Measuring Matter Lesson 1 What is Matter? Mass and Volume

Measuring Matter
Lesson 1
What is Matter?
Mass and Volume
Matter is anything, living or nonliving, that has mass and
takes up space.
Mass is the amount of material that an object has in it,
while volume is amount of space an object takes up.
Physical Properties of Matter
Matter can be described by its physical properties, such as
color, shape, size, mass, and state.
The three states of matter are a solid, liquid, and a gas.
A solid has shape and volume of its own.
A liquid has a certain volume but no definite shape.
A gas has no shape or volume of its own.
Mixtures and Solutions
In a mixture, two or more substances are mixed together
but can easily be separated, (a salad)
A solution is a mixture where one substance spreads evenly
throughout the other. (Kool-Aid)
Lesson 2
How Are Length and Volume Measured?
Measuring Length
Length is a physical property of matter.
It measures the distance between two points.
In the metric system, length is measured in meters, centimeters,
millimeters, and kilometers.
1 meter =100 centimeters
1 centimeter = 10 millimeters
1 kilo meter = 1000 meters
Measuring Volume
The volume of a solid with a regular shape can be measured by
multiplying the object's length times its width times its height.
A cubic meter is a basic unit for measuring volume.
A graduated cylinder can be used to find the volume of an
irregularly shaped solid that does not absorb water.
Lesson 3
How Do You Find Mass and Density?
Measuring Mass
Mass is not the same as weight.
Mass is a measure of the amount of matter in an
object. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force
acting on an object.
You can find the mass of an object by balancing it
with an object of known mass.
Large objects are measured in kilograms, smaller
objects in grams, and very small objects in milligrams.
Density is another property of matter. It refers to
how much mass is in a certain volume of matter. (Oil will
float on top of vinegar because it has less mass than the
If two objects have the same mass, but one is larger,
the smaller object has the greater density.
What Are Physical Changes?
Lesson 4
Physical Changes in Matter
When matter undergoes a physical change, one or more
of its physical properties are changed in some way, but the
matter itself does not change into a different kind of matter.
Heating and Cooling Matter
Matter changes state when it is heated or cooled beyond
a certain temperature.
When ice is heated to 0 C, it melts, or changes from a
solid to a liquid.
When water is heated to 100 C, it boils, or changes from
a liquid to a gas. A change of state is a physical change
The melting point is the temperature at which a solid
substance becomes a liquid.
The boiling point of a material is the temperature at
which it boils. This is also the temperature at which a material
changes from a liquid to a gas.
The freezing point of a substance is the temperature at
which the substance changes from a liquid to a solid.
What Are Chemical Changes?
Lesson 5
Chemical Changes in Matter
A chemical change produces a completely different kind of
The matter may have different properties from the original
matter. (Cooking pancakes is an example of a chemical change.)
Eating pancakes or other foods produces a chemical change in
your body.
Rusting, Tarnishing, and Burning
Rusting, burning, and tarnishing are examples of chemical
Rust is formed when oxygen joins with iron.
Tarnish forms when air mixes with copper, silver, and certain
other metals and causes the metal to look less shiny.
The reaction between oxygen gas and hydrogen gas releases a
lot of energy that causes an explosion. (The space shuttle uses this
chemical change to propel into orbit.)