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CHAPTER SEVENTEEN
Public Relations
GENERAL CONTENT: MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
1.
Which IMC tool helps an organization and its publics relate to each other to the
benefit of both?
a.
advertising
b.
personal selling
c.
publicity
d.
sales promotion
e.
public relations
(e; moderate; p. 506; LO1; AACSB Communication)
2.
All the groups of people with which a company or organization interacts, such as
employees, media, community groups, shareholders, and so forth, are known as
___________.
a.
targets
b.
publics
c.
audiences
d.
shareholders
e.
contact points
(b; moderate; p. 506; LO1)
3.
Another term for publics is ___________, which refers more specifically to
people who have a stake, financial or not, in a company or organization.
a.
targets
b.
stakeholders
c.
audience
d.
shareholders
e.
contact points
(b; moderate; p. 507; LO1)
4.
Which of the following types of organizations does NOT practice public
relations?
a.
companies
b.
governments
c.
nonprofit organizations
d.
media
e.
All of the above are types of organizations that practice public relations.
(e; moderate; p. 507; LO1)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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5.
A label describing what a group of people think is known as ___________.
a.
public opinion
b.
public relations
c.
publicity
d.
group think
e.
reputation
(a; easy; p. 507; LO1)
6.
Which of the following statements is false regarding the practice of public
relations?
a.
Public relations is used to generate goodwill for an organization.
b.
Public relations is practiced by a wide range of organizations.
c.
On one level, public relations is a tactical function.
d.
Publicity and public relations are synonymous terms.
e.
A corporation’s publics may be external and internal.
(d; moderate; p. 507; LO1; AACSB Communication)
7.
Important people who influence the opinions of others are known as
___________.
a.
trend setters
b.
trend spotters
c.
opinion leaders
d.
opinion influencers
e.
opinion setters
(c; moderate; p. 507; LO1)
8.
Which of the following statements is false?
a.
Public goodwill is the greatest asset any organization can have.
b.
A difference between advertising and public relations is that public
relations takes a longer, broader view of the importance of image and
reputation as a corporate competitive asset and addresses a greater number
of target audiences.
c.
Gatekeepers include writers, producers, editors, talk show coordinators,
and newscasters.
d.
The public is as skeptical of the media as they are of advertisers.
e.
Integrity involves more than image.
(d; moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
9.
What is the greatest asset any organization can have, and creating it is the primary
goal of most public relations programs?
a.
capital
b.
goodwill
c.
image
d.
reputation
e.
equity
(b; moderate; p. 507; LO1; AACSB Communication)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
10.
The trust on which goodwill is based comes from ________.
a.
popular products
b.
having many products
c.
what a company says about what it does
d.
corporate integrity
e.
what the government says about what a company does
(d; difficult; p. 508; LO1)
11.
________ is a perception based on messages delivered by advertising and other
marketing communication tools.
a.
Image
b.
Reputation
c.
Equity
d.
Integrity
e.
Goodwill
(a; moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
12.
________ is a perception based on messages delivered by advertising and other
marketing communication tools, whereas ________ is based on an organization’s
actual behavior.
a.
Goodwill; integrity
b.
Integrity; image
c.
Image; reputation
d.
Reputation; image
e.
Equity; reputation
(c; moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
13.
Which of the following is an area where public relations and advertising differ?
a.
media use
b.
level of control over message delivery
c.
perceived credibility
d.
a and b
e.
a, b, and c
(e; moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
14.
Which of the following statements is true regarding advertising and public
relations?
a.
Public relations and advertising differ in how they use the media, the level
of control they have over message delivery, and their perceived credibility.
b.
The public tends to trust advertising more than they do the media.
c.
Public relations strategists have little trouble getting exposure through
media.
d.
Consumers do not perceive public relations information any differently
than they do advertising information.
e.
The main goal of public relations is sales.
(a; moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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15.
Which aspect of public relations carries no direct media costs?
a.
corporate advertising
b.
crisis management
c.
publicity
d.
cause marketing
e.
marketing public relations (MPR)
(c; moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
16.
The tendency of consumers trusting media more than they do advertisers is called
the ________.
a.
implied third-party endorsement
b.
halo effect
c.
gatekeeping effect
d.
indirect endorsement effect
e.
carryover effect
(a; moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
17.
The area of public relations that focuses on developing media contacts is called
________.
a.
internal marketing
b.
media relations
c.
public affairs
d.
cause marketing
e.
lobbying
(b; moderate; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Communication)
18.
Programs that communicate information to employees are called ________.
a.
media relations
b.
public affairs
c.
cause marketing
d.
employee marketing
e.
employee relations
(e; easy; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Communication
19.
Communication efforts aimed at informing employees about marketing programs
and encouraging their support is known as ________.
a.
media relations
b.
public affairs
c.
cause marketing
d.
employee marketing
e.
internal marketing
(e; moderate; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Communication)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
20.
All the communication efforts aimed at the financial community are referred to as
________.
a.
financial relations
b.
media relations
c.
external relations
d.
financial marketing
e.
finance public relations (FPR)
(a; easy; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Communication)
21.
Customers, labor unions, employees, media, and suppliers are all examples of
________.
a.
shareholders
b.
stakeholders
c.
key publics
d.
internal targets
e.
public audiences
(c; moderate; p. 509 [Figure 17.1]; LO1; AACSB Communication)
22.
Corporate communication programs with government and with the public on
issues related to government and regulation are called ________.
a.
media relations
b.
external public relations
c.
cause marketing
d.
public affairs
e.
corporate relations
(d; moderate; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Communication)
23.
Companies providing information to legislators in order to get their support and
vote on a particular bill is a practice known as ________.
a.
bribery
b.
lobbying
c.
corporate relations
d.
gatekeeping
e.
cause marketing
(b; moderate; p. 510; LO1)
24.
Communication efforts with consumer or activist groups who seek to influence
government policies is a practice known as ________.
a.
media relations
b.
corporate relations
c.
issue management
d.
cause marketing
e.
issue marketing
(c; moderate; p 510; LO1; AACSB Communication)
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25.
The areas that focus on an organization’s image and reputation are called
________.
a.
corporate relations
b.
reputation management
c.
image shaping
d.
crisis management
e.
media relations
(a; moderate; p. 510; LO1)
26.
