# UNIT - V - National College

```M.Sc. PHYSICS
DURATION OF COURSE
: 2 YEARS
ELIGIBILITY
COURSE CODE
: 330
FIRST YEAR
S. No.
Subject
Max. Marks
Exam
Hrs
1
Classical and Statistical Mechanics
100
3
2
Mathematical Physics & Numerical Methods
100
3
3
Molecular Physics and Spectroscopy
100
3
4
Electromagnetic Theory
100
3
5
Solid State Physics
100
3
6
Digital Electronics and Microprocessors
100
3
7
Practical – I
100
6
8
Practical – II
100
6
SECOND YEAR
S. No.
Subject
Max. Marks
Exam
Hrs
1
Quantum Mechanics
100
3
2
Modern Optics
100
3
3
Material Science
100
3
4
Nuclear Physics
100
3
5
Micro Controller and Digital Signal Processing
100
3
6
Communication Electronics
100
3
7
Practical – III
100
6
8
Practical – IV
100
6
SYLLABUS
FIRST YEAR
Paper – 1
CLASSICAL MECHANICS AND STATISTICAL MECHANICS
A. Classical mechanics
UNIT – I
: ELEMENTARY PRINCIPLES
D’ Alembert’s principles – Langrange’s equation – Hamilton’s Equation –
Langragian and Hamiltonian.
TWO BODY CENTRAL FORCE PROBLEM
Equations of motion and first integrals – Kepler’s laws – Scattering by Central
Potential – Transformation from centre of mass to laboratory frame.
SPECIAL RELATIVITY IN CLASSICAL MECHANICS
Relativistic Langrarian and Hamiltonian for a particle – space – time and energy –
momentum four vectors – Centre of mass system for relativistic particles – invariance of
maxwells equations.
UNIT – II: KINEMATICS OF ROTATION
Orthogonal transformation – Euler poles – rotating frames of reference and coriolis
force.
MECHANICS OF RIGID BODIES
Angular momentum and kinetic energy – moment of inertia – Euler’s equations of
motion. Torgue Free mogiton – motion of a symmetrical top under gavity.
UNIT – III CANONICAL TRANSFORMATIIONS
Canonical transformations and their generators – Simple examples – Poisson
brackets.
HAMILTON JACOB THEORY
Hamilton – Jacobi equations – Action angle variables – Application to the kepler
problem.
SMALL OSCILLAIONS
Formulation of the problem – Transformation to normal co-ordinate – Linear
triatomic molecule.
B. Statistical mechanics
UNIT – IV THERMODYNAMICS
Laws of thermodynamics – Entropy, free energy, thermodynamic potentials, phase
equilibrium – Gibb’s phase rule – phase transitions and Ehrenfest’s classification – Third law
of thermodynamics.
CLASSICAL STATISTICAL MECHANICS
Postulates – Liouville’s theorem – Micro canonical, Canonical and grand canonical
examples, partition function and entropy of ideal gas – Gibbs paradox.
NON IDEAL GAS
Virial expansion – Derivation of Vander Waal’s equation using two particle short
range interaction.
DENSITY OPERATOR AND QUANTUM STATISTICAL MECHANICS
Liouville’s equation – Postulates of quantum statistical mechanics – Bose – Einstein,
Fermi – Dirac distributions.
UNIT – V IDEAL BIST GAS
Equation of state – Free electron gas in metals – heat capacity – Pauli’s
paramagnetism – Thermionic emission.
Reference:
1. H. Goldstein
- Classical Mechanics
2. T.N.B. Kibble
- Classical Mechanics
3. L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz
- Mechanics
4. K.R. Symon
- Mechanics
5. J.L. Synage and B.A. Griffith
- Principles of Classical Mechanics.
6. L.D. Landau and E.M. Lifshitz
- Statistical Mechanics
7. B.K. Agarwal and M.Eisner
- Statistical Mechanics Wiley Eastern, 1988.
