Adapted From: KVHS Biology - Kevin Gallant Rothesay, N.B.

Campbell 7 - Chapter 22 - Descent with Modification: A Darwinian View of Life
Note: This is a chapter where there are two key concepts to be understood well. The
first one is Darwin’s theory of natural selection and the components that comprise the
theory and secondly the evidence supporting evolution.
1. What was the contribution made by Linnaeus to the development of the theory of
2. What is catastrophism? Gradualism? Uniformitarianism? (Know these)
3. Explain the errors in Lamarck's theory of evolution.
4. What aspect of the flora and fauna of the Galapagos did Darwin find puzzling?
5. How did the Galapagos finches form the foundation for Darwin's thinking?
6. What did Darwin mean by the phrase "descent with modification"?
7. State the observations and inferences which form the theory of natural selection. (This is
an important area as it is the basis of Darwinian evolution. Overproduction, struggle
for existence, adaptations promoting a competitive advantage, survival of the fittest,
change in the population must are be related to each other to understand natural
8. Explain how natural selection is really the environment acting on inherited variations.
9. What is the mechanism of evolution?
10. Describe how the Galapagos finches were used as an example of natural selection.
11. Comment on each of the following observable signs (i.e., evidence) of evolution: (This is
an important area that should be understood. You do not have to know every little
detail but have to understand how these have contributed to an understanding of
a. biogeography
b. the fossil record
c. taxonomy
d. comparative anatomy
e. comparative embryology
f. molecular biology
Adapted From: KVHS Biology - Kevin Gallant
Rothesay, N.B.
The Big Picture – Putting the Pieces Together and Making Connections
• The topic of evolution can be linked to many areas. One may be asked to explain
the development of reproductive structure in plants using Darwin’s theory of
natural selection. One could also be asked to explain the evolution of digestive
systems or circulatory systems in invertebrates and vertebrates. Evolution is a
vast topic that intertwines with all areas of biology.
• One may be asked to explain natural selection with a concentration on adaptation.
This would draw DNA, meiosis, mutational change into the picture leading to and
population change and speciation.
• Another topic is how natural selection can lead to population change and
speciation through selection. (Chapt. 23 and 24)
***Please note the above big picture points are not made to make you study more. You
just have to take what you have learned and make the connections!!
Adapted From: KVHS Biology - Kevin Gallant
Rothesay, N.B.