an analysis of the students' error in learning plural forms of nouns

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS’ ERROR IN
LEARNING PLURAL FORMS OF NOUNS
(A Case Study at the First Year Students of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor)
A “Skripsi”
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers Training
in partial fulfillment of the requirements
for the degree of S.Pd. (Bachelor of Arts) in English Language Education
By:
ADE IRMA SURYANI
NIM: 107014000693
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING
‘SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH’ STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
2011
AN ANALYSIS OF THE STUDENTS'ERROR IN LEARNING
PLURAL FORMS OF NOUNS
(A Case Study at the First Year Students of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor)
A "Skripsi"
Presented
to the Facultyof TarbiyaandTeachersTraining
In PartialFulfillmentof the Requirements
for the Degreeof S.pd(Bachelorof Arts) in EnglishLanguageEducation
By:
Ade Irma Survani
107014000693
Approvedby theAdvisor:
Drs.AM. Zaenuri.M.pd
NIP: 19530304
197903I 003
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION
FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS TRAINING
.SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH' STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
JAKARTA
20ll
ENDORSEMENT SHEET
The "Skripsi" (ScientificPaper)entitled"An Analysisof the Students'Error in
I-earningPlural Forms of Nouns at the First Year Studentsof MTs Nurul Huda
Bogor" written by Ade Irma Suryani, students' registration number:
1017014000693,
was examinedby the committeeon Thursday,Decemberl5th
2011, and was declaredto have passedand, therefore,fulfilled one of the
requirementsfor academictitle of 'S.Pd' in English languageeducationat the
department
of Englisheducation.
Jakarta,15 December,2011
ExaminationCommittee:
Date
CHAIRMAN
Wrl"
Drs. Svauki.M.Pd
NIP. 19641212199103
| 002
SECRETARY
,u;ro,\w
NenengSunengsih.
M.Pd
NrP. l s0 293232
EXAMINER I
Dr. H. M Farkhan.M.Pd.
N I P .r 9 5 7 1 0 0 1
598703
I 003
EXAMINER II
,r/:@i
Drs.NasrunMahmud.M.Pd
NIP. 1s0041070
Acknowledgeby:
Deanof Facult f TarbiyaandTeacher'sTraining
A-
n
i
F-/
NIP. 19591020
198603
2 001
DEPARTEMEN
AGAMA
UIN JAKARTA
FITK
No. Dokumen :
Tgl.Terbit
:
No. Revisi.
.
Hal
FORM(FR)
JL Ir H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat15412 tndonesia
SURATPERNYATAAN
KARYASENDIRI
FITK-FR-AKD-089
1 Maret2010
01
1t1
Sayayang bertandatangandi bawah ini,
Nama
Ade Irma Suryani
Tempat/Tgl.Lahir Bogor,8 Mei i988
NIM
I 070I 4000693
Jurusan/ Prodi
Pendidikan
BahasaInggris
JudulSkripsi
AN ANALYSIS Of THE STUDENTS' ERROR IN LEARNING
PLURAL FOPJVISOF NOUNS
(A CaseStudyat the FirstYearStudents
of MTs. Nurul Huda,Bogor)
DosenPenzbimbing
:Drs. A.N,l.Zaenuri.M.pd.
denganini menyatakan
bahwaskripsiyangsayabuatbenar-benar
hasilkaryasendiridan
jawab secaraakademisatasapayangsayatulis.
sayabertanggung
Jakarta,I 9 Desember 2011
Ade Irma\Suryani
NIM. 107014000693
ABSTRACT
IRMA SURYANI.ADE, 2011, An Analysis of the Students’ Error in Learning
Plural Forms of Nouns at the First year students of MTs Nurul Huda
Bogor, Skripsi, English Education Department, the Faculty of Tarbiya
and Teachers Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University
Jakarta.
Advisor: Drs.AM.Zaenuri, M.Pd
Key word: Error analysis, and plural forms of nouns
The objective of this study is to find out the errors made by the first year students
of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor in English plural. Sample of the research is 30 students of
the first year. The method of this research is used descriptive analysis method by
analyzing student’s error through the data have been collected from the test about
plural forms of nouns. According to the test result of simple statistical calculation
it is obtained the average for regular forms is only 31.60%, while the average for
irregular forms is 71.01%. It means that most students made most error in learning
irregular forms of noun. It can be seen from the percentage of irregular forms
which is higher than regular forms. Based on the finding of this research, it can be
concluded that the students of the first year of MTs Nurul Huda made most error
in learning irregular forms noun. It is because there are not certain rules to change
singular forms to be irregular plural forms of noun. The English teacher should
more give exercises and practice to the students in order the student more familiar
with irregular plural.
i
ABSTRACT
IRMA SURYANI.ADE, 2011, An Analysis of the Students’ Error in Learning
Plural Forms of Nouns at the First year students of MTs Nurul Huda
Bogor , Skripsi, English Education Department, the Faculty of Tarbiya
and Teachers Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University
Jakarta.
Advisor: Drs.AM.Zaenuri, M.Pd
Kata kunci: Error analysis, and plural forms of nouns
Tujuan dari penilitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan kesalahan yang dibuat
oleh siswa kelas tujuh di MTs Nurul Huda dalam mempelajari bentuk-bentuk kata
benda jamak. Siswa yang termasuk dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 30 orang dari
kelas tujuh. Penilitian ini menggunakan metode deskriptif analisis yaitu dengan
menganalisa kesalahan siswa malalui data-data yang diperoleh dari test tentang
bentuk-bentuk jamak. Berdasarkan hasil statistic, didapatkan rata-rata untuk
bentuk kata benda yang beraturan yaitu 31.60%, sedangkan untuk kata benda
yang tidak beraturan yaitu 71.01%. Ini berarti kebanyakan siswa membuat
kesalahan dalam mempelajari bentuk-bentuk kata benda yang tidak beraturan. Ini
dapat dilihat dari jumlah rata-rata dari bentuk kata benda yang tidak bertauran
lebih besar dari kata benda yang beraturan. Berdasarkan dari hasil penelitian ini
dapat disimpulkan bahwa siswa kelas tujuh MTs Nurul Huda membuat kesalahan
dalam mempelajari bentuk-bentuk jamak dalam kata benda yang tidak beraturan.
Ini disebabkan karena tidak ada aturan yang pasti dalam mengubah kata benda
tunggal menjadi kata benda jamak yang tidak beraturan. Guru bahasa inggris
harus lebih banyak memberikan latihan kepada siswa tentang bentuk-bentuk
jamak terutama dalam bentuk jamak tidak braturan agar para siswa lebih akrab
dan mengenal bentuk jamak tidak beraturan.
ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent the Merciful
All praise be to Allah, who bestowed upon the writer in completing this
“Skripsi”. Peace and blessing be upon to our prophet Muhammad SAW, his
household, his companions, and his faithful followers.
The writer would like to say her great honor and deepest gratitude to her
beloved parents: Arsyadi, S.Ag and Ida who always give their love, support,
motivation, and advice to finish her study.
The writer also wants to say a lot of thanks to Drs. AM. Zaenuri, M.Pd as
the writer advisor for his time, guidance, kindness, contributions, and patience in
correcting and helping her to finish this paper.
