Presentation of the Articles entitled “Lessons Learned from the

Presentation of the Articles entitled
“Lessons Learned from the Human Resource Development in ASEAN + 6 Toward
the Modified Strategies of Thailand’s Human Resource Development”
By Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chiraprapha Akaraborworn
“When The Thais move toward Southeast Asia: Vision of Cross-Cultural
By Asst. Prof. Dr. Oranuch Pruetipibultham
ASEAN consists of three main pillars namely social and cultural, political, and
economic pillars. The School of Human Resource Development, NIDA, undertook
ASEAN studies in the past in the form of research and promoted wide-ranging studies in
dissertation topics relating to ASEAN and ASEAN+6.
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Chiraprapha Akaraborworn studied the lessons learned
in the human resource development in ASEAN+6 toward the modified strategies of
Thailand’s human resource development by screening the following assessment criteria:
1. World Economic Forum or WEF (2013)
2. Pearson’s Learning Curve Index (EIU, 2012)
3. Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) (IEA,
4. Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) (OECD 2012)
5. OS World University Ranking (2013)
6. Times Higher Education World University Ranking (THE) (2013)
7. Economic Ranking of World Universities by Shanghai Jiao Tong (2005)
The assessment criteria will allow us to study lessons learned from the countries
in ASEAN+6 namely Singapore Republic, Australia, Japan, South Korea, People’s
Republic of China. Benchmarking allows us to know who is doing better than us and the
direction of development that we should follow, leading to the solution of our country
because the problem of our country is that we do not have holistic approach.
The assessment criteria reveal that our country is in the middle. Singapore has the
“education builds the nation” concept, that is to say, less instruction but more learning. It
also reduces the impact of the aging society by extending the retirement age and hiring
retirees to work in the positions beneficial to the country.
Back to Thailand, it reveals that the goal of development is not clear. When the
ends are not clear, the input cannot meet the objective of the ends. Thailand must be
clear in Workforce Planning., by bringing in all stakeholders to work on the planning so
that all guidelines move toward the same direction.
Asst. Prof. Dr. Oranuch Pruetipibultham focused on the study of cultural differences
in ASEAN which could be explained from the U Curve Theory as shown below:Mastery
means the ability to professionally adapt themselves
Adjustment according
to Personality
Culture Shock
Adjustment includes behavior, work, lifestyle. The example of culture shock is in
Lao PDR where people have meals with their hands. If one is not accustomed to it, the
problem of adjustment may occur.
Thailand is a country with hardly cultural differences. It is a melting pot of cultures.
But the countries with islands will experience more cultural differences. Malaysia has
different laws between the eastern and the western parts of the country. History teaches
us that the countries with islands were developed from maritime trade.
Pattern of adjustment of the countries along the Mekong River:1) Good impression or positive attitude derived from the friendliness of
the local people which is different from the information, news, or
image formerly received.
2) Culture shock in general adjustment derived from the problems of
basic infrastructure, hygiene, healthcare with low standards, high costs
of living in the opposite direction with the income of local employees,
the taste of similar food but different and not tasty.
3) Culture shock in working derived from workforce with lesser skill
than in Thailand. The mentality of waiting for orders or the avoidance
of problems is observed in every country except in Vietnam where
people confront one another and dare to speak out.
4) Some working characteristics that reflect the influence of former
colonial countries such as the siesta in Lao PDR and Vietnam, the
culture of drinking tea in Myanmar, and the culture of drinking coffee
in Vietnam.
5) Creation of relationship with the country leaders such as the military
government in Myanmar, the politicians in Kampuchea, the
Communist Party leaders in Lao PDR for business connections.
Pattern of Adjustment for insular countries:1) Islamic teachings are highly influential in daily lives and working in
the Muslim insular countries
2) Diversifications of races, languages, and cultures in insular countries
leading to both positive and negative culture shock
3) Leaning the local language and local culture as well as traveling to the
destination before starting the real work will tremendously facilitate
the adjustment
4) Apart from the challenges of the local language, the Thai employees
may face the challenges of English spoken with different accent in
each country. The determination to create familiarity with the
pronunciation of each word is extremely important.
Distinguished characteristics of countries in ASEAN:Kampuchea seeks knowledge in languages.
Myanmar has tremendous differences of ethnic groups with many
ethnic languages. The labor force presently in Thailand has a high chance of going back
to Myanmar as the country’s economy has been more developed. Working in Myanmar
requires high life skill, high costs of living, but low infrastructure standards.
Vietnam has a big population at working age who seeks knowledge
in the skills with shortage.
Indonesia has problems with labor union, safety in working place, and with
possible threat.
Experts expressed their views as follows:Asst. Prof. (Special) Dr. Somchai Harnhirun
Education should have a clear direction with the formulation of objectives and
plans. We must choose the direction as a winner or the distinguished characteristic of our
country. At present, we let market do the decision. Demand changes so quickly whereas
the education system is limited by many factors. The demand that we are talking about
may be designed by law. The policy makers must look at the whole picture. Education is
a tool to meet the country’s objectives but the objectives must be clear.
Asst. Prof. Dr. Rattigorn Chongvisal
Knowledge on human resource development in ASEAN should be compiled. One
should study the direction a country is heading such as leadership, knowledge seeking,
value, working culture, motivation, SWOT analysis, local wisdom, happiness,
knowledge, and direction of the country’s development.
Finally, the moderator concluded the issues learned from today’s conference. The
views from the audience were different and diversified as follows:
Safety in working place and job security in each ASEAN
country as information for Thai entrepreneurs
Research should be undertaken on the demand of jobs within
the next five or ten years to be used as framework to formulate
education policy
Diversification management
Wage policy
Belief in friendship in working place
Cultural adjustment such as cultural recognition, announcement
of holidays, religious rites, the ASEAN language adjustment
Further work on the research findings for concrete results,
formulation of the government’s policy to know and correctly
implement such as trade, foreign workers etc.
Thailand’ s higher education reform to upgrade, motivate
students with skilled profession as required by the market
Labor relation in each country
Non degree training
Clear definition of vision whether focus on economic, social, or
Preventive measures of Thailand’s education crisis
There should be studies of information from additional 7
There should be detailed studies of the similarities and
differences of ASEAN cultures
Rules and regulations of employees must follow the law of
each country
MOU/hiring contract must be specific for each group
Modify the income base for all professions so that the gap will
not be too wide to allow equality for people in the society.
They need not receive
Is it true that the plan to provide labor to the market by
referring to the government, the private sector, and the
provincial administrative organization will produce labor to
meet the requirements of the market?
For the working position at worker level with high vocational
certificate, is it true that the labor market in AEC is more