Which corporate relations program has the overriding goal of strengthening the
trust that stakeholders have in an organization?
a.
image management
b.
crisis management
c.
media relations
d.
reputation management
e.
public affairs
(d; moderate; p. 510; LO1)
27.
Which type of public relations program anticipates the possibility of a disaster and
plans how to deal with bad news and all the affected publics?
a.
corporate reputation management
b.
crisis management
c.
public affairs
d.
cause marketing
e.
issue management
(b; moderate; pp. 511-512; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
28.
Which of the following is NOT part of a crisis management plan?
a.
deciding who contacts the various stakeholders who might be affected
b.
deciding who speaks to the news media
c.
deciding who sets up and runs an onsite the disaster management center
d.
lessons learned from previous crises
e.
All of the above are part of an effective crisis management plan.
(d; difficult; p. 512; LO1; AACSB Analytic Skills)
29.
The process of planning and delivering programs that encourage sales and
contribute to customer satisfaction by providing communication that addresses the
needs and wants of consumers is called ________
a.
marketing public relations (MPR)
b.
consumer public relations (CPR)
c.
efficient consumer response (ECR)
d.
public affairs
e.
issue management
(a; moderate; p. 512; LO1; AACSB Communication)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
30.
Which of the following types of programs is used to discourage socially harmful
behaviors?
a.
marketing public relations (MPR)
b.
consumer public relations (CPR)
c.
public communication campaigns
d.
public affairs
e.
issue management
(c; moderate; p. 512; LO1; AACSB Communication)
31.
What is used to assess the internal and external PR environment that affects the
organization’s audiences, objectives, competitors, and past results?
a.
marketing audit
b.
SWOT analysis
c.
communication audit
d.
PR audit
e.
benchmarking
(c; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Communication)
32.
________ is used to identify baselines from previous audits or audits of other
related companies and industries so there is a point of comparison.
a.
Baselining
b.
Benchmarking
c.
A gap analysis
d.
An internal assessment
e.
Base-pointing
(b; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Communication)
33.
A ________ measures the differences in perceptions and attitudes between groups
or between the organization and its publics.
a.
benchmark
b.
base point
c.
gap analysis
d.
situation analysis
e.
communication audit
(c; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
34.
As in marketing or advertising planning, a public relations plan begins with
background research leading to a(n) ________.
a.
situation analysis
b.
objective
c.
strategy
d.
tactic
e.
evaluation
(a; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
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35.
Which of the following could be an objective of public relations?
a.
creating a corporate brand
b.
moving a brand to a new market or a global market
c.
providing product or brand information
d.
positioning or repositioning a company or brand
e.
all of the above
(e; easy; p. 515; LO32; AACSB Analytic Skills)
36.
Which of the following public relations strategies has the purpose of changing the
attitudes that drive behavior?
a.
cause marketing
b.
issue programs
c.
corporate reputation management
d.
change-agent programs
e.
change-attitude programs
(d; moderate; p. 515; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
37.
Which of the following is NOT a marketing communication tool used in public
relations?
a.
sales promotion
b.
advertising
c.
Internet
d.
direct marketing
e.
All of the above marketing communication tools are used in public
relations.
(e; moderate; p 517; LO3; AACSB Communication)
38.
Public relations tools are divided into which two categories?
a.
internal and external
b.
marketing and corporate
c.
controlled media and uncontrolled media
d.
controlled message and uncontrolled message
e.
controlled contact and uncontrolled contact
(c; moderate; p. 517; LO3; AACSB Analytic Skills)
39.
________ include house ads, public service announcements, corporate
advertising, in-house publications, and visual presentations.
a.
Internal media
b.
External media
c.
Controlled media
d.
Uncontrolled media
e.
Semicontrolled media
(c; moderate; p. 517; LO3; AACSB Analytic Skills)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
40.
________ include press releases, press conferences, and media tours.
a.
Internal media
b.
External media
c.
Controlled media
d.
Uncontrolled media
e.
Semicontrolled media
(d; moderate; p. 517; LO3; AACSB Analytic Skills)
41.
New electronic media are categorized as ________ media.
a.
controlled
b.
uncontrolled
c.
semicontrolled
d.
regulated
e.
unregulated
(c; moderate; p. 517; LO3; AACSB Analytic Skills)
42.
Which of the following is a public relations tool?
a.
advertising
b.
publicity
c.
publications
d.
speakers and photos
e.
all of the above
(e; moderate; pp. 517-518; LO3; AACSB Analytic Skills)
43.
Which of the following are the primary uses of advertising in public relations?
a.
public service announcements, advocacy ads, and institutional advertising
b.
not-for-profit advertising and corporate advertising
c.
house ads, public service announcements, and corporate advertising
d.
corporate advertising, spot announcements, and public service
announcements
e.
advocacy ads, institutional advertising, and corporate advertising
(c; moderate; p. 517; LO3; AACSB Analytic Skills)
44.
An ad prepared for use in its own publication or programming is known as a(n)
________ ad.
a.
house
b.
corporate
c.
institutional
d.
company
e.
organizational
(a; moderate; p. 517; LO3; AACSB Analytic Skills)
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45.
Ads for charitable and civic organizations that run free of charge on television or
radio or in print media are known as ________.
a.
house ads
b.
public service announcements
c.
organizational advertising
d.
nonprofit advertising
e.
semicontrolled ads
(b; moderate; p. 518; LO3; AACSB Communication)
46.
In which type of advertising does a company focus on its corporate image or
viewpoint rather than selling a particular product?
a.
house ads
b.
public service announcements
c.
organizational advertising
d.
nonprofit advertising
e.
corporate advertising
(e; moderate; p. 519; LO3; AACSB Communication)
47.
A type of advertising that firms use to enhance or maintain their reputation among
specific audiences or to establish a level of awareness of the company’s name and
the nature of its business is called ________.
a.
corporate identity advertising
b.
advocacy advertising
c.
image advertising
d.
house advertising
e.
controlled advertising
(a; moderate; p. 519; LO3; AACSB Communication)
48.
Point-of-view messages are called ________.
a.
corporate identity advertising
b.
advocacy advertising
c.
image advertising
d.
house advertising
e.
controlled advertising
(b; moderate; p. 520; LO3; AACSB Communication)
49.