The writer also realizes that she would never finish writing this paper
without the help of some people around her. Therefore, she would like to give
special gratitude to:
1. All lectures of English Department who have dedicated themselves for
education and taught the writer during her study in State Islamic University
Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd, the head of English Department
3. Nurlena Rifa’I, Ph.D, the Dean of Faculty of Tarbiya and Teacher’s Training
4. Syamsudin, SAg, The Headmaster of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor who permitted
the writer to do research.
5. All friends in English Department especially classmates of PBI class A for
academic year 2007, who have endeavored together in improving English
skill. May Allah bless them, Amin.
May this “Skripsi” can be useful for the writer in particular, and for the
readers in general. The writer realizes that this “Skripsi” is far from being perfect.
Therefore, the writer would like to accept suggestion for valuable improvement in
another research.
Jakarta, 21 November 2011
iii
iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page
ABSTRACT ........................................................................................................... i
ACKNOWLEDGE . ............................................................................................... iii
TABLE OF CONTENT ........................................................................................ iv
LIST OF APPENDICES ....................................................................................... vi
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the study ......................................................... 1
B. Limitation of the problem ...................................................... 4
C. Formulation of the problem .................................................... 5
D. Objective of the study ............................................................. 5
CHAPTER II: THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Error…... ......................................................................................... 6
1. Definition of Error .............................................................. 7
2. Types of Error ..................................................................... 8
3. Causes of Error ................................................................... 9
4. Classification of Errors ............................................................ 11
5. Error Analysis………… ............................................................ 12
6. Procedures of Errors Analysis .................................................... 14
7. Differences between error and mistake .............................. 15
B. Noun ......................................................................................... 17
1. Definitions of noun…………………. ............................... 17
2. Kinds of noun…………………. ........................................ 17
3. Forms of noun……………….. .......................................... 19
C. Plural ........................................................................................ 22
1. Definitions of Plural Forms……….................................... 22
2. Types of Plural Forms…………… .................................... 23
iv
a. Regular Plural………………....................................... 24
b. Irregular Plural……………….. ................................... 24
CHAPTER III: THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESEARCH
A. Research Methodology.......................................................... 28
1. Objective of study..……………… .................................... 28
2. Place and time of the research……….. .............................. 28
3. Technique of sample taking ……… .................................. 28
4. Method of the research…………….. ................................. 28
5. Instrument of the research………….. ................................ 29
6. Technique of data collection………. ................................. 29
7. Technique of data analysis………….. ............................... 29
B. Research Findings ................................................................. 30
1. Data description……… ..................................................... 30
2. Data analysis………………………. ................................. 40
3. Data interpretation…………………….............................. 47
CHAPTER IV: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION
A. Conclusion…………………………………………. .............. 50
B. Suggestion…………………………………………… ............ 51
BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………….. ............ 52
APPENDICES…………………………………………………………… ........... 54
v
LIST OF TABLES
Table 3.1
Plural Forms Noun Area and Each Item ........................................... 29
Table 3.2
Students’ Score of the Test Result .................................................... 30
Table 3.3
The Students’ Response Distribution on Each Item of the Test ....... 32
Table 3.4
The 1stIdentification of the Students’ Errors ..................................... 33
Table 3.5
The 2ndIdentification of the Students’ Errors .................................... 34
Table 3.6
The 3rdIdentification of the Students’ Errors .................................... 35
Table 3.7
The 4thIdentification of the Students’ Errors..................................... 35
Table 3.8
The 5thIdentification of the Students’ Errors .............................................. 36
Table 3.9
The 6thIdentification of the Students’ Errors..................................... 36
Table 3.10 The 7thIdentification of the Students’ Errors .............................................. 37
Table 3.11 The 8thIdentification of the Students’ Errors..................................... 37
Table 3.12 The 9thIdentification of the Students’ Errors .............................................. 37
Table 3.13 The 10thIdentification of the Students’ Errors................................... 38
Table 3.14 Table of Number of Classification of Errors Explanation ................ 39
Table 3.15 Table of Number of Causes of Errors Explanation ........................... 40
Table 3.16 The Frequency and Percentage of the Students’ Errors in Regular
Plural .......................................................................................................... 41
Table 3.17 The Frequency and Percentage of the Students’ Errors in Irregular
Plural Forms ...................................................................................... 43
Table 3.18 The Sequence of Plural Forms Area Based on Their High Percentage
of Errors ............................................................................................ 46
LIST OF APPENDICES
LIST 1
Instrument of Research
LIST 2
Key Answer
LIST 3
Surat Pengajuan Judul
LIST 4
Surat Bimbingan Skripsi
LIST 5
Surat Permohonan Izin Observasi
LIST 6
Surat Keterangan Telah Melakukan Penelitian
vii
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
A. Background of the Study
Language is a means of communication used by people to communicate
either through spoken or written. It has a big role for every individual in making a
good relationship with others. Through language people can express their
opinions, ideas and feelings to each other.
As H. Brown Douglas stated: “language is a system of arbitrary
conventionalized vocal, written or gesture symbol that enable members of a given
community to communicate intelligibly with others”. 1It shows that language is a
tool of communication which can be expressed not only through verbal or oral
communication but also through non-verbal communication; written form and
gesture (body language).
“English is as a global language or an international language”. 2As an
international language, English has significant role in various fields, such as in
communication, economy, education, technology, politics, and so on.
1
H. Brown Douglas, Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, (Englewood Cliffs:
Addison Wesley Longman, Inc, 2000), p. 5.
2
Adrian Holliday, The Struggle to Teach English as an International Language, (New
York: Oxford University Press, 2005), p. 8.
1
2
In this globalization era, everyone is demanded to prepare a great resource
for his/her life particularly in science and technology. To complete the global
requirement the people are hoped to have an adequate knowledge and good skills.
Indonesian government itself considers that mastering English is one way to
absorb the sciences and technology in order to create the great human resources.
The great human is important for Indonesian development and existence toward
other nations. Therefore, English is one of the important subject taught at school.
Based on “the national education minister decree No. 22 of 2006 concerning
the contents of the standard “states that the English language is introduced at the
primary school level as the local content tailored to the conditions of the area
itself. Whereas at junior high school up to senior high school English is
compulsory subject that must be learnt by students at school”.3 In learning
English, the students are expected to master English orally and in written
In addition, English language is the medium of instruction in teaching
particular subject in certain schools. As in the international school and the school
based on international standard.
By learning English, the students are expected to acquire some abilities,
those are: the ability to listen, to speak, to read, and to write English correctly.
And also to make Indonesian learners gain success in finding the right career in
the future and get the knowledge that will be useful in their real life.
In learning English, there are four basic skills that should be mastered by the
students: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. Besides the four language
skills, the students have capability in language components such as grammar,
pronunciation, and vocabulary.
Grammar is an important element to be learnt in learning a language. It
plays an important role in improving our skill in English. It is a very basic
knowledge and an important tool for students to master English.
3
Through
Departemen Pendidikan Nasional. Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional no 22 Tahun
2006 tentang Standar Isi untuk Satuan Pendidkan Dasar dan Menengah.
2
3
learning of grammar the students will know system of language so they will be
able to combine and build words into meaningful sentence.