8. Takwal
- Classical Mechanics
9. Gupta & Kumar
- Classical Mechanics
10. Satya Prakash
- Classical Mechanics (TMH).
Paper – 2
MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS & NUMERICAL METHOD
UNIT – I
Differential Equations and spatial function – Second order differential equation –
series solution – generating functions – Rodrigue’s formula. Recurrence relation and
orthogonally property for Bessel, Legendre.
UNIT – II
COMPLEX VARIABLE
Functions of a complex Variable – analytic functions – Cauchy Reimann Conditions
multi valued functions and branch points – Cachy’s integral theorem and formula.
UNIT – III
LAPLACE AND FOURIER TRANSFORMS
Laplace Transforms – inverse Laplace transform application to differential and
integral equation.
FOURIER TRANSFORM
Fourier Transform and integral theorem convolution theorem.
UNIT – IV
CURVE FITTING
Principles of lest Squares – fitting a straight line, Para bell, exponential curve, curve
of a form Y=axb and Y=abx.
THEORETICAL DISTRIBUTION:
Binomial distribution – formula for mean – Standard deviation – Poisson distribution
– formula for mean, standard deviation moments Normal distribution - formula for mean,
Standard deviation.
UNIT – V
SOLUTIONS OF NUMERICAL, ALGEBRIC, TRANSCENDENTAL
AND DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION:
Picard’s method of successive approximations - Newton – Rephson method – Euler’s
method – modified Euler’s method – Runge – Kutta method (Second and third order only).
Gauss elimination method. Lagrange’s interperation formula for – unequal intervals
Trapezoidal rule, Simpson’s (1/3) and (1/8) rules.
Reference:
1. Mathematical Physics – B.D. Gupta.
2. Mathematical Physics – Rajput.
3. Mathematical Physics – B.K. Das.
4. Special Functions – W.W. Bell.
5. Grewal B.Setal – Numerical methods in Engineering and Science – Khanna
Publication.
6. Venkataraman. M.K. – Numerical methods of Science and engineering – The
National Publishing Company, Chennai.
Paper – 3
MOLECULAR PHYSICS & SPECTROSCOPY
UNIT – I
Symmetric of poly molecules – Calculation of normal modes for Raman and IR
activity Czr and C3r point groups by group theoretical considerations - Calculation of F and
G matrices – Normal co-ordinate analysis for H2o and NH3 and molecules.
UNIT – II
Electronic spectra of molecules : Born openheim approximation – vibrational
structure of electronic transitions – Intensity of vibrational electronic spectra – Frank –
Condor Principle – Chemical analysis by electronic spectroscopy.
UNIT – III
Constant deviation spectrometer – Raman effect – Characteristics of Raman lines –
molecule structure – theory of lasers – types oflasers – production of COZ laser,
semiconductor laser & He-Ne laser.. and application of laser.
UNIT – IV
NQR spectroscopy – Quadrapole Hamiltonian Theory – Energy Levels for molecules
of axial symmetry – experimiental detection – super registrative oscillator – Continous wave
osuvillator – Mossbauer spectroscopy – Experiment.
UNIT – V
Theory of NMR spectroscopy – Block equation – Relaxation process – Structural
analysis – Single Coil & double coil spectrometers – NMR in liquids – ESR spectroscopy –
Hyperfine structure – applications.
Reference:
1. Ban well C.N – Fundamental of Molecular spectroscopy.
2. B.P. Straughen and S. Walkar – Spectroscopy.
Paper – 4
ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY
UNIT – I
Electrostatics : Mechanical stress on unit area of a charges conductor – application to
electro field soap bubble – potential energy.
Stored in unit volume of a medicine
surrounding a charged body.
UNIT – II
Magneticstatics : Bio-Sanart Law – Ampere’s law – Magnetic vector potentials and
magnetic field of a localized current distribution – Magnetic moment, force and torque on a
current distribution in an external field – Magnetostatic field in macroscopic media –
Boundary conditions – Uniformly magnetized sphere.