Which of the following is NOT a way to generate publicity?
a.
news releases
b.
press conferences
c.
media tours
d.
pitch letters
e.
all of the above are used to generate publicity.
(e; easy; pp. 520-522; LO3; AACSB Communication)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
50.
What is the primary medium used to deliver public relations messages to the
various external media?
a.
house ads
b.
advocacy advertising
c.
corporate identity advertising
d.
news releases
e.
public service announcement
(d; moderate; p. 520; LO3; AACSB Communication)
51.
Which category of public relations tools includes news releases?
a.
controlled
b.
uncontrolled
c.
semicontrolled
d.
advocacy
e.
image
(b; moderate; p. 518; LO3; AACSB Communication)
52.
The decision to use any part of a news release at all is based on an editor’s
judgment of its news value, and this is based on the information’s ________.
a.
timeliness
b.
proximity
c.
impact
d.
human interest
e.
all of the above
(e; easy; p. 520; LO3; AACSB Communication)
53.
________ contain video footage for a television newscast.
a.
Video news releases (VNRs)
b.
Video public relations (VPRs)
c.
Live news releases (LNRs)
d.
Public Service Announcements (PSAs)
e.
Documercials
(a; easy; p. 522; LO3; AACSB Communication)
54.
What is used to sell editors on ideas for feature stories, which are human-interest
stories rather than hard news?
a.
personal selling
b.
release statement
c.
pitch letter
d.
feature summary
e.
media kit
(c; moderate; p. 522)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
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55.
A(n) ________ is an event at which a company spokesperson makes a statement
to media representatives.
a.
media tour
b.
press conference
c.
sponsored event
d.
speakers’ forum
e.
town hall forum
(b; moderate; p. 522; LO3; AACSB Communication)
56.
What do companies provide to the media with all the important background
information to members of the press, either before or when they arrive at a press
conference?
a.
media kit
b.
collateral material
c.
video news release (VNR)
d.
pitch letter
e.
feature story
(a; moderate; p. 522; LO3; AACSB Communication)
57.
In which type of publicity does a traveling spokesperson make announcements
and speeches, hold press conferences to explain a promotional effort, and offer
interviews?
a.
town hall forum
b.
speakers’ bureau
c.
displays and exhibits
d.
controlled media event
e.
media tour
(e; moderate; p. 522; LO3; AACSB Communication)
58.
What type of publication is required by the Securities and Exchange Commission
(SEC) from each publicly held company?
a.
collateral material
b.
annual report
c.
media kit
d.
pitch letter
e.
controlled message
(b; easy; p. 522; LO3; AACSB Communication)
59.
Material that is published to support a company’s marketing public relations
efforts is known as ________.
a.
feature stories
b.
media kits
c.
collateral material
d.
supplemental material
e.
annual reports
(c; moderate; p. 524; LO3; AACSB Communication)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
60.
A cadre of articulate people in a company who will talk about topics at the
public’s request is known as a ________.
a.
town hall forum
b.
public service group
c.
keynote speaker group
d.
speakers’ bureau
e.
speakers’ group
(d; easy; p. 524; LO3; AACSB Communication)
61.
Which of the following include booths, racks and holders for promotional
literature, and signage?
a.
displays
b.
collateral racks
c.
take-aways
d.
forums
e.
all of the above
(a; moderate; p. 524; LO3; AACSB Communication)
62.
What is the difference between displays and exhibits?
a.
Displays are found at trade shows, and exhibits are found at the point-ofsale.
b.
Exhibits tend to be larger than displays; they may have moving parts,
sounds, or video, and usually are staffed by a company representative.
c.
Displays are unattended, but exhibits have a company representative
present.
d.
Exhibits are unattended, but displays have a company representative
present.
e.
There is no difference; the two terms are synonymous.
(b; difficult; p. 524; LO3; AACSB Communication)
63.
Why are booth exhibits important at trade shows?
a.
They generate excitement for employees manning them.
b.
They generate excitement for attendees of the trade show
c.
They “put a face” on a corporation for buyers who may not be aware of
the organization prior to attending the trade show.
d.
Some companies may take orders for much of their annual sales.
e.
all of the above
(d; difficult; p. 524; LO3; AACSB Communication)
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64.
Which of the following is used to facilitate internal marketing and provide an
opportunity for management to make a presentation on some major project,
initiative, or issue and invite employees to discuss it?
a.
town hall forum
b.
press conference
c.
trade show
d.
media tour
e.
“Meet the boss” seminar
(a; moderate; p. 524; LO3; AACSB Communication)
65.
Which type of network connects people within an organization?
a.
Internet
b.
intranet
c.
extranet
d.
internal network
e.
internal web
(b; moderate; p. 525; LO3; AACSB Use of IT)
66.
Which type of network connects people in one business with its business
partners?
a.
Internet
b.
intranet
c.
extranet
d.
internal network
e.
internal web
(c; moderate; p. 525; LO3; AACSB Use of IT)
67.
Which of the following have opened up avenues for public relations activities?
a.
e-mail
b.
intranets
c.
extranets
d.
web sites
e.
all of the above
(e; easy; p. 525; LO3; AACSB Use of IT)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
68.
Which of the following is false regarding online communication?
a.
Corporate web sites have become an important part of corporate
communication.
b.
The Internet presents at least as many challenges to public relations
professionals as it does opportunities.
c.
The Internet makes it possible to present the company’s image and story
without going through the editing of a gatekeeper.
d.
The Internet, the World Wide Web, is still a controlled medium that does
not allow managed communication directly between organizations and
audiences without the gatekeeping function of other mass media.
e.
Gossip and rumors can spread around the world within hours.
(d; moderate; pp. 525-526; LO3; AACSB Use of IT)
69.
Public relations practitioners track the impact of a campaign in terms of
________.
a.
awareness and attitudes
b.
output and outcome
c.
sales and inquiries
d.
impressions and sales
e.
input and output
(b; moderate; p. 528; LO4)
70.
To get a comprehensive picture of PR's ________, practitioners evaluate process
and outcome.
a.
exposure
b.
contact
c.
impact
d.
reach
e.
frequency
(c; moderate; p. 528; LO4)
GENERAL CONTENT: TRUE/FALSE QUESTIONS
71.
Public relations is primarily used to generate sales.
(False; easy; p. 506; LO1)
72.
The term publics refers specifically to people who have a stake, financial or
otherwise, in a company or organization.
