamp. B. Lawrence Alloway.
C. Roy Lichtenstein. D. Andy Warhol.
10. The phrase "took on" in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to
A. hated B. was afraid of
C. invented D. responded to
11. The word "glut" in paragraph 6 is closest in meaning to
A. excess B. definition C. fear D. absence
12. Look at the four squares,
, and
, which
indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Where would the sentence best fit?
Whereas the visual arts had previously ignored current events,
Dadaists reacted to the crisis and accused society of allowing it to
A. Square A. B. Square B. C. Square C. D. Square D.
13. Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and
match them to the art movement that they describe. TWO of the answer
choices will NOT be used. This question is worth 4 points.
Pop Art
Answer Choices
[A] Reflected the mass media of advertising, newsprint, and
[B] Was an anti-art movement in the visual arts, literature and
[C] Focused on transitory impressions and the changing effects of
[D] Depicted things that had already been produced in other media
[E] Originated as a protest against the First World War
[F] Found beauty in comic strips and other images from popular
[G] Emphasized the act of creating art over the finished work of
[H] Used "found" objects and "ready-mades" in works of art
[I] Created art out of famous brand names and images of famous
Passage 2
Eric Carle
Eric Carle is acclaimed and beloved as the creator of brilliantly
illustrated and innovatively designed picture books for very young
children. Carle's books utilize bold color and innovative techniques
to try and stimulate a child's imagination in order to facilitate the
child's transition from home to school. The Very Hungry Caterpillar,
for example, is designed with scalloped holes through the pages to
demonstrate how a caterpillar eats through different materials. This
book has eaten its way into the hearts of literally millions of
children all over the world and has been translated into more than 30
languages and sold over 22 million copies. Since the Caterpillar was
published in 1969, Erie Carle has illustrated more than seventy books,
many best sellers, most of which he also wrote, and more than 71
million copies of his books have sold around the world.
Born in Syracuse, New York, in 1929, Eric Carle moved with his
parents to Germany when he was six years old; he was educated there,
and graduated from the prestigious art school, the Akademie der
Bildenden Kunste, in Stuttgart.
But his dream was always to return
to America, the land of his happiest childhood memories.
So, in
1952, with a fine portfolio in hand and forty dollars in his pocket,
he arrived in New York.
Later, he was the art director of an
advertising agency for many years.
One day, respected educator and author, Bill Martin Jr., called
to ask Carle to illustrate a story he had written. Martin's eye had
been caught by a striking picture of a red lobster that carle had
created for an advertisement. Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See?
was the result of their collaboration. It is still a favorite with
children everywhere. This was the beginning of Eric Carle's true
career. Soon Carle was writing his own stories, too. His first wholly
original book was 1, 2, 3 to the Zoo, followed soon afterward by the
celebrated classic, The Very Hungrg Caterpillar.
Eric Carle's art is distinctive and instantly recognizable. His
art work is created in collage technique, using hand-painted papers,
which he cuts and layers to form bright, and cheerful images. Many of
his books have an added dimension-die-cut pages, twinkling lights as
in The Very Lonely Firefly, even the lifelike sound of a cricket's
song as in The Very Quiet Cricket-- giving them a playful quality: a
toy that can be read, a book that can be touched. Children also enjoy
working in collage and many send him pictures they have made
themselves, inspired by his illustrations. He receives hundreds of
letters each week from his young admirers. The secret of Eric Carle's
books' appeal lies in his intuitive understanding of and respect for
children, who sense in him instinctively someone who shares their
most cherished thoughts and emotions.
The themes of his stories are usually drawn from his extensive
knowledge and love of nature and interest shared by most small
children. Besides being beautiful and entertaining, his books always
offer the child the opportunity to learn something about the world
around them. It is his concern for children, for their feelings and
their inquisitiveness, for their creativity and their intellectual
growth that, in addition to his beautiful artwork, makes the reading
of his books such a stimulating and lasting experience.