UNIT – III
Maxwell equations :- Fardqya law of induction – Maxwell displacement current –
Maxwell equations – Wave equations and plane wave solutions – Coulmb and Lorentz
gauges – Poynthing theorem – Conservation laws for a system of charges.
UNIT – IV
Lagrangian and Hamiltonian for a relativistic field – motion in uniform
staticmagnetic field – Particle drift in non-uniform – Correction to Langrangian for
interacting charged particles.
UNIT – V
Plane waves in non-conducting refraction medium – Propagation of waves in a
rectangular wave guide.
Reference:
1. J.D. Jackson, Johnwiley – Classical Electrodynamics.
2. D. Griffith – Introduction to Electrodynamics.
Paper – 5
SOLID STATE PHYSICS
UNIT – I
Crystal Lattices : - Space lattices – lattice plans & Miller indices – formulation of
Bagg and Von Law – Equivalance of Bragg & Von law formulation – geometrical structure
factor and Atomic form of factor Ionic crystals – Electrostatic or Madelung energy –
Madelung constant – Metal crystals – Hydrogen bond crystals.
UNIT – II
Lattice Dynamics : - Monoatomic lattices – Brillouim Zones – Group and phase
velocity – lattice with 2 atoms per primitive cell – quantization of latticevobrations – phonon
momentum – lattice heat capacity.
UNIT – III
Free electron theory : Drude theory metals – Hall effect – Fermi electron gs in 3D –
Heat capacity – Non equilibrium distribution function – Bottzman transport equation –
electrical thermal conduction – wiedmann – Franz law – de Hass Van Alphen effect –
Oscillatory Phenomenon and Landaw levels.
UNIT – IV
Magnetic properties : - Quantum theory of Para magnetism – rare earth ions – Hunds
Rule – Iron group ions – Paramagnetic Cooling – demagnetization – ferromagnetism –
Quantum theory anti symmetric Wave function and exchange integral – Heisenberg
interpolation of wises field – Ferromagnetic spin waves – curie’s law.
UNIT – V
Modern engineering and new materials : - Polymers – Ceramics – Super strong
materials – Nuclear Engineering materials – Nuclear glasses – optical materials – Materials
for optical sources and – dectors – Biomaterials conductors.
Reference:
1. C.Kittel – Introduction to solid state physics.
2. Arumugam M. – Material Science.
3. Puri and Babber – Solid state Physics.
Paper – 6
DIGITAL ELECTRONICS AND MICROPROCESSOR
UNIT – I
Integrated circuits – TTL and MOS logic circuits – Gating Networks Logic design:
Flip – Flops – Transfer circuits – Clocks – shift registers – Counters – State diagrams and
State tables – Magnitude comparator – Programmable Arrays of Logic cells.
UNIT – II
Elements of ALU Design and implementation of Binary Address (Half and Full) and
Subtractors – BCD Adder – Multiplexer – encoder – decoder – Floating point number
systems – Arithmetic operations with Floating point numbers.
UNIT – III
Input – output Interface modules – I / O versus Memory Bus – Isolated versus
memory – mapped I / O – Asynchronous Data Transfer – Priority Interrupt – Direct Memory
Access (DMA) – Input Output Processor (IOP) : CPU – IOP communication – Memory
Organization : Memory Hierarchy – Main memory – Auxiliary Memory – Associative
memory – Cache memory - Virtual memory.
UNIT – IV
Microcomputers, Microprocessor and Assembly Language – Microprocessor
Architecture and Microcomputer systems: Micro processor architecture and its operations –
Memory – Input and Output – The 8085 MPL – 8085 based Micro computer – Memory
Interfacing.
UNIT – V
The 8085 programming Model – Addressing Techniques – 8085 Instruction – Code
conversion – BCD arithmetic operations.
PRACTICALS – 2
1. Study of Logic Gates – Discrete version & IC version: AND, OR, NOT, NAND,
NOR Gates – To construct and verify the Truth Tables.
2. Karnaugh’s Reduction Technique – To find the simplified logic circuits for the given
output equation.