As Penny Ur stated in her book A Course in Language Teaching Practice
and Theory, “Grammar can be defined as words put together to make correct
sentences”.4 It does not only affect how the units of words are combined in order
to make correct sentence but also affects their meaning.
It can be concluded from the statements above, it is no doubt that by
mastering grammar, the students will have a way to be able to speak, to read, and
to write English correctly. Finally the students can create a good communication
and interaction in English language actively both oral and written English between
each other.
In English grammar, the students learnt about parts of speech that consist of
noun, pronoun, adjective, verb, adverb, conjunction, preposition, and interjection.
One of parts of speech that will be discussed is noun. A noun is a kind of
part of speech that describes a person, place, or thing. In learning about noun, the
students are introduced with plural form; it means that we have to talk about
number. Number is the name of the system contrasting singular and plural.
According to Laidlaw “A noun that names one person, place or thing is a
singular noun. A noun that names more than one person, place or thing is a
plural noun”.5
A plural form of nouns has been taught since junior high school. However
many students still do not understand and cannot apply singular and plural rules in
English. They have difficulties to form plural in English. For example, the general
rule for writing the plural in English nouns is to add –s to the singular form (boyboys). However, this rule is only used for regular plural. For word like woman,
4
Penny Ur, A Course in Language Teaching Practice and Theory, (London: Cambridge
University Press, 1996), p. 75.
5
Laidlaw, Laidlaw English, (Illinois: Laidlaw Brothers Publisher, 1987), p. 60.
3
4
foot, children, etc. These are irregular plural. The rule is complicated. The
consequence is the students will make so many errors in their learning.
Making error during learning English is a natural process. It is normal
because learning the second language is a process which involves the making of
mistake, even errors. However it cannot be neglected. The teacher should be
aware of this issue and do something to avoid their students to make the same
error. The error they made should be regarded as necessary part of learning
language. One of the strategies to prevent the students from making the same error
is by analyzing the learners‟ error itself.
Based on the background above, the writer interested in analysis the
students‟ error in learning plural forms of nouns under the title “An Analysis of
the Students’ Error in Learning Plural Forms of Nouns at the First year
students of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor”
B.
Limitation of Problem
To make this research easy to understand the writer limits the discussion
on the errors made by the first year students of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor on English
plural. The students „acquisition in English plural will be obtained from the result
of test that given by the writer.
C.
Formulation of Problem
Based on the background of study describe above, the writer is interested
in analyzing the error that made by the students in learning plural forms of nouns.
Therefore the writer would like to formulate the problem as follows: “What types
of error are commonly students made?
D. The objective of the study
The objective of this study is the writers want to find out the errors made by the
first year students of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor and to know the reason why the students
make errors in learning plural forms of nouns.
4
CHAPTER II
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
A. Error
When the students learnt English, they can make a lot of errors. It seems impossible
if the learners or students have never been made some errors in their language learning
process, because do some errors is natural.
1. Definition of error
Learning the second language is a process which involves the making of
mistakes, even errors as in this new system of language a learner will directly connect
with such a new vocabulary, a new grammatical pattern and a foreign pronunciation
which differ from the learner‟s native language. According to Jeremy harmer, errors are
part of the learner inter language that is a version of the language which a learner has at
any one stage of development and which is continually reshaped as he/she aims toward
full mastery.1
According to Brown, “an error is a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar
of a native speaker, reflecting the inter language competence of the learner.
Dullay defines error as “the flawed side of learner speech or writing. They are
those parts of conversation or composition that deviate from some selected norm of
1
Jeremy Harmer, The Practice of English Language Teaching, (New York: Pearson
Education Limited, 2001), p. 34.
5
6
mature language performance”2. Meanwhile, douglas brown defines “a noticeable
deviation from the adult grammar of a native speaker, reflecting the inter language
3
competence of the learner”.
Error is usually compared with mistake, but there is distinction between them.
Stephen Pit Corder distinguishes error from mistake: a mistake is random performance
slip caused by fatigue, excitement, etc. mistake can be readily self- corrected, whereas an
error is systematic deviation made by learners who have not yet mastered the rule of L2.
Error cannot be self –corrected because it is a product reflective of the learner‟s current
stage of LT 2 development or underlying competence. Errors are not something to be
prevented, but errors are sign that learners are actively engaged in hypothesis testing
which would be the result in the acquisition of target language rules.
2.
Types of Error
To know more about error, the writer tries to write the types of error from some
sources. According to Corder, errors fall into four main categories. Omission, addition,
selection, and misordering.
a. Omission
Certain linguistic forms may be omitted by the learner because of
their complexity in production. Omission also occurs in morphology.
Learner often leave out the third person singular morpheme –s , the
plural marker-s and the past tense inflection-ed.
b. Addition
Learners not only omit element which they regard as redundant but
they also add redundant element.
For example: two fishs
c.
Selection
Learner commit errors in pronunciation, morphology, syntax and
vocabulary due to the selection of the wrong phoneme , morpheme,
structure or vocabulary item.
2
Heidi Dullay et.al.,Langauge Two, (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982), p.138.
H Douglas Brown, Principle of Language and Teaching, (New York: Addison Wesley
Longman.Inc,2000), p. 217.
3
7
d. Misordering
Misordering can occur in morphological level misordering of bound
morpheme in English is perhaps less frequent, given their limited
number.
There are some other types of error; Errors of competence are the result of the
application of rules by the L2 learner which do not (yet) correspond to the L2 norm;
Errors of performance are the result of mistakes in language use and manifest themselves
as repeats, false, starts, corrections or slips of the tongue.
Error of performance occurs frequently in the speech of both native speakers and
L2 learners. They are especially likely to occur when the speaker suffers from stress,
indecision or fatigue. Corder has suggested the following operational criterion for
differentiating between these two types of error: L2 learners can recognize and correct
errors of performance, but not errors of competence.
However, identification of errors of competence will only be possible if we
establish a difference between actual and intended L2 utterances.
Noam Chomsky made a distinction between competence and performance.
Competence knows what is grammatically correct; performance is what actually occur in
practice. He regarded performance as a faulty representation of competence, caused by
psychological restrictions, such as memory lapses and limitations, distractions, changes of
direction half-way through a sentence, hesitation and so on.
3. Cause of Error
The final step in the analysis of erroneous learner production is that of
determining the sources of error. By trying to identify sources we can begin to arrive at an
understanding how the learner‟s cognitive and affective self relates to the linguistic
system and to formulate an integrated understanding of the process of second language
acquisition.
Errors-overt manifestation of learner‟s system-arise from several possible general
sources: inter lingual errors of interference from the native language, inter lingual errors
within the target language, sociolinguistic context of communication, psycholinguistic or
cognitive strategies, and countless affective variables.
8
Pit Corder (Hubbard, 1933) claims that there are three major causes of error,
which he labels “transfer errors”. “Analogical errors”, and “teaching-induced errors”.
While Hubbard proposed a slightly different names;
a.
Mother tongue interference
Although young children appear to be learn a foreign language quite
easily and effectively but mostly older learner experience considerable difficulty.
The sound system (phonology) and the grammar of the first language impose
themselves on the new language and this lead to a foreign pronunciation, faulty
grammatical patterns and occasionally, to the wrong choice of vocabulary.
b.
