Battle of Bunker Hill

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Battle of
Bunker Hill
PowerPoint Presentation
 William Prescott
 Hessian Mercenaries
 Benedict Arnold
 Continental Army
 Battle of Quebec
 Blockade
LESSON 2
Part of the
American
Revolutionary
War Unit
Lesson 2 of 10
ZoopDog Creations
©
American Revolutionary War Unit
Battle of Bunker Hill - PowerPoint Presentation #2
VOCABULARY
The Battle of Bunker Hill –
Continental Army –
William Prescott –
Blockade –
Hessian mercenaries –
Benedict Arnold –
Today’s Thinking
Focus
How did the Continental Army gain
control of Boston?
And the story
continues . . .
•
•
•
•
Colonial leaders in 1774 meet in Philadelphia in what
became known as the First Continental Congress.
Red Coats march to Concord to find weapons where “the
shot heard ‘round the world” was fired, starting the
Revolutionary War.
Colonial leaders meet for a second time (2nd Continental
Congress) to write a plea for peace to King George.
George Washington leaves Philadelphia to begin building
an army . . .
The Fight for Boston
• In June 1775, the Second
Continental Congress took the
bold step of setting up the
Continental Army.
• John Adams proposed that
George Washington of
Virginia be appointed
commander and all thirteen
colonies agreed!
• Washington immediately left
Philadelphia to take charge of
the forces around Boston.
• Before Washington arrived in
Boston, the Patriots had
already taken action!
George Washington Takes Command of the
Continental Army
Colonel Prescott
Leads A Charge!
• During the first year of the conflict,
most of the fighting was centered
around Boston as 6,000 British
troops were stationed in Boston.
• Colonial militia surrounded the city
and prevented the British from
marching out!
• As Washington was in route to
Boston, Colonel William Prescott
led 1,200 minutemen up Bunker
Hill, across the river from Boston.
Where is Bunker Hill?
Battle of Bunker Hill by John Mackenzie
• Bunker Hill was located across the river from Boston.
From there, the Patriots (minutemen) could fire down
on British ships in Boston harbor.
• Once the Patriots reached the top of
Bunker Hill they fired down upon
British ships in Boston Harbor!
• Prescott, however, noticed that
nearby Breed’s Hill was an even
better position!
• He ordered his men to move there
and dig defensive trenches!
Here come
the
Redcoats!
• At sunrise, the British General William Howe, spotted the
Americans on Breeds Hill.
• He ferried 2,400 Redcoats across the harbor to attack the
American rebels’ position.
• Slowly, the British soldiers began to climb Breed’s Hill. They
each carried a heavy pack that weighed about 125 pounds!
Many of the British soldiers would be exhausted before the
fighting even began!
In-Class Note-Taking
Bunker Hill, 1775.
Watercolour by Richard Simkin, c1900.
The American minutemen waited patiently as the British
walked up Breed’s Hill.
Because the Americans had very little gunpowder and
didn’t want to miss the shot! (Colonial muskets and rifles
were not very accurate!)
In-Class Note-Taking
Orders Were Given . . .
“Don’t
shoot until you can see
the whites of their eyes!”
In-Class Note-Taking
Make A Prediction!
Prediction Box!
Circle who you think will win the
Battle of Bunker Hill (aka: Breed’s Hill)?
The exhausted British soldiers
OR
The American Patriots with little ammunition
Why?
When the Americans finally fired, the British were forced to
retreat. A second British attack was also turned back. On the
third attempt, the British succeeded in pushing over the top,
but only when the Americas ran out of ammunition.
Bunker Hill Monument was erected to
commemorate the Battle of Bunker Hill.
The 221-foot granite obelisk was
erected between 1827 and 1843 in
Charlestown, Massachusetts.
•
The Redcoats took both
Bunker Hill and Breed’s Hill.
But they suffered great
casualties for their victory.
•
More than a 1,000 British
soldiers lost their lives and
about 400 American
minutemen were killed.
It was the first major battle of the
Revolutionary War. It demonstrated that
American Patriots could fight bravely
against the best army in the world!
That the British would
not be easily defeated!
Applying my Knowledge
Battle of Bunker Hill
Creator(s): Chip, 1862-1894, artist Published in: "June 17, 1775. Battle of Bunker Hill". Life, June 16, 1892.
1. Why are the American soldiers not dressed in uniforms like the British soldiers?
2. What is the artist of this cartoon trying to convey by having the American soldiers use
rakes, shovels, and Boston Baked Beans, on their British enemies?