(False; moderate; p. 506; LO1)
73.
Opinion leaders are important targets for public relations efforts because these
people influence the opinions of others.
(True; easy; p. 507; LO1; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
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74.
Public relations is the conscience of the company with the objective of creating
trust and maintaining the integrity of the organization.
(True; moderate; p. 507; LO1)
75.
Reputation is a perception based on messages delivered by the advertising and
other marketing communication tools, and image is based on an organization’s
actual behavior.
(False; moderate; p. 508; LO1)
76.
Ultimately, the difference between advertising and public relations is that
advertising takes a longer, broader view of the importance of image and
reputation.
(False; moderate; p. 508; LO1)
77.
Public relations means never having to pay for media exposure.
(False; difficult; p. 508; LO1)
78.
As long as a press release or a feature story is well-written and timely, public
relations specialists can be confident that the media will use it.
(False; moderate; p. 520; LO3)
The “no-conflict-of-interest endorsement” factor reflects the tendency of the
public to trust the media more than they do advertisers.
(False; moderate; p. 508; LO1)
79.
80.
The key publics addressed by relationship management programs in public
relations are media, employees, the financial community, government, and the
general public.
(True; moderate; p. 509; LO1)
81.
The area that focuses on developing media contacts (i.e., knowing who in the
media might be interested in the organization’s story) is called external relations.
(False; moderate; p. 509; LO3; AACSB Communication)
82.
Corporate communication programs with government and with the public on
issues related to government and regulation are called public affairs.
(True; moderate; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Communication)
83.
When companies associate themselves with a good cause, providing assistance as
well as financial support, the practice is called public service marketing.
(False; moderate; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
84.
Reputation is earned based on what you say you do, not necessarily what you do.
(False; moderate; p. 508; LO1)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
85.
The key to crisis management is to anticipate the possibility of a disaster and plan
how to deal with the bad news and all the affected publics.
(True; easy; pp. 511-512; LO1)
86.
An effective crisis plan should outline who contacts the various stakeholders who
might be affected, who speaks to the media, and who sets up and runs an onsite
disaster management center.
(True; moderate; p. 512; LO1)
87.
The key to effective crisis management is to put the blame on the responsible
party as soon as possible.
(False; moderate; p. 512; LO1)
88.
Although public relations can enhance a company’s credibility, it really has no
role in supporting IMC efforts that focus on a product’s sales.
(False; moderate; p. 516-517; LO2; AACSB Communication
89.
Public communication campaigns can be used to discourage behavior.
(True; moderate; p. 512; LO1; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
90.
A public relations audit assesses the internal and external public relations
environment that affects the organization’s audiences, objectives, competitors,
and past results.
(False; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
91.
A communication audit is necessary before beginning any public relations effort.
(False; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
92.
A gap analysis is used to identify baselines from previous audits or audits of other
related companies and industries so there is a point of comparison.
(False; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills)
93.
Public relations objectives are designed to make changes in the public’s
knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to a company.
(True; easy; p. 515; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills))
94.
Change-agent programs have the primary goal of changing behavior of internal
publics, such as employees, or external publics, such as consumers.
(False; moderate; p. 515; LO2; AACSB Analytic Skills))
95.
In most companies, advertising and public relations are integrated, coordinated
functions.
(False; moderate; p. 517; LO3)
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96.
The public relations practitioner has many tools, which can be divided into two
categories: planned and unplanned.
(False; moderate; p. 517; LO3)
97.
An ad prepared for use in a company’s own publication or programming is known
as a corporate ad.
(False; moderate; p. 517; LO3; AACSB Communication)
98.
Public service announcements run free of charge on television or radio or in print
media.
(True; moderate; p. 518; LO3; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
99.
Advocacy advertising refers to point-of-view messages used by companies.
(True; moderate; p. 520; LO3; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
100. News releases must be written the same for each medium to maintain consistency.
(False; difficult; p. 520; LO3; AACSB Communication)
101.
A press conference is useful because a company can control who is present as
well as the questions that will be asked.
(False; moderate; p. 522; LO3; AACSB Communication)
102.
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) requires that each publicly held company
publish an annual report.
(False; moderate; p. 522; LO3)
103.
To facilitate external marketing with a local community, town hall forums are
sometimes used.
(False; moderate; p. 524; LO3)
104.
The Internet has posed more problems than opportunities for public relations
practitioners.
(False; difficult; p. 525; LO3; AACSB Use of IT
105.
Public relations practitioners track the impact of a campaign in terms of reach and
frequency.
(False; moderate; p. 528; LO4; AACSB Analytic Skills)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
GENERAL CONTENT: ESSAY QUESTIONS
106.
Compare and contrast public relations and advertising.
Answer:
The goal of public relations specialists is communicating with various
stakeholders, managing the organization’s image and reputation, and creating
positive public attitudes and goodwill toward the organization. Ultimately, the
difference between advertising and public relations is that public relations takes a
longer, broader view of the importance of image and reputation as a corporate
competitive asset and addresses a greater number of target audiences. Public
relations and advertising also differ in how they use the media, the level of control
they have over message delivery, and their perceived credibility:
(1)
Media Use—Instead of purchased time and space, public relations people
seek to persuade media gatekeepers to carry stories about their company.
This aspect of public relations is called publicity and carries no direct
media costs.
(2)
Control—The public relations strategist is at the mercy of the media
gatekeeper as there is no guarantee that all or even part of a story will
appear. There is also the risk that the story may be rewritten or
reorganized by an editor so that it no longer means what the strategist
intended. In contrast, advertising runs exactly as the client who paid for it
has approved, and it will run as scheduled.
(3)
Credibility—The public tends to trust the media more than they do
advertisers. This consumer tendency is called the implied third-party
endorsement factor.
(moderate; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Communication)
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107.
Explain the key publics addressed by relationship programs in public relations.
Answer:
The key publics addressed by relationship programs in public relations are:
(1)
Media Relations—Focuses on developing media contacts.
(2)
Employee Relations—Communicate information to employees. A related
program is called internal marketing, which is communication efforts
aimed at informing employees about marketing programs and encouraging
their support.
(3)
Financial Relations—Communication efforts aimed at the financial
community, such as press releases sent to business publications, meetings
with investors and analysts, and the annual report.