Overgeneralization
The mentalist theory claims that errors are inevitable because they reflect
various stages in the language development of the learner. It claims that the
learner processes new language data in his mind and produced rules for its
production based on the evidence. Where the data are inadequate, or the evidence
only partial, such rules may produce incorrect pattern.
c.
Context of Learning
A third major source of error, through is overlaps both types of transfer,
is the context of learning.
“Context” refers to the classroom with the teacher and the material in the
case of school learning or the social situation. In the classroom context, the
teacher or the textbook can lead the learner to make faulty hypothesis about the
language what Richards called „false concept” and what Stenson termed “induced
errors”. Students often make errors because of a misleading explanation from the
teacher, faulty presentation of a structure or word in the textbook, or even
because of a pattern, that was rote memorized in a drill but not properly
contextualized.
9
As mentioned previously, brown claims that there are four sources of error in
learning language.
a.
Inter lingual error
Inter lingual error means errors attributed to the native
language (LI). There are inter lingual errors when the learner first
get language habits (pattern, system, or rules) which interfere or
prevent the learners from acquiring the pattern and rules of the
second language manifest some degree of different form and some
degree of similarity with the equivalent item in learning the first
language.
b.
Intra lingual error
Intra lingual errors are errors due to the misunderstanding
of the language being learned (L2), independent of the native
language. The errors proceeded by the learner which reflects not
the structure of the mother tongue, but generalization based on
partial exposure to the target language.
c.
Context of learning
Context refers to the classroom situation that is built by
both teacher and material. This situation can urge the learner to
make faulty hypotheses about the language.
The teacher‟s
explanation also pushes the learners to make errors because
sometimes the teacher provides the incorrect information by way
of a misleading definition, word, or grammatical generalization.
However, according to Stephen Pit Corder the idiosyncratic dialect
applies well through social context. For example, a Japanese
immigrant who lived in Mexican-American has produced a learner
language that was an interesting blend of Mexican-American
English and the standard English colored by his Japanese accent.
10
d.
Communication strategies
According to Brown, “learners obviously use production
strategy in order to enhance getting their message across. But at the
same time these techniques can themselves become a source of
error “. For example, an ESL learner said,” let us work for the well
done of our country.” The sentence above had wrong
approximation of the word welfare.
4.
Classification of Errors
Azar in her book explains that there are thirteen kinds of errors that the
students frequently make in their writing, as follows:
a. Singular- Plural
The sentence “He have been here for six months” should be replaced by “He
has been here for six months”.
b. Word Form
The sentence “I saw a beauty picture” should be replaced by “I saw a beautiful
picture”.
c. Word Choice
The sentence “She got on the taxi” should be replaced by “She got into the taxi.
d. Verb Tense
The sentence “He is here since June” should be replaced by “He has been here
since June”.
e. Add a Word
The sentence “I want __ go to the zoo” should be replaced by “I want to go to
the zoo”.
f. Word Order
The sentence “I saw five times that movie” should be replaced by “I saw that
movie five times”.
11
g. Incomplete Sentence
The sentence “I went to bed. Because I was tired” should be replaced by “I
went to bed because I was tired”.
h. Spelling
The sentence “An accident occurred” should be replaced by “An accident
occurred”.
i. Punctuation
The sentence “What did he say.” should be replaced by “What did he say?”
j. Capitalization
The sentence “I am studying english” should be replaced by “I am studying
English”.
k. Article
The sentence “I had accident” should be replaced by “I had an accident”.
l. Meaning not clear
The sentence “He borrowed some smoke. ( ? ? ? )”.
m. Run-on sentence
The sentence “My roommate was sleeping, we didn‟t want to wake her up”
should be replaced by “My roommate was sleeping. We didn‟t want to wake
her up”.
5.
4
Error Analysis
It is impossible that learners never make some errors in language learning
process. According to Peter Hubbard et.al., “ the behaviorists regarded language learning
as the acquisition of skills, comparable to the process of learning to do something
practical, like driving a car. The complex skill was broken down into a series of habits,
which are drilled until they became automatic and unthinking. The habits were taught is a
series of small steps, so as to avoid errors. In other words, to achieve the English
acquisition, the students must get through some errors first, and they automatically they
can learn from their own errors.
4
Bety Schrampfer Azar, Understanding and Using English Grammar, 2nd Edition, (New
Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1992), p. A29.
12
The teacher will also need to know which part of the subject matter that most
students do some errors and most students do not. Finding out the learners‟ error then
analyzing it is called error analysis.
There are many definitions of error analysis. Oxford Concise Dictionary defined
error analysis is “the analysis for practical but also potentially for scientific ends, of errors
made by students learning another language. 5
Error analysis is the process based on analysis of learners‟ error in their process
of second language learning. Sharma also wrote in an article in English Teaching Forum
that , “ error analysis is defined as a process based on analysis of learners‟ error with one
clear objective, evolving a suitable and effective teaching learning strategy and remedial
measures necessary in certain clearly marked out areas of the foreign language.
6
According to Crystal, “error analysis in language teaching and learning, the study
of the unacceptable forms produced by someone learning in a language, especially is
meant to determine errors which are made by learners which are considered as indicators
learners‟ problems in learning a second language. 7
Longman Dictionary of language teaching and applied linguistics defines error
analysis as the study and analysis of the error made by the second language learners.
8
The fact that learners do make errors and that these errors can be observed,
analyzed and classified to reveal something of the system operating within the learner, led
to a surge of study of learners‟ errors, called error analysis. Error analysis become
distinguished from contrastive analysis by its examination of errors attributable to all
possible sources, not just those which result from negative transfer of the native language.
Error analysis easily superseded contrastive analysis, as we discovered that only some of
the errors a learner makes are attributed to the mother tongue, that learners do not actually
make all the errors that contrastive analysis predicted they should, and that learners from
5
Mathews, P.H, Oxford Concise Dictionary of Linguistic, (New York: Oxford University
Press,1997), p. 117.
6
Heidi Dullay, et.al., Language Two, (New York: Oxford University Press,1982), p. 146189
7
Nuril Huda, Language Learning and Teaching: Issues and Trends, (Malang: IKIP
Malang Publisher,19990, p. 6.
8
JC Richard, et.al., Longman Dictionary of Language Teaching and Applied Linguistic,
(London: Longman,1992), p. 127.
13
disparate language backgrounds tend to make similar errors in learning one target
language.9
Corder stated,” error analysis confirms or disproves the predictions of the theory
lying behind bilingual comparison10. In this sense error analysis is an experimental
technique for validating the theory of transfer. But error analysis goes beyond this; it aims
at telling us something about the psycholinguistic processes of language learning. We
hope to able to draw certain conclusion about the strategies adopted by the learner in the
process of learning. In this sense, error analysis is part of the methodology of the
psycholinguistic investigation of language learning.
6.
Procedures of Errors Analysis
In the language teaching, either a native language or a second language
teaching, study about the students‟ errors is very important. Theo Van Els and
friends states that there are some procedures in errors analysis, namely;
a. Identification of errors
b. Description of errors
c. Explanation of errors
d. Evaluation of errors
e. Preventing/correction of errors11
The first step in the process of analysis is identification of errors. In this
step, teachers recognize the students‟ errors from the task given. The second step
is the description of errors begun when identification stages have taken place. The
description of the students‟ errors involves classification of sort of errors made by
the students.