3. Study of Half Adder and Full Adder circuits – To Construct and verify the Truth
Table.
4. Study of Shift Registers using IC’s.
5. Study of Counters.
6. Study of ROM chips
7. Study of RAM chips
8. Study of Intel 8085 Microprocessors : Performing simple exercises :
b) Subtraction
c) Multiplication
d) Division of Decimal Numbers
e) Picking up the Largest and Smallest number in the given set.
f) BCD to Binary and Binary to BCD Conversions.
g) HEX to Decimal and Decimal to HEX Conversions.
Text Books:
1. Digital Computer Fundamentals – Thomas C. Bartee, T.M.H. 6th edition 1991.
2. Computer System Architecture – M. Morris Mano, PHI, 3rd edition.
3. Microprocessor Architecture, Programming and Applications with the 8085/8080 A
Ramesh S. Gaonkar, Wiley Eastern Ltd.
Reference:
1. Introduction to Micrprocessor – A.P. Mathur, T.M.H. 1990.
2. Microprocessors and interfacing – Programming and Hardware – Douglas V. Hall,
TMH, 1997.
SECOND YEAR
Paper – 7
QUANTUM MECHANICS – I
UNIT – I
: FORMATION OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
Schrödinger equation for a free particle – statistical interpretation – conditions on the
wave equation – operator, formalism – Linear operators – Self ad joint operations –
expectation value – Eigen values and Eigen functions – Orthonormality – The uncertainty
relation – illustration experiments (diffraction of an electron beam by a long narrow slit,
position of electron under ray microscope).
One dimensional problems : Particle in a central potential and particle in a periodic potential
– Hydrogen atom – Reduction of two body Hamiltonian – hudrogenie eigon functions and
spectra – Normal Zeeman effect of Hydrogenic atoms.
UNIT – II
: APPROXIMATE EVALUATION OF EIGEN VALUES AND EIGEN
FUNCTIONS FOR DISCRETE LEVELS
Perturbation theory in non-degenerate cases – Application to ground state of an
harmonic oscillator and stark effect in Hydrogen – variation method – application to ground
state of Helium atom – WKB approximation.
UNIT – III
: ANGULAR MOMENTUM
Communication rules for Angular Momentum. Operators – Eigen value spectrum
Raising and Lowering operators – Matrix representation of Angular Momentum Spin
Matrices and Wave functions – Combination of two Angular Momenta – Clebsch – Gordon
co-efficient.
UNIT – VI
: EQUATION OF MOTION
Schrodinger picture – wave equation – stationary states – Heisenberg picture –
correspondence with classical mechanics – The Interaction picture – Representation theory:
Basis in function space – momentum and configuration representations – Direec’s Ket and
Bra Vector Notation – Matric – representation – an example :
Harmonic Ocillator –
Quantum conditions and their variance using matrix mechanics.
UNIT – V
: PERTURBATION THEORY
Perturbation theory, First and Second order transitions under constant perturbation –
conservation of energy – application to potential scattering and inelastic collisions –
Harmonic perturbations – Adiabatic and sudden approximations.
Books for Study :
1. Quantum Mechanics – Theory and Applications by A.K. Ghatak & Lokanathan.
2. A text book of Quantum mechanics – Mathews & Venkatesan.
3. Quantum mechanics – Chatwal & Anand.
4. Quantum mechanics – Satya
Reference:
1.Quantum Mechanics – Leonand Sehift.
2. Quantum Mechanics – P.T. Mathews.
3. Quantum Mechanics – Pauling & Wilson.
4.
Fundamental principles of quantum mechanics with Elementary qpplications Edwin
C. Kemble..
Paper – 8
MODERN OPTICS
Unit 1
Geometrical optics: Convex lens- Principal focus and focal planes- principal points and
planes- nodal points and planes- Newton’s formula for a convex lens system- Aberrations in
lenses and optical instruments- Spherical aberration in lenses –methods of reducing spherical
aberration-aplanatic points in lenses-condition for minimum spherical aberration in the case
of two lenses separated by a distance- chromatics aberration in lenses- condition for
achromatism of two lenses in contact and out of contact- Huygens and Rams dens eyepieces- construction and comparison.