(4)
Public Affairs—Corporate communication programs with government and
with the public on issues related to government and regulation. This area
also includes lobbying, where the company provides information to
legislators in order to get their support and vote on a particular bill. It also
includes issue management, which includes communication efforts with
consumer or activist groups who seek to influence government policies.
(5)
Fund-raising—The practice of raising money by collecting donations.
(6)
Cause Marketing—Companies associate themselves with a good cause,
providing assistance as well as financial support.
(difficult; pp. 509; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
108.
Name and describe the two categories into which public relations tools can be
divided.
Answer:
Public relations tools can be divided into two categories: controlled media and
uncontrolled media. More specifically:
(1)
Controlled Media—Includes house ads, public service announcements,
corporate advertising, in-house publications, and visual presentations. The
sponsoring organizations pay for these media. In turn, the sponsor
maintains total control over how and when the message is delivered.
(2)
Uncontrolled Media—Includes press releases, press conferences, and
media tours. The most recent new media are electronic, and they can be
categorized as semicontrolled.
(moderate; p. 517; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
109.
Discuss how advertising is used as a public relations tool.
Answer:
Public relations programs sometimes employ advertising as a way to create
corporate visibility or increase its goodwill with its various stakeholder audiences.
The primary uses of advertising are house ads, public service announcements, and
corporate advertising.
(1)
House Ads—An ad for use in its own publication or programming.
(2)
Public Service Announcement—Ads for charitable or civic organizations
that run free of charge on television or radio or in print media. These ads
are prepared just like other ads, and in most instances ad agencies donate
their expertise and media donate time and space to run the ads.
(3)
Corporate Advertising—A company focuses on its corporate image or
viewpoint. There is less emphasis on selling a particular product unless it
is tied in to a good cause. Corporate identity advertising is another type of
advertising that firms use to enhance or maintain their reputation among
specific audiences or to establish a level of awareness of the company’s
name and the nature of its business. Sometimes companies deliver pointof-view messages called advocacy advertising.
(moderate; p. 517-518; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
110.
Name and describe the various forms of publicity used in public relations.
Answer:
The major forms of publicity include:
(1)
News Releases—The primary medium used to deliver public relations
messages to the various external media. Although the company
distributing the news release controls its original form and content, the
media decide what to present and how to present it, so this form of
publicity is uncontrolled by the originating company. The decision to use
any part of a news release at all is based on an editor’s judgment of its
news value, which is based on such things as timeliness, proximity,
impact, or human interest. News releases must be written differently for
each medium, accommodating space and time limitations. Video news
releases (VNRs) contain video footage for a television newscast.
(2)
Pitch Letters—Ideas for feature stores, which are human-interest stories
rather than hard news announcement that have to be “sold” to editors, and
the way this is done is through pitch letters. These letters outline the
subject in an engaging way to sell a story idea.
(3)
Press Conference—An event at which a company spokesperson makes a
statement to media representatives; it is one of the riskiest public relations
activities because the media may not see the company’s announcement as
being real news. There’s no guarantee that the press will show up or that
they will ask the right questions. They might also ask questions the
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Part Five: Principles: How to Win the Battle of the Buzz
company cannot or does not want to answer. To anticipate some of these
problems, companies may issue a media kit, usually a folder that provides
all the important background information to members of the press either
before or when they arrive at the press conference. The risk, however, is
that by providing this information, the press conference itself becomes
unnecessary.
(4)
Media Tours—A press conference on wheels. The traveling spokesperson
makes announcements and speeches, holds press conferences to explain a
promotional effort, and offers interviews.
(moderate; pp. 520-522; LO3; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
APPLICATION QUESTIONS: MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS
111.
What was the issue in the GE Ecomagination campaign described in the chapter’s
opening vignette?
a.
drug use
b.
drunk driving
c.
green strategy
d.
domestic violence
e.
AIDS
(c; easy; p. 506)
112.
What was the strategy used to convince the publics that the green strategy makes
sense for the corporation and the people that it serves as described in the chapter’s
opening vignette?
a.
corporate advocacy advertising
b.
integrated marketing campaign
c.
issue management campaign
d.
media relations campaign
e.
public affairs campaign
(b; moderate; p. 506)
113.
Marty is an employee of Chevron/Texaco oil company. In terms of public
relations, what term below best describes him?
a.
public
b.
influencer
c.
decision-maker
d.
stakeholder
e.
opinion leader
(d; moderate; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
586
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
114.
Ralph Nader has been an outspoken consumer activist for many years, and several
organizations target him and his organizations to influence public opinion. In
terms of public relations, Mr. Nader is considered a(n) ________ because he is an
important person who influences the opinions of others.
a.
opinion leader
b.
advocacy advertiser
c.
gatekeeper
d.
third-party endorser
e.
lobbyist
(a; moderate; p. 507; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
As described in “A Matter of Practice,” what was the purpose of the MacWorld
Expo scheduled by Steve Jobs?
a.
to announce the iPhone
b.
to oppose the Consumer Electronics Show
c.
to encourage tourists to come to San Francisco
d.
to influence consumers to buy an iMac
e.
to avoid attending the Industrial Computer Meeting
(a; moderate; p. 523)
115.
116.
Ian works in the public relations function in his company, and whenever he wants
exposure for some aspect of his company, he contacts people he knows, such as
Lisa,
a reporter for the local newspaper, or Anthony, Melissa, and Stephanie at the local
television stations. He has worked hard to develop these media contacts, and this
relationship management program in public relations is known as ________.
a.
external relations
b.
media relations
c.
public affairs
d.
corporate relations
e.
reputation management
(b; moderate; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
117.
Melanie works in the public relations department at a major university, and she is
the editor of an internal newspaper, called Update, that is distributed to all faculty
and staff working at the university. The newspaper covers stories about what
faculty are doing, grants and awards won by employees, as well as important
information regarding human resource issues, such as open enrollment
information for optional insurance selections. What type of public relations
program does this illustrate?
a.
employee affairs
b.
corporate relations
c.
internal relations
d.
employee relations
e.
house communications
(d; moderate; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Part Five: Principles: How to Win the Battle of the Buzz
118.