The third step is explanation of errors that can be regarded as a linguistic
problem. This step attempts to account for how the errors can happen and why the
9
Muhamad Farkhan, An Introduction to Linguistics, (Jakarta: UIN Jakarta Press,2006), p.
149
10
S.P.Corder, Error Analysis and inter-langauge,(Oxford: Oxford University Press,
1981), p. 35
11
Theo Van Els and friends, Applied Linguistics and the Learning and Teaching of Foreign
Languages, (London: A Division of Hodder & Stoughton, 1983), p. 47.
14
errors occur. The fourth step is the evaluation of errors in which the teachers will
give the task to the students.
Finally, the last step is the process of analysis is correction of errors where
the teachers check the result from the task done by the students. Then, they correct
the errors that the students made.
Example:
Table 2.1
The Examples of the Procedures of Errors Analysis
Identification
of Errors
I not go to
Classification Explanation Correction
of Errors
Description
Omit a word
„not‟ should I do not go
school every
be preceded
to school
Sunday
by „do‟
every
Causes of
Errors
Inter-lingual
Transfer
Sunday
I am want to
buy that
Add a word
„am‟ should
I want to
Context of
be omitted
buy that
Learning
gorgeous stuff
gorgeous
stuff
7.
Differences between error and mistake
In order to analyze learner language in an appropriate perspective, it is crucial
to make distinction between mistake and error. Technically, error and mistake are
different, but most of people still misunderstand about the definition of both. To clarify it,
Peter Hubbard et al said that Error caused by lake of knowledge about the target language
(English) or by incorrect hypothesis about it, while mistake caused by temporary lapses
or memory, confusion, slips of the tongue and so on.
Jeremy Harmer in his book Principle of Language and Teaching distinguished
between error and mistake as follow: “A mistake refers to performance error that is either
a random guess or a slip of tongue, in that it is a failure to utilize a known system
15
correctly. Everybody can make a mistake, whether in native language or second language
situation. Mistakes cannot be taken as reflections of the learner‟s developing system,
because they are only the result of the learner‟s performance.
While errors are a noticeable deviation from the adult grammar of a native
speaker and it reflects the competence of the learner. They are occurred consistently. The
errors cannot be self corrected, because they reflect the learner‟s competence. From the
error that learners commit, it can give valuable needed by the teachers. Therefore error
plays an important role in study of second language acquisition. It becomes the researcher
object, curriculum guide, and used for indicator of learner stage.
In his book on mistake and correlation, Julian Edge suggest that we can divide
mistake into two broad categories: “ slips (that is mistake which students can correct
themselves and which therefore need explanation), and attempts ( that is when a student
tries to say something but does not yet know the correct way of saying it).
Most teachers are perfectly well able to give an account of the typical errors
made by the students who pass through their hands. They often build up a useful list of
so-called common error.
B.
Noun
Noun is regarded as the important part in a sentence. In addition, it may
function as the chief or head word in many structure of modification.
In English language, “nouns typically inflect for number (singular or
plural) and case (plain or genitive)”.12The singular nouns are words which
indicate we are speaking of one or single thing. While plural nouns are words
which indicate we are speaking of more than one certain number of things.
12
Rodney Huddleston and Geoffrey K. Pullum, A Student’s Introduction to English
Grammar, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2005), p. 82.
16
1.
Definition of Noun
“Nouns are commonly defined as words that refer to a person, place,
thing, or idea”.
13
In other words, “a noun generally indicates a person, place or
thing”.14
“Noun is a word denoting substance, plan, animal, person or
something which is considered as a substance”. 15
“Nouns are words that allow us to name and label the persons,
entities, objects, places, and concepts that make up our world”.16
According to AS Hornby in Oxford Advanced Learner‟s Dictionary of
Current English, “noun is word which can function as the subject or object a verb,
or the object of preposition”.17
Other meaning of noun is “the name of a living or lifeless thing: Mary,
John, horse, cow, dog; hat, house, tree; London, Chicago; virtue”. 18
From all the meanings above, we can summarize that noun is a word
that one part of speech used to describe things, person, etc, and has certain
function in the sentence structure.
2.
Kinds of Noun
According to Marcella Frank in her book, Modern English: a Practical
Reference Guide, nouns can be classified into four kinds of noun:19
13
Evelyn P. Altenberg and Robert M. Vago, English Grammar, (New York: Cambridge
University Press, 2010), p. 3.
14
Elly Van Gelderen, An Introduction to the Grammar of English, (Amsterdam: John
Benjamins Publishing Company, 2002), p. 12.
15
Akh. Kardimi, Basic Grammar for Your Better TOEFL, (Yogyakarta: Pustaka
Widytama, 2005), p. 1 (Translated).
16
Marcel Danes., Basic American Grammar and Usage, (New York: Barron‟s
Educational Series, Inc, 2006), p. 22.
17
A.S Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 574.
18
George O. Curme, English Grammar, (New York: Barnes and Noble Inc, 1966), p. 11.
19
Marcella Frank, Modern English: A Practical Reference….., p. 6-7.
17
1. Proper Nouns
A proper noun begins with a capital letter in writing. It includes (a)
personal names (Mr. John Smith); (b) names of geographic units such as
countries, cities, rivers, etc. (Holland, Paris); (c) names of nationalities
and religions (a Dutchman, Christianity); (d) names of holidays (Easter,
Thanksgiving Day); (e) names of time units ( Saturday, June); (f) words
used for personification –a thing or abstraction treated as a person
(Nature, Liberty)
2. Concrete or Abstract Nouns
A concrete noun is a word for a physical object that can be perceived by
the senses (we can see, touch, and smell the object), for example flower,
girls, etc. An abstract noun is a word for a concept; it is an idea that
exists in our minds only (beauty, justice, and mankind)
3. Countable and uncountable nouns
A countable noun can usually be made plural by the addition of –s
(One girl-two girls). Uncountable noun is not used in the plural.
A countable noun (or count noun) is a noun with both a singular and a
plural form, and it names anything (or anyone) that you can count.
Countable nouns are the opposite of non-countable nouns and collective
nouns. A non-countable noun is a noun which does not have a plural
form, and which refers to something that could (or would) not usually
count. A non-countable noun always takes a singular verb in a sentence.
Non-countable nouns are similar to collective nouns, and are the
opposite of countable nouns.
18
4. Collective Noun
A collective noun is a word for a group of people, animals, or
objects considered as a single unit (audience, committee, class, enemy,
faculty, team, government, public, etc)
Collective nouns are countable nouns; they may be used in the
plural.
According to A.J Thomson and A.V Martinet in A Practical English
Grammar, there are four kinds of noun in English.20
1.
Common nouns: dog, man, table
2.
Proper nouns: France, Madrid, Mr Smith, Tom
3.
Abstract nouns: beauty, charity, courage, fear, joy
4.
Collective nouns: crowd, flock, group, swarm, team.
To sum up, kinds of nouns consist of proper noun which is begun with a
capital letter, concrete noun describes physical object, countable noun and
uncountable noun explain noun can count and noun cannot count, and the use of
collective noun usually for animal, people, living and lifeless .
