Please take the time to check your answers, especially the highlighted ones. Remember you can use them on your test. Chapter 14 Section 1 Essential Questions – Cardiovascular System (pg. 561) 1a. What does the cardiovascular system consist of? Heart, blood vessels and blood 1b. What three functions does the cardiovascular system perform? Carries needed substances to cells, carries waste products away from cells, and transports cells that fight disease. 2a. What function does the heart perform? Pumps blood through the blood vessels. 2b. What are the four chambers of the heart? What structures separate one chamber from another? Right atrium, right ventricle, left atrium, left ventricle The septum and valves separate one chamber from another. 2c. What would happen if the valve between the right atrium and right ventricle did not work properly? Blood would flow backwards from the right ventricle to the right atrium. 3a. Where does blood returning to the body enter the heart? The right atrium 3b. Where does the blood move next? The right ventricle 4a. What roles do arteries, capillaries, and veins play in the cardiovascular system? Arteries carry blood away from the heart. Capillaries exchange material between the blood and body cells. Veins carry blood back to the heart. Chapter 14, Section 2 Essential Questions – Blood and Lymph (pg. 569) 1.a. Name the four components of blood. Identify whether each is a cell, a part of a cell, or a liquid. Plasma is the liquid part of blood. Red blood cells deliver oxygen to the body and are cells. White blood cells fight disease and are cells. Platelets help to form blood clots and are made of cell parts (fragments). 3.a. Where does lymph come from? Lymph is a fluid that is leaked from the capillaries to give the tissues the fluid it needs. 3.b. What happens to lymph after it travels through the lymphatic system? In the lymphatic system, lymph passes through the lymph nodes, which filter out any bacteria or disease causing microorganisms in it. Then it empties into the large veins in the check and becomes a part of the blood plasma again. Chapter 13, Section 3 Essential Questions – The Muscular System (pg. 530) 1.a. What are the three types of muscle tissue? Skeletal (attaches to bones), cardiac (heart) and smooth (digestive system). 1.b. How do voluntary and involuntary muscles differ? Give an example of each type of muscle. A person can control voluntary muscles. Skeletal muscles, like your biceps or triceps, are voluntary; they also tire easily. A person does not have control over the function of the involuntary muscles. Cardiac and smooth muscles, like the heart or the stomach, are involuntary muscles. 1.c. The muscles that move your fingers are attached the bones in your fingers by tendons. Suppose one of the tendons in a person’s index finger were cut. How would it affect movement in the finger? The person would loose the ability to move that finger because the tendon that connects the muscle to the bone, allowing the bone to be pulled, would not be connecting the finger bone to the muscle. 2.a. Where might you find muscle pairs? You would find muscle pairs attached to the bones of the skeleton, for example in your upper arm or your upper leg. 2.b. Describe how the muscles in your upper arm work together to bend and straighten your arm? To bend the arm, the biceps contract, pulling the forearm up toward the shoulder, and the triceps relaxes. To straighten the arm, the triceps contracts while the biceps relax. 2.c. When exercising to build muscular strength, why is it important to exercise both muscles in a muscle pair equally? Muscles work in pairs, so exercising them equally will allow them to grow in strength equally. Chapter 13 Section 2 Essential Questions – Skeletal System (pg. 525) 1a. What are the five functions of the skeleton? Provide shape and support, enable you to move, protect your organs, produce blood cells, and store minerals an other materials. 1b. How does the skeleton protect the body? Bones, such as the skull, ribs and spinal column, enclose organs and protect them from injury. 1c. How would your life be different if your backbone were just one long bone? You could not bend at the waist or twist. You would not be able to do some activities you do now, such as certain sports, twisting to get something behind you or getting out of bed the same way. 2a. What are four types of movable joints? Hinge, ball-and-socket, pivot, and sliding 2b. Compare immovable joints with movable joints. Both immovable and movable joints join two bones. Immovable joints allow little or no movement. Moveable joints allow the body to make a wide range of movements. 2c. Which of your movable joints are ball-and-socket joints? Shoulders and Hips Chapter 13, Section 4 Essential Questions – Machines and the Body (pg. 539) 1.a. What is a force? Force is the push or pull on an object. 2.a. What is a lever and how is a lever useful? A lever is a rigid bar that is free to rotate around a fixed point. A lever can turn a small force into a large force that can move a heavy object - levers allow us to do more work with less effort. 2.b. What is the mechanical advantage of a lever? The mechanical advantage is the number of times the lever increases a force exerted on it. 3.a. Name three joints that act as a fulcrum when you move. 1st class – pivot joint on head/neck; 2nd class – ball of your foot; 3rd class – elbow. Other examples include jaw, wrist, shoulder, knee, hip, etc… Chapter 15, Section 3 – Sight and Hearing (pg. 620) 1.a. What are the parts of the eye? Cornea, iris, pupil, lens, fluid filled chamber, retina 1.b. Describe the process by which the eye produces an image. Begin at the point at which light is focused by the lens. Light from an object is focused as it passes through the lens of the eye, then it travels to the retina where it forms an upside down image. The light strikes the rode and cone cells and nerve impulses travel to the brain. The brain reverses the image from each eye and combines them into a single image. 1.c. If you closed one eye, could you thread a needle easily? Explain your answer. No. Looking through just one eye makes it hard to judge distance or depth. 2.a. What are the three regions of the ear? The external ear, the middle ear and the inner ear. 2.b. Describe how sound is transmitted from the eardrum to the cochlea. The eardrum vibrates when struck by sound waves. These vibrations are passed onto the bones of the middle ear (hammer, anvil and stapes/stirrup). The stirrup transfers the vibrations into the inner where, where they vibrate the fluid in the cochlea. These vibrations create electrical impulses that get sent to the brain through the auditory nerve. 2.c. Why may an infection of the inner ear cause you to lose your balance? The semicircular canals help maintain balance, so an infection could interfere with their operation, causing a person to lose balance.