Carle says: "With many of my books I attempt to bridge the gap
between the home and school. To me home represents, or should
represent; warmth, security, toys, holding hands, being held. School
is a strange and new place for a child. Will it be a happy place?
There are new people, a teacher, classmates-will they be friendly? I
believe the passage from home to school is the second biggest trauma
of childhood; the first is, of course, being born. Indeed, in both
cases we leave a place of warmth and protection for one that is
unknown. The unknown often brings fear with it. In my books I try to
counteract this fear, to replace it with a positive message. I
believe that children are naturally creative and eager to learn. I
want to show them that learning is really both fascinating and fun."
Caterpillar: the wormlike, often brightly colored, hairy or spiny
larva of a butterfly or moth
14. In the passage, the word "bold" is closest in meaning to
A. boldface B. abrupt C. diffident D. distinct
15. According to the passage, what is special about the book The
Very Hungry Caterpillar?
A. It is beautifully illustrated with pictures of lovely
caterpillars eating different materials.
B. It has holes in it to show the way the caterpillars eat.
C. It has many holes in it to show how the caterpillars can eat
different materials.
D. It is a three-dimension book to attract the young readers.
16. Look at the four squares,
, which
indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Where would the sentence best fit?
Soon he found a job as a graphic designer in the promotion
department of The New York Times.
A. Square A. B. Square B.
C. Square C. D. Square D.
17. The word "it" in the passage refers to ______.
A. Brown Bear, Brown Bear, What Do You See
B. Brown bear
C. their collaboration
D. advertisement
18. All of the following statements about Bill Martin Jr. are
true EXCEPT ______.
A. He wrote a story about a brown bear
B. As a respected educator and author, he created a red lobster
for an advertisement
C. He cooperated with Carle and produced a book Brown Bear, Brown
Bear, What Do You See
D. He was interested in Carle's illustrations and collaborated
with him
19. In paragraph 4, the author implies that when Carle created
his books, he ______.
A. tried to think in the way that children do
B. produced the books by hand
C. was inspired by the illustrations that the children made
D. cooperated with small kids to make his books more interesting
20. The word "cherished" in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. treasured B. lovely C. naive D. interesting
21. According to the passage, what do Carle and small children
share in common?
A. They have experienced the same experience in childhood.
B. They all long for extensive knowledge and hope to learn more.
C. They all like illustrated books and beautiful artwork.
D. They are all interested in nature and love nature.
22. Which of the following sentences best expresses the essential
information in the sentence below? Incorrect answer choices omit
important information or change the meaning of the original sentence
in an important way.
It is his concern for children, for their feelings and their
inquisitiveness, for their creativity and their intellectual growth
that, in addition to his beautiful artwork, makes the reading of his
books such a stimulating and lasting experience.
A. Carle's is concerned about the children and their intellectual
growth and children love reading his books.
B. Carle's concern for the children makes his books more
beautiful and ever- lasting.
C. It is enjoyable to read Carle's books due to his detailed
description about the children, and, their feelings, etc. , as well
as his artistic work.
D. Children love reading Carle's books because he cares about
their feelings.
23. The author quotes from Carle in order to ______.
A. encourage writers to do some research on child psychology.
B. prove that his books really reflect the drama of the children.
C. let the readers pay more attention to his books.
D. show Carle's motives behind the stories in his book.
24. The word "counteract" in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. make use of B. offset
C. put on stage D. recall
25. According to Eric Carle, what do being born and leaving home
for school have in common?
A. In both cases, the human beings suffer from trauma.
B. In both cases, the human beings are looking for warmth and
C. In both cases, the human beings have to face an unknown world.
D. In both cases, Eric Carle can find something to replace the
26. Directions: Below is an introductory sentence for a brief
summary of the passage. Complete the summary by writing the letters
of three of the answer choices that express the most important ideas
of the passage. Some of the answer choices are incorrect because they
express ideas that are not given in the passage or because they
express only details from the passage. This question is worth 2
Eric Carle is a brilliant illustrator for picture books for
small kids.