Procter & Gamble is a major consumer packaged goods manufacturer, who for
years
has supported the Special Olympics. They feature the athletes in several of their
advertisements and provide assistance and financial support for the event. P&G’s
employees assist in the Special Olympics every year. What type of relationship
management program is this?
a.
public affairs
b.
corporate relations
c.
media relations
d.
employee relations
e.
cause marketing
(e; moderate; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
119.
Which of the following is NOT a skill required for public relations managers or
public affairs specialists as presented in the text?
a.
knowledge of how public relations and public affairs support business
goals
b.
global perspective
c.
the ability to take everyone seriously
d.
the ability to integrate all communication functions
e.
an aptitude for information technology
(c; difficult; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
120.
Before revising or developing a new public relations campaign for a new client,
Damali is conducting a formal type of background research to assess the internal
and external public relations environment that affects the organization’s
audiences, objectives, competitors, and past results. She is doing this to ensure
that the current campaign is on track and performing as intended. What does this
scenario illustrate?
a.
communication audit
b.
SWOT analysis
c.
gap analysis
d.
situation analysis
e.
evaluation audit
(a; moderate; p. 514; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
Jeep hosts an annual “Jeep Weekend” event in which current Jeep owners are
invited to attend a weekend adventure with fellow Jeep owners. The purpose of
this public relations tactic is to intensify Jeep owners’ involvement with their
vehicle and brand and is known as a(n) ________.
a.
change-agent strategy
b.
involvement strategy
c.
stakeholder strategy
d.
public communication campaign
e.
customer-relations strategy
(b; moderate; p. 515; LO2; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
121.
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
122.
Benetton has often used ads that send a social message, such as showing AIDS
victims dying or featuring death row inmates, to make people aware of these
issues. What type of advertising is this?
a.
advocacy advertising
b.
brand advertising
c.
retail advertising
d.
controversial advertising
e.
cause advertising
(a; moderate; p. 520; LO1; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
123.
Which of the following is a tip given regarding how to write e-mail pitch letters
given in the “Practical Tips” box?
a.
be sure to list all recipients in the “To:” line
b.
include attachments whenever possible to ensure the media receives
complete information
c.
always follow up on an e-mail pitch by asking, “Did you get it?”
d.
make it personal
e.
all of the above
(d; difficult; p. 522; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
As described in the chapter’s opening and closing vignettes, who was the target
audience for the GE's Ecomagination campaign?
a.
tree huggers and mountain bikers
b.
New Yorkers, shareholders and employees
c.
customers, prospects, shareholders, employees, and media
d.
Families with young children
e.
Consumers who buy hybrid cars
(c; moderate; p. 506)
124.
125.
As described in the chapter’s opening and closing vignettes, which of the
following was an objective of GE's Ecomagination campaign?
a.
maximize media exposure for the GE executives
b.
change people's eating habits
c.
inspire action
d.
generate collective concern
e.
convince customers and other publics that the green strategy makes sense
(e; easy; p. 506)
As described in the “Matter of Principle” case what was the objective of the
"Shared Values Initiative"?
a.
raise awareness of Colin Powell
b.
improve the image of the U.S.A. around the world
c.
promote the values of African-Americans in the western U.S.A.
d.
boost the confidence of citizens of the U.S.A.
e.
promote the U.S. Marines
(b; difficult; p. 513)
126.
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APPLICATION QUESTIONS: MINI-CASE MULTIPLE-CHOICE
Wendy’s fast food restaurant recently had a situation where a woman found a fingertip in
her bowl of chili. Of course, customers were disgusted and sales of that particular
Wendy’s and Wendy’s outlets nationwide went down. Fortunately for Wendy’s, though,
it was discovered weeks later that the accuser has a history of filing lawsuits against
businesses, and the owner of the lost digit turned out to be a co-worker of the woman’s
husband. The Wendy’s location in which this incident occurred has received very
favorable exposure in the local media once it was learned that they were victimized by
this crime.
127.
Mini-Case Question. Immediately following this individual’s claim of finding a
finger in her chili, which public relations program would be most valuable to
Wendy’s?
a.
corporate reputation management
b.
crisis management
c.
marketing public relations
d.
public communication campaigns
e.
public service announcements
(b; moderate; p. 512; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
128.
Mini-Case Question. Now that the culprit has been found, which public relations
program is most relevant to Wendy’s?
a.
public affairs
b.
cause marketing
c.
reputation management
d.
public communications campaigns
e.
marketing public relations
(c; difficult; pp. 510-511; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
129.
Mini-Case Question. The local Wendy’s franchise is a good corporate citizen, and
the owners of that particular franchise had fostered relationships with local media
contacts. What type of relationship management program focuses on developing
media contacts?
a.
public affairs
b.
issue management
c.
corporate relations
d.
media relations
e.
town hall forums
(d; moderate; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
130.
Mini-Case Question. To help rebuild Wendy’s reputation, the corporate office
encourages franchisees to support local organizations in their communities, such
as charities and schools. The practice of companies associating themselves with a
good cause, providing assistance as well as financial support is known as
________.
a.
public affairs
b.
marketing public relations
c.
cause marketing
d.
fund-raising
e.
media relations
(c; moderate; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Ethical Reasoning)
APPLICATION QUESTIONS: SHORT-ANSWER
131.
Describe the problem GE faced with its Ecomagination campaign and the strategy
they used as described in the chapter’s opening vignette.
Answer:
The problem of the campaign was to convince customers, prospects, shareholders,
employees, and the media that the green strategy makes sense for the corporation
and the people it serves.
The tactics of the campaign included online and broadcast TV commercials,
events, employee engagement, and online games.
(moderate; p. 506)
132.
Southern Company is a power company conglomerate in the southern United
States and operates several power plants throughout the region, a few of them
nuclear power plants. Needless to say, the public is concerned with emissions in
the air surrounding these plants. Explain what public opinion means and discuss
what questions the public relations specialists at Southern Company must
understand about public opinion before deciding on an appropriate campaign.
Answer:
Public opinion, the label describing what a group of people think, is a belief that
people hold about an event, person, institution, or product that is not necessarily
based on fact. The public relations strategist researches the answers to two
primary questions:
(1)
Which publics are most important to the organization, now and in the
future?
(2)
What do these publics think?
Particular emphasis falls on understanding the role of opinion leaders, who are
important people who influence the opinions of others.
(moderate; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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133.