In Class Note-Taking
Important Revolutionary War Battles
The Battle
of Bunker
Hill
“Don’t shoot
until you can
see the whites
of their
eyes!”
A
B
June
16th
1775
Continental
Colonel
William
Prescott
British
General
William
Howe
The first major battle of
the war.
Americans could fight
bravely.
British would be hard
to defeat.
British
1,000
Patriots
400
Washington Takes Command
• George
Washington
finally reached
Boston a few
weeks after the
Battle of Bunker
Hill.
• There he found
16,000 troops
camped in huts
and tents at the
edge of the city.
• General Washington quickly began to turn raw recruits into a
trained army!
Colonial Unity?
• Washington’s job was even
more difficult because the
soldiers from different colonies
mistrusted one another.
Washington wrote,
“Connecticut wants no
Massachusetts men in her corps.”
and “Massachusetts thinks there is
no necessity for a Rhode Islander
to be introduced into her ranks.”
• In January 1776, Washington had a
stroke of good fortune!
• Soldiers arrived outside Boston with
cannons they dragged across
mountains from Fort Ticonderoga!
(Thank you, Ethan Allen!)
• Washington had the cannons placed
on Dorchester Heights, overlooking
Boston Harbor
The British Leave
New England
•
British General Howe saw that
the Americans had cannons in
place, and he knew that he
could not hold Boston!
•
March 1776 he and his troops
sailed from Boston to Halifax,
Nova Scotia (Canada).
•
1,000 American Loyalists went
with him.
The King’s Response
Although the British left New England,
the conflict was far from over!
King George III hired
Hessian mercenaries
(troops for hire) from
Germany to help fight
against the colonists!
King George III ordered a blockade
(shutting down) of all colonial ports.
While Washington’s army was winning control of
Boston, other Americans were launching an attack
on Canada.
After the French and
Indian War, the
territory known as
New France became
part of the British
colonies. The
Americans had hoped
to get help from the
French Canadians
who were unhappy
under British rule.
American Armies
Move into Canada
• In November of 1775, Brigadier General Richard
Montgomery led his American army from Fort Ticonderoga
to Montreal, Canada.
• Montgomery seized the city of Montreal and then moved on
to Quebec.
Benedict
Arnold
leads an
army North
Major General Benedict
Arnold led a second
army north through
Maine. He was
supposed to join forces
with Montgomery in
Quebec but bad weather
conditions delayed him.
Maine
• Arnold and his troops had a terrible
journey through the Maine woods
in winter. Freezing hail and rain
coated their clothes with ice.
• Due to the harsh weather, Arnold’s
troops moved slower causing their
supplies to run low. Soldiers
survived by eating boiled bark and
shoe leather.
• When Arnold finally reached Quebec he was disappointed to
learn that most French Canadians did not support the
Americans. They instead wanted to remain under British rule.
British and Provincial forces attacking. Arnold's column in the
Sault-au-Matelot painting by C. W. Jefferys
Americans
Attack
Quebec
• December 31, 1775, in a blinding snowstorm, American
soldiers attacked Quebec. Brigadier General Richard
Montgomery was shot in the head and killed and Benedict
Arnold was wounded when a bullet struck his ankle.
• The Americans failed in their attempt to take the city.
• They stayed outside Quebec until May 1776 (5 months!), until
the British landed new forces in Canada.
• Weakened by disease and hunger, the Americans withdrew
leaving Canada to the British.
In Class Note-Taking
Important Revolutionary War Battles
The Battle December
of Quebec
31,
1775
American
Major
General
Benedict
Arnold
American
Brigadier
General
Richard
Montgomery
A
B
Continental Army
lost the Canadian
territory.
American:
400 killed,
650 wounded,
1,500 captured
British:
100 killed,
about 230
wounded,
600 captured
Today’s Thinking
Focus
How did the Continental Army gain
control of Boston?
Sites & Sources
The following sites and sources were used in this PowerPoint presentation for
clipart, content, and font selections:
Babuskadesigns: www.etsy.com/shop/BabushkaDesigns
Clipart @MyClipArtStore: http://www.myclipartstore.com
Pickychicken clipart: www.etsy.com/shop/pickychicken
Clementine Digitals clipart: www.etsy.com/shop/ClementineDigitals
KevinandAmanda fonts www.kevinandamanda.com/fonts/
Dollar Photo Club: www.dollarphotoclub.com
Big Stock Photos: www.bigstockphoto.com
Davidson, J. (2003). The American Nation: Beginnings through 1877. Needham:
Prentice Hall
Boorstin, D. & Kelley, B. (1992). The History of the United States. Englewood
Cliffs: Prentice Hall
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