Answer Choices
[A] His books have been sold around the world and are still loved
by the small children.
[B] He was longing to return to America even though his attended
a prestigious school in Germany.
[C] His work experience in an advertising agency helped him to
focus on writing stories and illustrating for books.
[D] His concern for the children and their thoughts and emotions
appealed to small children and led to his success.
[E] He had extensive knowledge and he liked to collaborate with
Passage 3
Two Types of Social Groups
One of the most basic elements of human life is the way in which
we form social groups and interact with the members of those groups.
According to sociologists, no one is ever entirely separate from the
social networks that surround him or her, and the groups we belong to
play an enormous role in determining how we see ourselves and our
world. Early American sociologist Charles H. Cooley (1864~1929)
defined two principal categories of human groupings, and his ideas
are still widely accepted today. He termed them primary and secondary,
based on the kinds of relationships individuals in the group share
with each other.
In primary groups, we form what Cooley referred to as primary
relationships. These are marked by strong, long-lasting emotional
ties, feelings of intimacy and genuine concern for the well-being of
the other person or people. Intangible items, such as love, respect,
and support, are exchanged by individuals in primary groups, causing
them to feel nurtured by the relationships the group affords them.
Participation in the group is therefore seen as its own reward: there
is no concrete, external goal that members are working towards.
Due to the time and effort it takes to build such close bonds,
primary groups are typically small. Some prominent examples given by
Cooley include families, groups of childhood friends, and the tightknit communities adults enter into with their neighbors or other
close peers. In the view of Cooley and later sociologists, it is the
primary group that is most important in the development of an
individual's personal beliefs and values, and assists that person
with his or her integration into society at large.
Secondary groups, in contrast, are characterized by the lack of
intimate relationships among their members. These secondary
relationships involve less personal interaction and weaker emotional
connections, and therefore they do not have as significant an impact
on the development of an individual's worldview. In addition, since
ties between individuals are not as strong, many secondary groups
either exist for only a short time before dissolving, or experience
frequent changes in membership.
Secondary groups can be quite large. A company's employees, a
university's student body, and even a country's citizens are all
examples of secondary groups.
The items individuals exchange are
usually tangible in nature, such as the labor provided in return for
wages in the case of a commercial organization.
Most notably,
though, the reason that secondary groups form in the first place is
to accomplish a specific task.
Employees participate in the
secondary group of their company with the intention of creating a
product or service, as well as to receive pay.
If the group fails
to achieve its goal, it will most likely cease to exist.
Cooley believed that both primary and secondary groups are
universal to human societies. While modern sociologists agree with
this, they have also observed that the ratio of primary to secondary
groups varies according to the level of a society's technological
development. In less-developed nations, individuals spend most of
their lives in a single location with prolonged exposure to a certain
group of people. This enables them to develop close bonds more easily,
so primary groups are commonplace. Developed countries, on the other
hand, have witnessed an increase in secondary groups at the expense
of primary groups. The fast pace, widespread technology and diversity
of life in these societies make it harder for people to connect
emotionally with each other. Instead, innovations such as Internet
chat rooms and convenient transportation have expanded the number of
secondary groups that people in developed societies belong to.
While the effects of such a loss of primary groups is not yet
fully understood, some researchers believe it explains many of the
social problems faced by such societies. The role that primary
groups play in social and emotional development is so important that,
if traditional primary groups fail to provide individuals with an
environment in which they can experience this growth, they may seek
it elsewhere. The formation of street gangs, the use of illegal drugs,
and other detrimental lifestyles seen in developed societies may
represent failed attempts to fill the void left by the disappearance
of primary groups.