In difficult economic times, the public relations budget is the most likely to suffer
more severe cuts than other functions of an organization. Jill is the director of her
company’s public relations department, and she had to convince her superiors that
her department’s function produces tangible results. To them, concepts such as
goodwill, image, and reputation are just “warm fuzzies.” What should Jill say to
help them appreciate the importance of these concepts?
Answer:
Reputation is based on goodwill, trust, and integrity. Public goodwill is the
greatest asset any organization can have. A well-informed public with a positive
attitude toward an organization is critical to the organization’s survival—and that
is why creating goodwill is the primary goal of most public relations programs. A
public relations program that is tuned to creating goodwill operates as the
conscience of the organization. The trust on which goodwill is based comes from
corporate integrity. Image is a perception based on messages delivered by
advertising and other marketing communication tools. Reputation, however, is
based on an organization’s actual behavior. Image mirrors what the company says
about itself, but reputation reflects what other people say about the company. A
major tool of public relations is corporate reputation management.
(moderate; p. 507; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
134.
As described in “A Matter of Principle,” what was the message and the media of
the "Shared Values Initiative" campaign?
Answer:
The "Shared Values Initiative" campaign featured five 2-minute testimonial
“mini-documentaries” about American Muslims living comfortable and
prosperous lives in the United States. There were also newspaper ads, a Web site,
a radio version of the TV spots and a four-color magazine called Muslim Life in
America.
(moderate; p. 513)
592
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
135.
Armstrong Williams is a conservative African American talk show radio host. He
was very supportive of President Bush’s “No Child Left Behind” legislation.
Some people changed their opinion after hearing Armstrong support it even
though they weren’t influenced by the ads they saw regarding this issue.
However, it was later revealed (after the bill became law) that Mr. Williams was
paid hundreds of thousands of dollars to “talk up” the bill without his audience
knowing that he had been paid for it. Why do you think supporters of this bill
wanted him to support it but not let his audience know he was being paid to do so,
and what are the ramifications of these actions?
Answer:
The public tends to trust the media more than they do advertisers. This consumer
tendency is called the implied third-party endorsement factor. However, his
credibility and the credibility of the supporters of this bill are likely to suffer from
this action, and credibility is a major point of distinction between advertising and
public relations.
(difficult; p. 508; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
136.
Do you think you have what it takes to work in public relations or public affairs?
List five of the required skills for public relations managers or public affairs
specialists that were given in the text.
Answer:
Students can list any five of the following:
(1)
Knowledge of how public relations and public affairs support business
goals
(2)
A knack for discerning which opponents to take seriously
(3)
The ability to integrate all communication functions
(4)
An understanding of how to control key messages
(5)
The ability to have influence without being too partisan
(6)
A talent for synthesizing, filtering, and validating information
(7)
An aptitude for information technology
(8)
A global perspective
(moderate; p. 510; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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137.
You’ve just started working at a business as the public relations director. This
business markets several consumer products, and you were very upset to learn
that your company does not have a crisis management plan, so you are going to
develop one. What should you include in the plan, and how will you get
employees to know what to do in the event of a crisis?
Answer:
An effective crisis plan outlines who contacts the various stakeholders who might
be affected (employees, customers, suppliers, civic and community leaders,
government agencies), who speaks to the news media, and who sets up and runs
an onsite disaster-management center. You should conduct unannounced crisis
training during which staff must drop everything and deal with a simulated crisis
as it unfolds.
(easy; p. 512; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking
138.
You’re not sure what major to decide on because you like advertising and you like
public relations. However, there is an area where these two disciplines overlap.
Name and describe this public relations tool.
Answer:
One area where advertising and public relations overlap is marketing public
relations (MPR), which is the process of planning and delivering programs that
encourage sales and contribute to customer satisfaction by providing
communication that addresses the needs and wants of consumers. It is different
from a more general public relations approach in its consumer and sales focus.
However, the need to establish a credibility platform is similar in both: that’s what
PR brings to marketing and is PR’s greatest strength in an IMC program. In other
words, MPR supports marketing’s product and sales focus by increasing brand
credibility and the company’s credibility with consumers.
(moderate; p. 512; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
139.
Angela is starting the planning phase of a public relations campaign for a client.
Explain where she should start.
Answer:
Planning for a public relations campaign is similar to planning an advertising
campaign. The plan should complement the marketing and advertising strategies
so the organization communicates with one clear voice to its various publics. The
process starts with research and a SWOT analysis. The PR effort may also begin
with a more formal type of background research, called a communication audit, to
assess the internal and external PR environment that affects the organization’s
audiences, objectives, competitors, and past results. An annual audit or a
campaign-specific audit can be used to ensure that a program is on track and
performing as intended. Often benchmarking is used to identify baselines from
previous audits or audits of other related companies and industries so there is a
point of comparison. A gap analysis, which measures the differences in
perceptions and attitudes between groups or between the organization and its
publics, may be part of the analysis.
(moderate; p. 514; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
140.
Home Depot supports its employees who have Olympic aspirations, and it looks
as though a few more employees could possibly be attending the next Olympics.
However, to get to that point, these athletes must train and compete in the world
arena. You are tasked with writing a feature story about the dedication of these
athletes and, of course, Home Depot’s support of their efforts. You hope to get the
editor of Readers’ Digest to publish this story, but you will be targeting other
publications as well. Explain how feature stories are used in public relations and
give five tips that were given in the “Practical Tips” box for writing an e-mail
pitch letter.
Answer:
Ideas for feature stories, which are human-interest stories rather than hard news
announcements, have to be “sold” to editors. This is done using a pitch letter that
outlines the subject in an engaging way and sells a story idea, and these letters are
often sent to editors via e-mail. Students can answer any five of the following
“Practical Tips” on how to write e-mail pitch letters:
(1)
Never list all recipients in the “To:” line because no one wants to see all
the others who received the pitch, because these story ideas are supposed
to be made available to the medium on an exclusive basis.
(2)
Avoid attachments as they take time to open and to read, and they can also
carry viruses.
(3)
Keep your pitches less than a page in length, and the first paragraph
should capture the who, what, and why of the story.
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Part Five: Principles: How to Win the Battle of the Buzz
(4)
Help reporters do their jobs by providing them with a great story idea,
including visuals and other resources, and with contacts, so they can round
out the story.
(5)
Make it personal by using their first names and mention the publication
name.
(6)
Keep subject-line headers to fewer than four or five words.