3.
Forms of Nouns
According to Marcella Frank in her book, Modern English: a Practical Reference
Guide, forms of nouns can be divided into:21
1)
Inflectional Forms
Inflectional forms of nouns may indicate:

Gender. Special endings mark nouns as masculine, feminine
or neuter, not necessarily according to actual sex
20
A.J Thomson and A.V Martinet, A Practical English Grammar, (London: Oxford
University Press, 1987), p. 25.
21
Marcella Frank, Modern English………,p. 12-17.
19

Case. Special endings mark nouns according to their function
in the sentence subject, object of the verb, etc.

2)
Number. Special endings mark singular or plural nouns.
Plural Inflectional Forms
The general rule for writing the plural of English nouns is to
add s to the singular form (boy-boys, apple-apples).However this
rule is complicated because of the many exceptions below.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
h.
After a sibilant sound spelled as s, z, ch, sh,x,es is added
(classes, churches, dishes).
After y preceded by consonant, the y is changed to i and es is
added (lady-ladies, country-countries). If final y is preceded
by a vowel, no change is made (attorney-attorneys, valleyvalleys).
In one- syllable words, final f or fe becomes ves in the plural
(wife-wives, thief-thieves)
After final o, es is added, especially in some common words
(heroes, negroes, potatoes, echoes)
Irregular plurals based on older English may take the form of :
 An internal change (man-men, foot-feet, mouse-mice)
 An en ending (child-children, ox-oxen)
The plural has the same form as the singular (sheep-sheep,
deer-deer)
The singular has the same form as the plural (series-series,
means-means)
Many foreign words retain their foreign plurals in English
 Singular us ending becomes plural I ending (stimulusstimuli, radius-radii)
 Singular a ending becomes plural ae ending ( larva-larvae,
vertebra-vertebrae)
 Singular um ending becomes plural a ending
(memorandum, memoranda, stratum- strata
 Singular is ending becomes plural es ending (crisis-crises,
parenthesis-parentheses)
 Singular on ending becomes plural a ending (criterioncriteria, phenomenon-phenomena)
 Singular ex or ix ending becomes plural ices ending
(vortex-vortices, matrix-matrices)
 Singular eau ending becomes eaux ending (bureau-bureaux,
plateau-plateaux)
20
i.
j.
k.
3)
No plural is used for non-countable words such as
information, advice, clothing, furniture.
Some words ending in s are singular non-countable nouns,
especially names of diseases and fields of study (news,
measles, and economics). However, when words that name
fields of study are used for practical matters, such words are
often considered plural- his business ethics are very
questionable; the acoustics in this room are not good.
Some words ending in s are used chiefly as plurals (ashes,
brains. Goods, riches). In this group are words for items that
have two parts (scissors, spectacles, and trousers).
Possessive Inflectional Forms
A singular noun is changed to possessive form by the
addition of „s (one boy‟s mother). A plural noun becomes
possessive by the addition of „alone to the final s (two boys‟
mothers). If an irregular plural noun does not already end in s, then
„s is added for the possessive (the children‟s mother). Proper nouns
ending in s may take either „or‟s (Dickens‟ novels or, less
commonly, Dickens‟s novels). With a group of words functioning
as a unit,„s is placed after the last word in the group ( the Queen of
England‟s throne; his mother-in law‟s interference; everyone else‟s
opinions)
4)
Derivational Forms
Only nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs have derivational
forms. These form may express some degree of lexical meaning, or
they may be little more than part of speech indicators. Derivational
forms consist chiefly of special ending that may:
a. Change one part of speech to another. This kind of ending is
attached to a word that already exist (engage+
ment=engagement), perhaps with some change in the original
word (destroy+tion= destruction). Sometimes the original word
has several derivational endings, the last one of which
determines the part of speech (nation+al+ize+ation=
nationalization, a noun)
21
b. Distinguish one part of speech from another, without being
added to an already existing word (distance-noun, distantadjective)
To summarize, forms of nouns involve inflectional indicate as gender, case
and number, plural inflectional in general rule is to add s to singular, possessive
inflectional is functioning as a unit, „s is placed after the last word in the group and
derivational form belongs only noun, verb, adjective, and adverb.
C. Plural form
1.
Definition of Plural Form
In English, “nouns typically inflect for number (singular or plural) and
case (plain or genitive). Singular is referring to one person, thing and so on.
Plural is referring to more than one”.22.
In the first instance, it applies to noun inflection: noun typically have
contrasting singular and plural forms. “A noun that names one person, place, or
things is a singular noun. A noun that names more than one person, place, or thing
is a plural noun”.23
Furthermore, “plural is consisting of, containing, or pertaining to more
than one”.24
According to Oxford advanced learner‟s dictionary, “plural is (form of
word) used with reference to more than one”.
25
While grammatically, “plural is
the form of a noun that typically denotes more than one person, thing, or instance.
Contrast with singular”.26
From the definitions about plural above, it can be concluded that plural do
not described as a single thing or plural has more than one of the person, place, or
thing in the real world.
22
Marcel Danesi, Basic American Grammar……., p. 31.
Laidlaw, Laidlaw English……., p. 60.
24
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/plural
25
A.S Hornby, Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary of Current English, (Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1987), p. 643.
26
http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/pluralterm.htm
23
22
2.
Types of Plural Form
The plural of nouns is made in two ways: regular and irregular. Usually we
pluralize a noun by adding an “s” to it, as in books; these nouns are called regular.
There are a handful of nouns that are pluralized in other ways; these nouns are
called irregular. 27
Regular plural is plural form arranged by adding “s” in general and has a
certain formula; meanwhile irregular plural has not the exact rule and make the
students remember about it.
According to Marcella Frank there are many ways of forming the plural of
nouns:28
a.
Regular Plural as follows:
1) The majority of nouns form their plural by adding s to the
singular. table- tables
Book-books
Flower- flowers
2) Nouns ending with the hissing sounds of s, x, sh, or ch form the
plural by adding –es.
Box-boxes
Church-churches
Marsh-marshes
3) Nouns ending in –y preceded by a consonant change y into i
before adding –es.
Country-countries
Sky-skies
Berry-berries
4) Nouns ending in –o preceded by a consonant generally add –es
to form the plural.
Hero-heroes
Potato-potatoes
Tomato-tomatoes
5) Nouns ending in –fe or –f, it generally changes the –fe or –f to –
ves. There are as follows:
Beef
27
28
calf
elf
life
Evelyn P. Altenberg and Robert M. Vago, English Grammar….., p. 9.
Marcella Frank, Modern English: A Practical Reference….., p. 13-14.
23
Knife
Loaf
Thief
b.
leaf
self
wife
sheaf shelf
wolf
half
Irregular Plural as follows:
1) Some nouns have the same form in the singular and the plural.
Fish
fish
Deer
deer
Sheep
sheep
2) Some nouns have the same form in the plural and the singular
Series
series
3) Irregular –(e)n plurals
Ox
oxen
Cow
kine
Eye
eyen
Shoe
shoon
House
housen
Brother brethren
Child
children
4) Umlaut plurals
Foot
feet
Goose
geese
Louse
lice
Man
men
Mouse
mice
Tooth
teeth
Woman women
5) Irregular plurals from Latin and Greek
“Numerous nouns adopted from foreign languages,
especially Latin and Greek, retain the foreign inflection for
plural”. 29
a) Nouns inl –a with plural –ae
alumna-alumnae
formula, formulae
b) Nouns in –ex or –ix with plural –ices
29
Sidney Greenbaum and Randolph Quirk, A Student’s Grammar of the English
Language, (London: Pearson Education Limited, 1990), p. 96-97.