Unit 2
Fresnels biprism- determination of wavelength of light and thickness of thin sheet of
transparent material- interference in thin films due to reflected light – colours of thin filmsAir- Wedge method of determination of diameter of wire- test for optical flatness- Newton’s
rings- experimental determination of refractive index of the material of the lens- and a given
liquid – Michel sons interferometer – determination of wavelength and thickness of a mica
sheet.
Unit 3
Diffraction – Fresnels explanation for rectilinear propagation of light- zone plateFresnels diffraction at a straight edge- Fraunhoffer diffraction at a single slit, double slit and
N Slits- plane diffraction grating – wavelength determination- resolving power- Rayleighs
criterion- resolving power of telescope, microscope, prism, grating-comparison of prism and
grating spectra. Polarization-Huygens explanation of double refraction in uni-axial crystalspolarizing prisms- quarter and half wave plates- production and detection of a plane,
circularly and elliptically polarized light- optical activity- specific rotatory power-Fresnels
explanation- SP. Rotatory power by Laurent half- shade Polarimeter.
Unit 5
Non-linear optics: history of fiber optics- fiber characteristics and classification mode theory of fibers- transverse mode and hybrid mode-linearly polarized mode-single
mode fiber- multimode fiber- fiber Losses-absorption, scattering, bending losses-claw and
cladding losses- Dispersion in fiber. Optical fiber communication system- analog optical
fiber communication system-digital optical fiber communication system- advantages of
optical fiber communication system-requirements of communication light sources-(laser)different types of modulation and demodulation (elementary ideas only).
Books:
Brijlal and subrahmanian- A text book of light
Vasudev, D.N- A text book of light
Ajoy Ghatak- Optics (2nd edition)
DR.S.Arumugam- Semi conductor physics and Opt electronics
Kennedy Davis- Electronics communication system
Paper – 9
MATERIAL SCIENCE
UNIT 1
Crystal structure and bounding:
Space lattice- crystal lattice and unit cell- seven crystal system- Brava is lattice-
Symmetry elements of a crystalline solid- structure of SCC, BCC, FCC and HCPCharacteristics of cubic system- condition number- atomic radius -number of atoms per unit
cell-density of packing –relation between Lattice constant and density of the crystal- Miller
indices-miller indices of cubic crystal planes- relation between interplanar spacing and cube
edge.
UNIT 2
Elementary crystallograohy and crystal imperfections:
Origin of X-rays-X-Ray spectrum- Mosley’s law- Diffraction of X-rays by crystal
method and powder photograph method- Compton scattering of X-rays. Points defects- lines,
surface and volume- Freckle defect- Dislocation- edge dislocation, screw, dislocation and
Burgers vector.
UNIT 3
Magnetic properties and super conductivity:
Magnetic types of magnetic matericals- classical theory of diamagnetism (Langevin
theory)- Langevin theory of paramagnetism-Weis theory of parramagnetism- quantum theory
of magnetism.
UNIT 4
Dielectric properties:
Fundamental definition in dielectrics- Different types of electric polarization –
Frequency and temperature effects on polarization – dielectric loss. Clausius- Mosottis
relation- determination of dielectric constant –dielectric breakdown-properties of different
types of insulating materials- schotcky effect.
UNIT 5
Modern engineering material and new materials:
Polymers- ceramics- super strong materials-high temperature materials-thermo
electric materials-elecrets- nuclear engineering material –plastics- metallic glasses- optical
materials- materials for optical source and detector- Fibre optics
material and their
application = Acoustic material and their application- Biomaterials- conductor.