27. According to paragraph 1, how did Cooley differentiate
between primary and secondary groups? ______
A. By using definitions formulated by earlier American
B. By focusing on the types of interactions displayed by group
C. By assigning values to groups based on their role in personal
D. By comparing the types of roles they play in society.
28. It can be inferred from paragraph 2 that the typical primary
group ______.
A. cannot supply everything an individual needs to be happy
B. contains members that are emotionally healthy
C. remains together for a long period of time
D. does not encourage the formation of relationships outside the
29. The word "affords" in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. lends B. provides C. costs D. teaches
30. In paragraph 3, the author states that primary groups are
largely responsible for ______.
A. shaping how their members relate to their social environment
B. making sure societies work together towards a common goal
C. forming organizations that undertake community development
D. introducing new sets of beliefs and values to human society
31. The word "dissolving" in the passage is closest in meaning to
A. returning B. settling down
C. arguing D. breaking up
32. Why does the author mention labor and wages in paragraph 5?
A. To suggest that commercial entities are different from most
secondary groups.
B. To explain the reason why most secondary groups exist.
C. To contrast these resources with tangible items found in
secondary groups.
D. To characterize the nature of exchanges within secondary
33. According to paragraph 6, one similarity between primary and
secondary groups is that they both ______.
A. give rise to technological development
B. are absent in less-developed nations
C. can be observed in all kinds of societies
D. are essential to the health of societies
34. The word "them" in the passage refers to ______.
A. less-developed nations B. individuals
C. bonds D. primary groups
35. The phrase "at the expense of" in the passage is closest in
meaning to ______.
A. along with B. regardless of
C. among D. in place of
36. What can be inferred from paragraph 6 about a society with a
high level of technological advancement?
A. Its primary groups are concerned mainly with acquiring
material goods.
B. It is less common for people to commit to primary or secondary
C. It allows its citizens to join more primary groups than those
of other societies.
D. Its people form secondary groups more often than primary
37. Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential
information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect
choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential
A. The primary group, representing a safe and loving environment,
enables individuals to express themselves freely and grow emotionally.
B. Most of the traditional primary groups in a society are no
longer able to offer their members emotional well-being.
C. It cannot be overlooked that belonging to primary groups is a
necessary part of every individual's developmental processes.
D. Individuals will seek vital emotional fulfillment in other
social environments if their customary primary groups cannot supply
38. The word "detrimental" in the passage is closest in meaning
to ______.
A. harmful B. recent
C. diverse D. worrying
39. Look at the four squares,
, which
indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.
Where would the sentence best fit?
Similarly, individuals may join a community sports club with the
sole purpose of getting in shape or improving their athletic skills.
A. Square A. B. Square B. C. Square C. D. Square D.
40. Directions: Complete the table by matching the phrases below.
Select the appropriate phrases from the answer choices and match them
to the type of group to which they relate. TWO of the answer choices
will NOT be used. This question is worth 4 points.
Primary groups
Secondary groups
Answer Choices
[A] do not play an important role in forming a person's value
[B] increase in frequency as the average age of a society
[C] provide members with emotional support
[D] come together to pursue a common and clearly identified goal
[E] are more easily found in less-developed countries
[F] witness exchanges of items that cannot be quantified
[G] are often large but short-lived
[H] are responsible for a country's level of development
[I] exist more frequently in regions where people do not travel
Passage 1
1. C
2. A
3. C
4. B
5. C
6. C
7. D
8. B
9. C
10. C
11. A
12. A
13. B, E, H; A, D, F, I
Passage 2
14. D
15. B
16. C
17. A
18. B
19. A
20. A
21. D
22. C
23. D
24. B
25. C
26. A, C, D
Passage 3
27. B
28. C
29. B
30. A
31. D
32. D
33. C
34. B
35. D
36. D
37. D
38. A
39. D
40. C, E, F, I; A, D, G
Related flashcards
Systems theory

22 Cards


43 Cards

Social concepts

19 Cards

Create flashcards