24
c)
d)
e)
f)
index- indices
matrix- matrices
vertex-vertices
Nouns in –is with plural –es
axis-axes
crisis-crises
testis-testes
Nouns in –on with plural –a
criterion-criteria
phenomenon- phenomena
automaton-automata
Nouns in –um with plural – a
agendum-agenda
datum, data
memorandum-memoranda
Nouns in –us with plural –i or –era or –ora
alumnus- alumni
radius-radi
genus-genera
g) Nouns in – us with plural – a
Genus- genera
Corpus-corpora
h) Nouns in –eau with plural –eaux
bureau-bureaux
plateau-plateaux
i) Nouns in –o wit plural –i
Tempo-tempi
Libretto-libretti
Virtuoso-virtuosi
6)
a)
b)
c)
Irregular plurals from other languages
Some nouns of French origin add –x:
Beau
beaux
Bureau
bureaus or bureau
Chateau chateaux
Nouns of Slavic origin add –a or-i according to native rules,
or just –s :
Kniazhestvo
kniazhestva/kniazhestvos
Kobzar
kobzari/kobzars
Oblast
oblasti/ oblasts
Nouns of Hebrew origin add –im or –ot (generally m/f)
according to native rules, or just-s :
Cherub
cherubim/cherubs
25
d)
e)
Matzoh matzot/matzos
Seraph
seraphim/seraphs
Many nouns of Japanese origin have no plural form and do
not
change:
Benshi
benshi
Otaku
otaku
Samurai
samurai
In New Zealand English, nouns of Maori origin can either
take an –s or have no separate plural form. Words more
connected to Maori culture and used in that context tend to
retain the same form, while names of flora and fauna may
or may not take an-s , depending on context. Omission is
regarded by many as more correct:
f)
Kiwi
kiwi/kiwis
Kowhai
kowhai/kowhais
Maori
maori ( occasionally Maoris)
Marae
marae
Tui
tuis/tui
Waka
waka
In Canada and Alaska, some words borrowed from
Inuktitut retain traditional plurals (see also plurals of names
of people below):
g)
Inuk
inuit
Inukshuk
inukshuit
Nouns from languages that have donated few words to
English, and that are spoken by relatively few English
speakers, generally form plurals as if they were native
English words :
Canoe
Igloo
Kangaroo
Kayak
Kindergarten
Pizza
Sauna
canoes
igloos
kangaroos
kayaks
kindergartens
pizzas
saunas
26
7) Words better known in the plural
Original
Original plural/ Common plural
singular
common
singular
Agendum
Agenda
Agendas
Alga
Algae
Algae
Bacterium
Bacteria
Bacteria
Biscotto
Biscotti
Biscotti
Candelabrum
Candelabra
Candelabras
Datum
Data
data (mass noun)
Graffito
Graffiti
graffiti (mass
noun)
Insigne
Insignia
Insignias
Opus
Opera
Operas
Panino
Panini
paninis (currently
gaining use)
Paparazzo
Paparazzi
Paparazzi
Spaghetto
Spaghetti
Spaghetti
CHAPTER III
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESEARCH
A. Research Methodology
1.
Objective of the Research
The objective of this research is intended to know students‟ error and to
know the reason why the students make errors in learning plural forms of nouns at
MTs Nurul Huda Bogor.
2.
Place and Time
The research was held at MTs Nurul Huda Bogor, which is located
on Jl.Sumurwangi Desa Kayumanis Kec Tanah Sareal Bogor, focusing on first
year students. She conducted this research 29 September up 8 October 2011.
3.
Technique of Sample Taking
The respondent of this research is the first year students of MTs
Nurul Huda Bogor. It consists of one class with the amount 30 students. So, the
total respondent that the writer took is 30 students.
4.
Method of The Research
The writer used the descriptive analysis method and used the procedures
of errors analysis itself. The method was intended to analyze problems occurred. So, it
27
28
involved accumulating, analyzing, and classifying data, also interpreting data. On the
final step, the writer had to conclude the result of research
5.
Instrument of The Research
To get the data, the writer gave a test to the first year students of MTs
Nurul Huda Bogor. The test a teacher made was used to know how well the
students have already understood in learning plural forms of nouns.
6.
Technique of Data Collecting
The technique of data collecting is one of the important parts in the
research. In this research, writer used technique as book literature and test
instrument. The writer conducted a test to know students‟ error in learning plural
forms of nouns. The test was given in the end of teaching learning process. It
consists of 30 items.
7.
Technique of Data Analysis
In this part, the writer analyzes the data which have been collected.
First, the data are given the score. After scoring, the data are analyzed. The
techniques of data analysis used by the writer in this research are descriptive
analysis technique because the writer describes some students‟ errors. Here is the
formula:1
P= F X 100 %
N
P: Percentage
F: Frequency of error occurred
N: Number of Cases
After getting the frequency and percentage of error, the
writer analyzed the average score by using formula:
1
Anas Sudijono, Pengantar Statistik Pendidikan, ( Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada,
2004), p. 43 (Translated)
29
P = FX100%
NXn
B.
p
: Percentage
F
: Frequency of Error
N
: Number of Students
n
: Number of item test
Research findings
1.
Data Description
As the writer stated in preceding chapter, this “Skripsi” discussed about
error made by the first year students of MTs Nurul Huda Bogor in learning plural
forms of nouns. To get the data, the writer has given the test about plural forms
noun to the 30 students of the first year. The test consists of 30 items, which are
covered 17 items of regular forms and 13 items of irregular forms. The following
tables are the classification of plural forms area into each item and the students‟
score of the test result.
Table 3.1
Plural Forms Noun Area and Each Item
No
1
Plural forms noun area
Number of items
Regular forms
5,9,13,23,4,6,7,19,14,17,21,1,11,12,
8,16,18
2
Irregular forms
2,3,20,10,15, 22,24,25,26, 27,28,29,30
30
Table 3.2
Students’ Score of the Test Result
No
Sample
Score
1
Student 1
53
2
Student 2
76
3
Student 3
36
4
Student 4
76
5
Student 5
66
6
Student 6
83
7
Student 7
50
8
Student 8
53
9
Student 9
40
10
Student 10
63
11
Student 11
46
12
Student 12
63
13
Student 13
90
14
Student 14
63
15
Student 15
63
16
Student 16
40
31
17
Student 17
56
18
Student 18
56
19
Student 19
43
20
Student 20
73
21
Student 21
33
22
Student 22
43
23
Student 23
36
24
Student 24
60
25
Student 25
43
26
Student 26
66
27
Student 27
63
28
Student 28
53
29
Student 29
60
30
Student 30
66
Total
1712
Average score
57
Highest score
90
Lowest score
33
32
Table 3.3
The Students’ Response Distribution on Each Item of the
Test
No
Number of items
Right
Wrong
1
Number 1
23
7
2
Number 2
10
20
3
Number 3
11
19
4
Number 4
23
7
5
Number 5
25
5
6
Number 6
19
11
;7
Number 7
17
13
8
Number 8
19
11
9
Number 9
26
4
10
Number 10
10
20
11
Number 11
20
10
12
Number 12
19
11
13
Number 13
25
5
14
Number 14
16
14
15
Number 15
5
25
33
16
Number 16
20
10
17
Number 17
19
11
18
Number 18
19
11
19
Number 19
17
13
20
Number 20
13
17
21
Number 21
20
10
22
Number 22
10
20
23
Number 23
25
5
24
Number 24
8
22
25
Number 25
8
22
26
Number 26
5
25
27
Number 27
4
26
28
Number 28
4
26
29
Number 29
4
26
30
Number 30
11
19
Table 3.4
The 1stIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Identification Classification Explanations Corrections Causes
Numbers
of Errors
of Errors
of
Description
Errors
5
many opinion Omit a word
The word
Many
Inter„opinion‟
opinions
lingual
should be
Transfer
replaced by
34
9
many
floweres
Add a word
13
two birdes
Add a word
23
two dolles
Add a word
„opinions‟.
