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Archimedes Archimedes was born about 287 B.C in Syracuse. He was a Greek mathematician and inventor. His father was an astronomer. Archimedes invented machines. The most important of these machines was the screw pump, which uses a screw to lift water from one place to another. He explained why levers worked, and he worked on getting a more accurate number for pi. Pi is a number that is approximately equal to 3.14. It is the number you get if you divide the circumference of any circle by its diameter. It's the same for all circles. Usually in math we write “pi” with the Greek letter π, which is the letter "p" in Greek. You pronounce it "pie", like apple pie. It is called “pi” because π is the first letter of the Greek word "perimetros" or perimeter. The legend says that Archimedes invented a large solar mirror to set fire to Roman ships attacking Syracuse, Sicily. He also invented the catapult. Archimedes was interested in big numbers. One day, he he decided to find how many grains of sand it would take to fill the universe. First, he counted how much sand it would take to make up a poppy seed. Then, he counted how many seeds 1 would equal the size of a man’s finger. Next, he calculated how many fingers it would take to fill a stadium. Archimedes continued and found this answer: This was not the true answer but Archimedes found an easy way to write large numbers. Archimedes died in 212 B.C., when the Romans were conquering Syracuse; a Roman soldier killed him. 2 Answer Where was Archimedes born? a) b) c) d) In Syracuse, Italy In Athens, Greece In Samos, Greece In Macedonia, Greece What was his job? a) b) c) d) A teacher A mathematician and inventor A soldier A doctor What did he use to set fire to the Roman ships? a) b) c) d) Oil Petrol A solar mirror Matches What is a “pi”? a) b) c) d) The circle’s radius A number that is approximately equal to 3.14. The circle’s diameter The circle’s circumference “Pi” comes from the Greek word a) b) c) d) Perimeter Perivoli Periferia Periergia Archimedes explained why ___________work a) b) c) d) Screws Levers Circles Mirrors 3 Glossary 1. Inventor=εφευρέτης 2. Invent=εφευρίσκω 3. Machine=μηχανή (μασίν) 4. Astronomer=αστρονόμος 5. Conquer=κατακτώ (κόνκερ) 6. Soldier=στρατιώτης (σόλτζερ) 7. Solar=ηλιακός 8. Set fire to=βάζω φωτιά σε 9. Attack=επιτίθεμαι 10. Divide=διαιρώ (ντιβάιντ) 11. Circumference=περίμετρος (σερκάμφερανς) 12. Radius=ακτίνα (ρέιντιους) 13. Diameter=διάμετρος (ντάιμιτερ) 14. Legend=θρύλος 15. Screw=βίδα (σκριου) Vocabulary exercise 1. Someone who invents things is an _______________ 2. Write the correct word 3. In this photo, Archimedes is holding a ____________mirror 4. The _____________says that Archimedes set fire to the Roman ships. 5. Pi is the number you get if you ___________the Circumference of any circle by its diameter. 6. A ____________killed Archimedes. 7. The 3rd picture shows a ___________. 4 Answer Where was Archimedes born? e) f) g) h) In Syracuse, Italy In Athens, Greece In Samos, Greece In Macedonia, Greece What was his job? e) f) g) h) A teacher A mathematician and inventor A soldier A doctor What did he use to set fire to the Roman ships? e) f) g) h) Oil Petrol A solar mirror Matches What is a “pi”? e) f) g) h) The circle’s radius A number that is approximately equal to 3.14. The circle’s diameter The circle’s circumference “Pi” comes from the Greek word e) f) g) h) Perimeter Perivoli Periferia Periergia Archimedes explained why ___________work e) f) g) h) Screws Levers Circles Mirrors 5 My name:_________________________ 6 7