Literature, Culture, and the Humanities --- The Iliad Mr. Wasilewski, Mrs. McHugh, and Mrs. Lulis A Study Guide and Review Questions for Book 22: “The Death of Hector” You should be able to: explain what’s happening in the fighting recognize Achilles’ attitude toward Apollo identify and explain at least one image, simile, and metaphor identify and explain at least one image, simile, or metaphor understand Priam’s hope for Hector and his thoughts about Achilles comprehend the significance of Greek thought about dying young and gloriously as opposed to dying of old age. identify and explain at least one image, simile, or metaphor explain what Hecuba is referring to in line 87 with the words “sweet branch” – of whom is she speaking, why is this metaphor an apt metaphor? appreciate why Hector can not fulfill Priam and Hecuba’s pleas thoroughly describe Hector’s many emotions focus on the adjectives used in lines 131-135 and to appreciate their effect recognize what the juxtaposition of the scenes of war and peace accomplish in this passage recognize the symbolism of the “race” metaphor consider who is watching the race and what prize is offered identify and explain at least one image, simile, or metaphor understand what decision Zeus wants the gods to make notice what goddess comes to Achilles’ assistance and why this is significant identify significant adjectives and verbs in lines 224-229 and to appreciate their impact on Homer’s story understand why Hector has survived as long as he has explain the significance of the scales of Zeus and to explain Apollo and Athena’s understand who Deiphobus really is look at the symbolic meaning of the name Deiphobus which translates as either “panic from the gods” or as “god-fearing” and to consider its psychological significance recognize why having Deiphobus at his side would restore Hector’s confidence clarify why in line 252 the word “spirit” is critical recognize what Hector offers as a pact and to recognize Achilles’ response understand the real reason why Achilles kills Hector offer play by play commentary of the battle between Achilles and Hector identify the two things Hector realizes explain Hector’s attitude towards death appreciate the images of armor that are presented know why it is significant at this time that Hector is wearing Achilles’ armor identify the significance of Achilles and Hector’s exchange in lines 390-424 understand the “internal armor” Hector accuses Achilles of wearing validate your reactions to the treatment of Hector’s dead body clarify Achilles’ true justification based upon what you learned in lines 385-390 Please note: I have had to vary the translations that I use for the Iliad, the page numbers may be an estimate and not an exact reference. Literature, Culture, and the Humanities --- The Iliad Mr. Wasilewski, Mrs. McHugh, and Mrs. Lulis explain whether the treatment Hector receives supports the Heroic Code of Ethics show what makes the final lines in this segment immediate and poignant recognize what else is being mourned in addition to the fall of Hector infer the relationship that existed between Priam and Hector understand why Priam’s lament is singular and private and why Hecuba’s lament is communal and public understand what is being said about Andromache by her weaving appreciate the comparison that is being made by Adromache’s loss of headdress, cap, and coronet realize the fears Andromache has for Astyanax as an orphan study Andromache’s response to what has happened to Hector and to see if her reaction colors your reaction to Achilles’ actions Interpreting Book 22: 1. Hector makes a fatal decision when he decides to stay outside the Scaean Gates. Explain how both divine and human causation bring about his decision. Support your thinking. 2. On his golden scale, Zeus places two portions of death, one for Achilles and one for Hector. Why do you think Hector’s portion is heavier? What does this image reveal about the Greek view of destiny, or the way life has to be? 3. Hector pleads with Achilles not to defile his corpse, but to give him his proper rite of burning. What does Achille’s refusal of Hector’s dying wish suggest about Achilles? In your opinion, what type of man has Achilles become? Explain and support your answer. 4. What does the act of dragging Hector’s body symbolize? Applying Book 22 Concepts to a New Situation 5. The ritual of burial helps the Trojans endure the unendurable. What rituals does society have today that help us bear human tragedy? Analyzing Literature—Recognizing and Interpreting Epic Similes The elaborate comparisons prevalent in Book 22 of The Iliad are epic similes. Homer compares certain characters and situations in The Iliad to objects or occurrences that his audience is familiar with, thus drawing them into the experience of the poem. Homeric similes enable both ancient and modern audiences to identify with the action taking place in the poem. 6. Find three epic similes in Book 22. Explain their comparisons, and tell, from your perspective, how they invite you to identify with the story. Please note: I have had to vary the translations that I use for the Iliad, the page numbers may be an estimate and not an exact reference. Literature, Culture, and the Humanities --- The Iliad Mr. Wasilewski, Mrs. McHugh, and Mrs. Lulis Please note: I have had to vary the translations that I use for the Iliad, the page numbers may be an estimate and not an exact reference.