AP Biology Test Study Guid

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AP Biology Test Study Guide
Science as a Process
 Understand how to design a scientific experiment (variables, controls, hypotheses, etc.)
 How scientists share data, and use one another’s data
Evolution
 Evidence for evolution: fossil record, biogeography, comparative embryology, comparative
anatomy, DNA
 Darwin’s Theory
 Natural Selection: Disruptive, Stabilizing, Directional;
 Genetic Variation and its role in evolution.
 Genetic Equilibrium and the Hardy-Weinberg formula (p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1)
 Phylogenetic Trees, common ancestry
 Causes of Mircoevolution and sources of genetic variation, genetic drift (founders effect,
bottleneck), natural selection, gene flow, mutation, sexual selection (inter/intra), outpreeding,
diploidy, heterozygote advantage,
 Patterns of evolution: coevolution, convergent, divergent, parallel
 Reproductive isolation: prezygotic vs. postzygotic barriers (habitat, mechanical, behavioral, etc.)
 Speciation: Allopatric vs Sympatric
 The origin of life on Earth
Ecology
 Population Density/Distribution: Types of dispersion, survivorship curves
 Carrying capacity, limiting factors (density dependent vs. independent)
 Population growth formula and patterns
 Ecological niche, resource partitioning, character displacement, realized vs fundamental niche
 Competitive Exclusion Principle
 Energy flow: food chains vs. webs, producers, consumers, decomposers, scavengers, ecological
pyramids, 10% law
 Symbiosis: Commensalism, mutualism, parasitism
 Mimicry: Batesian vs. Mullerian
 Ecological Succession (Review in Text Book)
 Ecosystems
 Biogeochemical Cycles Water, Carbon, Nitrogen, Phosphorus,
Chemistry
 Types of macromolecules, their structures, and functions: lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids,
proteins
 Water and its unique properties
 Types of bonds
 Enzyme structure and function; different types of enzymes, factors that affect enzyme function
 Metabolism: catabolic vs. anabolic
 Atomic structure
 Exergonic vs. endergonic reactions
 ATP structure and function
 Functional groups; where they are found, what properties do they have
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Cells
 Cellular theory
 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes
 Cell membrane structure: phospholipid bilayer, active transport vs. passive transport, channel
proteins, ion channels, porins, aquaporins, carrier proteins, transport proteins, recognition proteins,
adhesion proteins, receptor proteins, cholesterol, endocytosis, phagocytosis, pinocytosis, exocytosis
 Diffusion vs. Osmosis, water potential
 Organelles (know the structure and function of the following): cytosol, nucleus, ribosomes, ER,
golgi apparatus, lysosomes, vacuoles, mitochondria, choloroplast, peroxisomes, cytoskeleton,
flagella/cilia, centrioles, cell wals
 Cellular communication: gap junctions, plasmodesmata
 Cellular Division - Mitosis vs. Meiosis, Regulation of the cell cycle, cancer
Energy
 Photosynthesis
o Key molecules (structure and function) - ADP, ATP, NADP+, NADPH, all vital pigments,
balanced equation, where it takes place
o Cyclical vs. Non-Cyclical
o Light-Dependent Reactions: Photpsystems II vs. I, electron transport, electron acceptors,
ETC, Enzymes involved, role of sunlight, What goes in, what comes out?
o Light-Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle): Know all steps, molecules that go in and come
out, intermediate molecules, molecules involved
o C3 vs C4 photosynthesis; CAM plants, what types of plants use these processes
o Photorespiration
 Cellular Respiration
o Redox reactions: oxidation vs. reduction, phosphorylation
o Glycolysis - what goes in/comes out, where does it occur, what are the steps involved
o Krebs Cycle/Citric Acid Cycle - where does it take place, what goes in/comes out, key
molecules (pyruvate, acetyl CoA, Oxaloacetate, NADH, FADH2, ATP
o Aerobic vs. Anaerobic environments: fermentations (alcoholic, lactic acid),
Genetics
 Mendels laws (law of segregation, law of independent assortment)
 Incomplete dominance, codominance, multiple alleles, epistasis, pleiotropy, polygenic traits, genes
influenced by the environment
 Probability calculations, Punnett Squares (monohybrid, dihybrid),
 Gene linkage/sex linkage, linkage maps (know how to determine where genes are on a
chromosome), crossing over, crossing over frequencies, X inactivation and Barr Bodies, Nondisjunction, chromosomal mutations (deletion, duplication, inversion, translocation,
 Review of human genetic defects: Down syndrome, Turners, Kleinfelters Syndrome
 Pedigrees: be able to read them
DNA/RNA
 DNA vs. RNA structure - Phosphate, sugar, bases, base pairing rules, types of bonds between
molecules, Purines vs. Pyrimidines, differences between DNA and RNA, Types of RNA (t,m,r)
 DNA organization: Chromatin, Histones, etc.
 Genetics of Bacteria and Viruses
 DNA Replication
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Plants
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o 5’ vs. 3’, directionality, anti-parallel, conservative vs. semi-conservative vs. dispersive,
Okazaki fragments
o Enzymes involved in DNA Replication: helicase, DNA polymerase (particularly
directionality), replication forks, primase, primers, DNA Ligase, telomerase/telomers
Protein Synthesis
o Transcription - Initiation, Elongations, Termination (differences in Pro and Eukaryotes),
codons, RNA modification, splicing, Introns, Exons, Poly A tail, 5’ cap, snRNP’s, structure
of tRNA, Aminoacyl-tRNA
o Translation - Initiation, Elongation, Termination, start codon (AUG), ribosomal subunits and
their functions, different sites of tRNA and what occurs there, release factor protein
Gene expression - Operons, repressors, operator, promoter, regulatory genes
DNA Technology: PCR, Gel Electrophoresis, Cloning, Recombinant DNA, Genetic engineering
Different Phyla of plants - Bryophytes, Pteridiophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms
Adaptations for life on land,
Alternation of generation - dominant spoorphyte or gametophyte of different phylums, life cycles
Structure: Roots, stems, leaves/stomata, vascular tissues, dermal tissues, ground tissues,
perenchyme, collenchyme, sclerenchyme, apical meristems, lateral meristems
Transport- process of water and sugar transport, capillary action, transpiration, bulk flow,
Response to stimuli - Phototropism: hormones involved, processes, cell elongation
Primary vs. Secondary growth, germination, seed structure
Monocots vs. Dicots
Animals
 Familiarity of various animal phyla  Tissue types - Epithelial, Connective, Nervous, Muscle
 Thermoregulation - Ectotherms vs. Endotherms
 Feedback loops - Negative vs. Positive
 Reproduction - Fertilization, Embryonic development (cleavage, morula, blastula, gastrula, etc),
Reproductive anatomy, Gametogenesis, Hormones
 Body systems structure and function - Respiratory, Circulatory, Excretory, Digestive System,
Nervous, Muscular System, Immune System (Refer to you text book), Endocrine System
Labs
 Refer to Lab Study Guide to review all 12 labs we have covered this year
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