Blood Assignment 11.1 THE COMPOSITION AND FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD 1. A blood sample will separate into 2 layers: the lower layer which consists of the _______formed elements________ and the upper layer called the _____plasma________. 2. The 3 major categories of blood functions are ____transport_______, ______defense_________, and _______regulation_____________. Examples of substances that are transported by blood are___nutrients (glucose, amino acids), waste products (urea, carbon dioxide), oxygen, hormones, chemical messengers______________. Blood plays a defensive role in the body by defending against ____________infection_________________ and ___________loss of blood__________________________. Examples of variables that are regulated by blood are ___heat, salt-water balance, and body pH_______________________________________________________. 11.2 COMPONENTS OF BLOOD 1. The liquid portion of the blood is known as __________plasma_____________, and it consists mainly of _______water______________. The remaining part is made up of ______salts_____________ and ___organic molecules___________. The plasma proteins include __________albumins______________ which play a major role in maintaining osmotic pressure, ___________globulins______________ which are important in defense against infection, and ________fibrinogen_________ and ______prothrombin__________ which are important in blood clotting. Most plasma proteins are produced by the __________liver____________. 2. The formed elements consist of ____blood cells________ and ________platelets_______. All formed elements are made by the process of _______hematopoiesis__________ which occurs in the ____red bone marrow______________. 3. Red blood cells (RBCs) or ______erythrocytes____________, are essential for the transport of ____oxygen______. They contain the protein called _______hemoglobin_____________ which consists of 4 chains of amino acids and heme, which contains the metal ____________iron_______________. Oxygen binds to the _____heme______ portion of the hemoglobin molecule. RBCs are described as anucleate meaning that they lack a ____nucleus_________. 4. White blood cells (WBCs) or _____leukocytes________, differ from RBCs in many ways including: They are larger and have a nucleus. They are colorless because they do not contain hemoglobin. They serve different functions. They are able to leave the blood vessels and are found in other tissues, while red blood cells are confined to the blood vessels. White blood cells can be classified as granulocytes which include the _____ neutrophils______, ____ eosinophils_____, and ___________ basophils ________. Agranulocytes are the ____monocytes_______ and _______lymphocytes_____________. Make sure that you know the general functions of each of the types of white blood cells. Neutrophils-___fight infection, carry out phagocytosis______________________________________________________ Eosinophils -____play a role in parasitic infection and allergic reactions________________________________________ Basophils -______play a role in allergic reactions and inflammation__________________________________________ Monocytes -_____become macrophage which destroy pathogens, old cells and cellular debris_____________________ Lymphocytes -____produce antibodies, play a role in defense against infection and in immunity____________________ 11.3 PLATELETS AND HEMOSTASIS 1. Platelets, also known as __________thrombocytes_______________, are necessary for the process of __________hemostasis_________________which is the stopping of bleeding. The 3 major steps involved in stopping bleeding are _______vascular spasm______, then _______platelet plug formation_______, and finally ________coagulation (clotting)______.