A Study Guide and Review Questions for Book 22: “The Death of

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Literature, Culture, and the Humanities --- The Iliad
Mr. Wasilewski, Mrs. McHugh, and Mrs. Lulis
A Study Guide and Review Questions for Book 22: “The Death of
Hector”
You should be able to:
 explain what’s happening in the fighting
 recognize Achilles’ attitude toward Apollo
 identify and explain at least one image, simile, and metaphor
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identify and explain at least one image, simile, or metaphor
understand Priam’s hope for Hector and his thoughts about Achilles
comprehend the significance of Greek thought about dying young and gloriously
as opposed to dying of old age.
identify and explain at least one image, simile, or metaphor
explain what Hecuba is referring to in line 87 with the words “sweet branch” – of
whom is she speaking, why is this metaphor an apt metaphor?
appreciate why Hector can not fulfill Priam and Hecuba’s pleas
thoroughly describe Hector’s many emotions
focus on the adjectives used in lines 131-135 and to appreciate their effect
recognize what the juxtaposition of the scenes of war and peace accomplish in
this passage
recognize the symbolism of the “race” metaphor
consider who is watching the race and what prize is offered
identify and explain at least one image, simile, or metaphor
understand what decision Zeus wants the gods to make
notice what goddess comes to Achilles’ assistance and why this is significant
identify significant adjectives and verbs in lines 224-229 and to appreciate their
impact on Homer’s story
understand why Hector has survived as long as he has
explain the significance of the scales of Zeus and to explain Apollo and Athena’s
understand who Deiphobus really is
look at the symbolic meaning of the name Deiphobus which translates as either
“panic from the gods” or as “god-fearing” and to consider its psychological
significance
recognize why having Deiphobus at his side would restore Hector’s confidence
clarify why in line 252 the word “spirit” is critical
recognize what Hector offers as a pact and to recognize Achilles’ response
understand the real reason why Achilles kills Hector
offer play by play commentary of the battle between Achilles and Hector
identify the two things Hector realizes
explain Hector’s attitude towards death
appreciate the images of armor that are presented
know why it is significant at this time that Hector is wearing Achilles’ armor
identify the significance of Achilles and Hector’s exchange in lines 390-424
understand the “internal armor” Hector accuses Achilles of wearing
validate your reactions to the treatment of Hector’s dead body
clarify Achilles’ true justification based upon what you learned in lines 385-390
Please note: I have had to vary the translations that I use for the Iliad, the page numbers may be an estimate
and not an exact reference.
Literature, Culture, and the Humanities --- The Iliad
Mr. Wasilewski, Mrs. McHugh, and Mrs. Lulis
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explain whether the treatment Hector receives supports the Heroic Code of Ethics
show what makes the final lines in this segment immediate and poignant
recognize what else is being mourned in addition to the fall of Hector
infer the relationship that existed between Priam and Hector
understand why Priam’s lament is singular and private and why Hecuba’s lament
is communal and public
understand what is being said about Andromache by her weaving
appreciate the comparison that is being made by Adromache’s loss of headdress,
cap, and coronet
realize the fears Andromache has for Astyanax as an orphan
study Andromache’s response to what has happened to Hector and to see if her
reaction colors your reaction to Achilles’ actions
Interpreting Book 22:
1. Hector makes a fatal decision when he decides to stay outside the Scaean Gates.
Explain how both divine and human causation bring about his decision. Support
your thinking.
2. On his golden scale, Zeus places two portions of death, one for Achilles and one
for Hector. Why do you think Hector’s portion is heavier? What does this image
reveal about the Greek view of destiny, or the way life has to be?
3. Hector pleads with Achilles not to defile his corpse, but to give him his proper rite
of burning. What does Achille’s refusal of Hector’s dying wish suggest about
Achilles? In your opinion, what type of man has Achilles become? Explain and
support your answer.
4. What does the act of dragging Hector’s body symbolize?
Applying Book 22 Concepts to a New Situation
5.
The ritual of burial helps the Trojans endure the unendurable. What rituals does
society have today that help us bear human tragedy?
Analyzing Literature—Recognizing and Interpreting Epic Similes
The elaborate comparisons prevalent in Book 22 of The Iliad are epic similes. Homer
compares certain characters and situations in The Iliad to objects or occurrences that his
audience is familiar with, thus drawing them into the experience of the poem. Homeric
similes enable both ancient and modern audiences to identify with the action taking place
in the poem.
6.
Find three epic similes in Book 22. Explain their comparisons, and tell, from
your perspective, how they invite you to identify with the story.
Please note: I have had to vary the translations that I use for the Iliad, the page numbers may be an estimate
and not an exact reference.
Literature, Culture, and the Humanities --- The Iliad
Mr. Wasilewski, Mrs. McHugh, and Mrs. Lulis
Please note: I have had to vary the translations that I use for the Iliad, the page numbers may be an estimate
and not an exact reference.
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