Books:
Arumugam M- Material science
Puri and babbar- solid state physics
Paper – 10
NUCLEAR PHYSICS
UNIT 1: NUCLEAR STRUCTURE
Nuclear radius, charge distribution,spin and magnetic moment- Determination of
nuclear mass-Binding energy –semiempirical mass formula- Nuclear stability- mass
parabolas-Nuclear shell model-Liquid drop model- Optical model-Collective model
NUCLEAR PROCESS :Exchange forces-Yukawas meson theory-Yukuwa potential- Ground
state of deuteron-Magnetic moment –Tensor forces-Scattering length,Phase shift,scattering
amplitude-low energy n-p scattering- Effective range-spin dependence and charge
independence of nuclear forces.
Alpha decay-Garmows theory-Geiger nuttal law-Neutrino hypothesis-Fermis theory
of beta decay-selection rules-non conservation of parity in beta decay-Gammay decayselection rules-internal conversion- nuclear isomerism. DETECTION OF NUCLEAR
RADIATION: Intercation of charged particle and X-rays with matter- Basic principle of
particle detector- Proportional counters and Geiger- Muller counters-BF3 counters-solid state
and semiconductor detector- scintillation counters.
UNIT 3: NUCLEAR FISSION:
Characteristics of fission-mass and energy distribution of nuclear fragments-nuclear
chain reactions-four factor formula –Bohr wheelers theory of nuclear fission –fission
reactors-power and breeder type reactor.Nuclear fussion basic processes-solar fusion-cold
fusion-controlled thermonuclear reaction-pinch effects-laser fusion techniques.
UNIT 4 : NUCLEAR REACTIONS:
Energetics of reactions-Q-equation- level width in nuclear reaction –nuclear reaction
–nuclear reaction cross sections-partial wave analysis-compound nucleus model-Resonance
scattering-Breit Wigner one level formula –Direct reactions-stripping and pick up teactions.
SCATTERING: The scattering cross section –scattering amplitude- expression in terms of
Greens function-born approximation and its validity-screened coulombs potential-alpha
particle scattering-Rutherfords formula.
UNIT 5 :ELEMENTRY PARTICLE:
Four types of interaction and classification of element ry particle –Isospin-Isospin
quantum numbers-Strageneous and hyper charge- Hadrons- Baryons-Leptons –Invariance
principle and symmetrics-Invariance under charge-parity (CP0 ,time (T) and CPT-CP
violation in neutral K-meson decay- Quark model-SU(3) symmetry- Gell-Mann.NISHIJMA
FORMULA-Gauge theory of weak and strong interaction Charm , bottom and top quarks.
BOOKS:
1. R.R ROY and B.P. Nigam,nuclear physics,Wiley eeastern ltd.,new delhi (1986).
2. B.L.Cohen, concepts of nuclear physics, Tata mcgraw hill,new delhi(1983).
3. H.A.Enge, Introduction to nuclear physics,addision Wesley , New york(1971).
4. H.Semat ,Introduction to atomics and nuclear physics ,Chapaman and Hall,new delhi.
5. D.Griffiths, Introduction to elementary particle wiley Intrnational
edition,newyork(1987).
6. W.S.C.Williams, nuclear and particle physics, clarendon press,London(1981).
7. K.S.Krane ,Introduction nuclear physics, jhon wilesy, new york (1987).
8. K.S.Krane, Modern physics,john wiley and sons Inc, New york(1988).
Paper – 11
MICRO CONTROLLER AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING
UNIT I
SIGNALS AND SYSTEMS
Classification of signals – Singularity function – Amplitude and phase spectra –
Classification of systems – Fourier transform – Properties of Fourier transform – Fourier
transform of some important signals – Fourier transform for power and energy signals.
LINEAR TIME INVARIENT SYSTEMS
Introduction – Properties of a DSP systems – Difference equation and its relationship
with system function, impulse response and frequency response.
UNIT II
DISCRETE AND FAST FOURIER TRANSFORMS (DFT AND FFT)
Discrete convolution – DTFT – FFT computing an inverse DFT by doing a direct
DFT – composite radix FFT – Fast convolution – Correlation – Z transform – Definition of
the z transform – Properties of z transform – Evaluation of the inverse z transform.