(7)
Never follow up on an e-mail pitch by asking, “Did you get it?” Instead,
call to ask reporters if they need more information and call within an hour
after sending the e-mail).
(moderate; p. 522; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
141.
Melanie was informed that she will be participating in a media tour for her
company for the next three weeks. Explain what this is and the activities that she
might be performing.
Answer:
A media tour is a press conference on wheels. The traveling spokesperson makes
announcements and speeches, holds press conferences to explain a promotional
effort, and offers interviews.
(easy; p. 522; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
142.
Although advertising, publicity, and publications, such as annual reports and
collateral material, are well-known tools of public relations, list some other,
lesser-known yet effective, public relations tools.
Answer:
The other types of public relations tool include:
(1)
DVDs, CDs, Podcasts, Books, and Online Video
(2)
Speakers and Photos
(3)
Displays and Exhibits
(4)
Special Events and Tours
(5)
Online Communication
(moderate; pp. 524-525; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
143.
As described in the “Matter of Principle” case what was the objective of the
"Shared Values Initiative"?
Answer:
After the 9/11 attacks America's image was declining abroad. The U.S. State
department launched its first integrated marketing campaign targeted to the
Muslim world designed to improve the image of the U.S. around the world. The
TV spots ran in countries with large Muslim populations: Kuwait, Malaysia,
Pakistan, and Indonesia on the Pan-Arab satellite.
596
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
(moderate; p. 513)
144.
Kimberly has planned and developed a public relations campaign for her client.
Explain how she might assess the effectiveness of this campaign.
Answer:
Public relations practitioners track the impact of a campaign in terms of output
(how many news releases lead to stories or mentions in news stories) and outcome
(attitude or behavior change). To get a comprehensive picture of PR’s impact,
practitioners evaluate process (what goes out) and outcome (media use; effect on
the target audience). Impressions, which is the number of times a person in the
target audience is reached by one or more of the messages, is often a measure
used.
(moderate; p. 528; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
145.
As described in the chapter’s “It’s a Wrap,” was the GE Ecomagination campaign
successful? Explain your answer.
Answer:
Yes, the campaign was successful:
(1)
Forty-five new products developed generating $13 million in revenue for
2007.
(2)
Won a 2006 Silver Effie and GE was named Technology Leader of the
Year by Industry Week.
(3)
The consumers liked the commercials and helped spread the goodwill of
the company by sending links to friends.
(difficult; p. 528)
146.
As described in the chapter’s opening and closing vignettes, how were online
tools used in the GE's Ecomagination campaign?
Answer:
Campaign tactics include online commercials and an entertaining microsite that
explains ecomagination. Visitors to the site can play interactive online games like
Washer derby and Harness the Wind. Calculators let consumers figure out energy
savings and the effects of green products on the environment.
(moderate; p. 506)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
597
Part Five: Principles: How to Win the Battle of the Buzz
APPLICATION QUESTIONS: MINI-CASE SHORT ANSWER
Kellogg’s is a well-known manufacturer of breakfast cereals along with several other
products, such as Pop-Tarts, Eggo waffles, and fruit snacks. They have used Tony the
Tiger on their Frosted Flakes box and promotional efforts for years. In fact, when Tony
turned 50 years old, Kellogg’s staged a big event in Michigan, which is where the cereal
is produced, to celebrate. They also took the party on the road for the month traveling to
30 cities in a bus painted with Tony on it and offering fun activities for families. Also,
during that month, the price of the cereal was lowered to what the price was 50 years ago
when they first started selling it. The event received considerable media exposure (e.g., a
feature story about Tony in USA Today newspaper) due to the successful public relations
effort supporting the brand. Additionally, kids can go to Kellogs.com and click on “FunK-Town” and play games with Kellogg’s breakfast cereal characters such as Tony the
Tiger. During the month of his birthday celebration, there was a special game where kids
could help Tony find his birthday presents. Although anyone could play a game with
Tony, game pieces were placed in specially marked boxes in which kids could participate
in the game at a higher level and win prizes.
147.
Mini-Case Question. In general, who are potential targets for Kellogg’s public
relations efforts?
Answer:
Public relations is focused on all the relationships that an organization has with its
various publics. By publics, we mean all the groups of people with which a
company or organization interacts: employees, media, community groups,
shareholders, and so forth. Another term for this is stakeholders, which refers
more specifically to people who have a stake (financial or otherwise) in a
company or organization.
(moderate; p. 509; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
148.
Mini-Case Question. Name the types of public relations programs, and explain
what type of public relations tool Tony the Tiger’s birthday celebration illustrates.
Answer:
The types of public relations programs are: relationship management programs
(i.e., media relations, employee relations, public affairs, fund-raising, and cause
marketing), corporate reputation management, crisis management, marketing
public relations, and public communication campaigns. Tony’s birthday
celebration represents marketing public relations (MPR), which are programs that
encourage sales and contribute to customer satisfaction by providing
communication that addresses the needs and wants of consumers. MPR is
different from a more general public relations approach in its consumer and sales
focus.
(moderate; pp. 509-513; LO1; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
598
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Chapter Seventeen: Public Relations
149.
Mini-Case Question. Name the public relations tools and describe which one(s)
allowed them to get the media exposure that they did for Tony’s birthday
celebration?
Answer:
The public relations tools include: advertising, publicity, publications, DVDs,
CDs, books and online videos, speakers and photos, displays and exhibits, special
events and tours, and online communications. The celebration itself is an example
of a special event and the tour, and the exposure that they received was a result of
publicity.
(moderate; pp. 517-526; LO3; AACSB Reflective Thinking)
150.
Mini-Case Question. What type of public relations tool does the game at
Kellogs.com represent?
Answer:
This is an example of the public relations tool known as Online Communications,
specifically an external communication of a corporate web site. Corporate web
sites have become an important part of corporate communications as these sites
can present information about the company and open up avenues for stakeholders
to contact the company. Though not a specific public relations tool, the game
could be viewed as an involvement strategy. Involvement can create interest and a
feeling of excitement, but more importantly it can drive loyalty. Getting people to
participate in an action plan is one way to drive behavior change. Note: students
will probably also mention that this is an example of sales promotion, which is the
topic of the previous chapter.
(moderate; pp. 525-526; LO3; AACSB Use of IT)
Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall
599
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