UNIT III
FIR AND IIR
Magnitude and phase response of digital filter – Frequency response of linear phase
FIR filter – Design techniques for FIR Filters – Design of optimal phase FIR filter.
IIR filter design by approximation of derivatives – IIR filter design by impulse
invariant method and the bilinear transformation – Butterworth and cheby swev filter
– Elliptic filter – Frequency transformation.
UNIT – IV
Introduction of Microcontrollers-8051 Microcontroller- architecture-special function
registers-adderssing modes –instruction set. Origin of PIC Micro:- Introduction to PIC micro
-Architecture and hardware:- Block diagram – working registers – program memory – data
memory – file registers – program concepts – status register – stack file selection register –
option register – indirect data addressing register – digital I/O port – clock oscillators – timer
modules – prescalar – watch dog timer – reset circuitry – instruction cycle – long word
instruction – power down mode / sleep – configuration fuses
UNIT - V
Instruction set and program development:- Instruction set types – MPASM – source
code formats – labels – mnemonics – operands – comments – files with default extension –
lists file format – error file format (EPR) – operators – procedure – redix – text strings –
numeric constants and radix key to PIC 16/17 form instruction sets.
1.TEXT BOOK :
.
S.Salivahanan,
A.
Vallavaraj
and
C.
Gnanapriya,
“DIGITAL
SIGNALPROCESSING”, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Limited,
ISBN-0-07-463996-X.
1. .Embedded control hand book, volume 1995/96
2.
PIC 16/17 microcontroller data book, volume 1996/1997
3.
Paper – 12
COMMUNICATION ELECTRONICS
UNIT – I
: COMMUNICATION SYSTEM
Theory of amplitude modulation – theory of frequency modulation – theory of phase
modulation Noise : Intern noise – external noise – noise calculation – noise figure noise
temperature – super heterodyne receiver – Antenna antenna equivalent circuits – coordinated
system – radiatiadar. Fields – Polarization – power gain of a antenna – effection area of
antenna – effective length of an antenna – Hertzi dipole – Half wave dipole – vertical
antennas – loop fiernrod antenna – non resonant antenna – driver array – plus arrays – UHF –
UHF antenna – microwave antenna.
UNIT – II
: DIGITAL COMMUNICATION
Pulse amplitude modulation – Pulse code modulation – pulse frequency modulation –
pulse time modulation – pulse position modulation – Pulse width modulation – base digital
communication systems – synchronization a synchronous transmission – probability of bit
error in bas band transmission – notched filter – bit, timing recovery eye diagram – digital
carrier systems – carrier recover circuits – differential phase shift keying error control coding
– multiplex transmission – frequency and time division multiplexing.
UNIT – III
Generation of microwaves – klystron: Reflex Klystorn Multicavity Magnetron –
detection of microwaves IMPATT, TRAPATT and Gunn diodes – radar – radar quation –
UNIT – IV
: OPTIC FIBER COMMUNICATION
Fiber optics – Different types of Fibers: Step indexed Graded index fibers – Ray
theory of step index Fiber – ignal degradation in fibers: Absorption , attenuation, catering
losses and dispeision – optical sources and electros : Laster fundamentals – laser action –
different inds of laser – LED – photo detectors – power launching coupling: Source to fiber
power launching – fiber joints splicing techniques.
UNIT – V
: ATELLITE COMMUNICATION
Satellite links – eclipses – orbits and inclination – satellite construction – satellite
communication Frequencies – Different domestic satellites – INTELSAT system MATISAT
satellites – telemetry.
Reference:
1. Dennis Rooddy. John Coolen electronic Communication – fourth edition, PHI
Private Ltd.1999.
2. Sanjeevan Gupta – Electronic Communication systems – Khanna Publications, 1995.
3. N.D. Deshpandae, D.A. Deshpandate, P.K. Rangola Communication Electronics –
Tate McGraw Hill Pvt, Ltd.1998.
4. M. Arumugam, Optical Fiber Communication and Sensors, first Edition 2002