The word
„floweres‟
should be
replaced by
„flower‟.
The word
„birdes‟
should be
replaced by
„birds‟
The word
„dolles‟
should be
replaced by
„dolls‟
many
flowers
Context
of
Learning
two birds
Context
of
Learning
two dolls
Context
of
Learning
Table 3.5
The 2ndIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Identification Classification Explanations Corrections
Numbers
of Errors
of Errors
Description
4
Omit a word
The word
five classes
five classs.
„classs‟
should be
replaced by
„classes‟.
6
Omit a word
The word
two stitchs.
two stitches
„stitchs‟
should be
.
replaced by
„stitches‟
7
Omit a word
The word
three flashes
three flashs.
„flashs‟
should be
replaced by
„flashes‟
The word
19
Omit a word
a lot of taxs
a lot of
„taxs‟ should
.
be replaced by
‘a taxes‟
taxes
Causes
of
Errors
Interlingual
transfer
Interlingual
transfer
Interlingual
Transfer
Interlingual
Transfer
35
Table 3.6
The 3rdIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Numbers
Identification
of Errors
Classification
of Errors
Description
Explanations
Corrections
Causes of
Errors
14
several
possibilityes
Word choice
several
possibilities
Intralingual
Transfer
17
many
dormitoryes.
Word choice
The word
„possibilityes
‟ should be
replaced by
„possibilities‟
.
The word
„dormitoryes‟
should be
replaced by
„dormitories‟.
many
dormitories
Intralingual
Transfer
21
many
butterflyes
Word choice
The word
„butterflyes‟
should be
replaced by
„butterflies‟
many
butterflies
Intralingual
Transfer
Table 3.7
The 4thIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Number
s
1.
Identificatio
n of Errors
two mangos
Classificatio
n of Errors
Description
Omit a word
11.
few tomatos
Omit a word
Explanation
s
The word
„mangos‟
should be
replaced by
„mangoes‟.
The word
„tomato‟
should be
replaced by
„tomatoes‟.
Correction
s
Causes
of
Errors
two mangos Interlingual
Transfe
r
few
tomatoes
Interlingual
Transfe
r
36
12
Omit a word
two heros
„heros‟
should be
replaced by
„heroes‟.
two heroes
Interlingual
Transfe
r
Table 3.8
The 5 Identification of the Students’ Errors
th
Test
Numbers
8
Identification
of Errors
three
bookshelfes
16
some wolfes
18
three wifes
Classification Explanations Corrections
of Errors
Description
Word choice
The word
three
„bookshelfes‟
bookshelves
should be
replaced by
„bookshelves
Word choice
The word
some wolves
„wolfes‟
should be
replaced by
„wolves‟.
Word choice
„wifes‟
three wives
should be
replaced by
„wives‟.
Causes of
Errors
Intralingual
Transfer
Intralingual
Transfer
Intralingual
Transfer
Table 3.9
The 6thIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Number
Identification
of Errors
2
two fishs
3
three deers
20
two sheeps
Classification Explanation
of Errors
Description
Add a word
The word
„fishs‟
should be
replaced by
„fish‟.
Add a word
The word
„deers‟
should be
replaced by
„deer‟.
Add a word
The word
„sheeps‟
should be
Correction
Causes of
Errors
two fish
Context of
Learning
Three deer
Context of
Learning
Two sheep
Context of
Learning
37
replaced by
„sheep‟.
Table 3.10
The 7thIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Identification Classification Explanations Corrections
Numbers
of Errors
of Errors
Description
10
Word order
The word
three childs
three
„childs‟
children
should be
replaced by
„children‟.
Causes of
Errors
Interlingual
Transfer
Table 3.11
The 8thIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Identification Classification Explanations Corrections
Numbers
of Errors
of Errors
Description
15
Add a word
The word
two seriess
two series
„seriess‟
should be
replaced by
„series‟.
Causes of
Errors
Context of
Learning
Table 3.12
th
The 9 Identification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Identification Classification Explanations Corrections
Numbers
of Errors
of Errors
Description
30
Two foots
Word order
The word
Two feet
„foots‟ should
be replaced
by „feet‟.
Causes of
Errors
Interlingual
Transfer
38
Table 3.13
The 10thIdentification of the Students’ Errors
Test
Numbers
Identification
of Errors
Classification
of Errors
Description
25
some
stimuluss
Word order
22
many
memorandu
ms
Word order
24
many
criterions
Word order
26
some larvas
Word choice
27
some crisis
Word choice
28
several
vortexs
Word order
29
many
plateaus
Word order
Explanations
Corrections
Causes
of
Errors
The word
„stimuluss‟
should be
replaced by
„stimuli‟.
The word‟
memorandum‟
should be
replaced by
„memoranda‟
The word
„criterions‟
should be
replaced by
„criteria‟
The word
„larvas‟ should
be replaced by
„larvae‟
„crisis‟ should
be replaced by
„crises‟.
some stimuli
Interlingual
Transfer
„vortexs‟
should be
replaced by
„vorteices‟
„‟plateaus
should be
replaced by
„plateaux‟
many
memoranda
Interlingual
Transfer
. many
criterions
Interlingual
Transfer
. some larvae
Intralingual
Transfer
. some crises
Intralingual
Transfer
several
vorteices
Interlingual
Transfer
many plateau
Interlingual
Transfer
39
B. The Data Analysis
In this part the data was analyzed. The frequency and percentage of the
students‟ errors in learning plural forms of nouns. The table below the errors
explanation, as follows:
Table 3.14
Table of Number of Classification of Errors Explanation
Types
Number of
Percentage of
of Errors
Errors
Errors
1.
Word choice
8
26.66%
2.
Add a word
6
20%
3.
Omit a word
8
26.66%
4
Word order
8
26.66%
No.
Total
100%
From the table 3.14 above, there are 8 errors committed in word choice
with 26.66% because the students put inappropriate words to be used in sentences.
There are 6 errors committed in add a word with the percentage 20% because the
students add inappropriate words in plural form. Also, there are 8 errors
committed in omit a word errors with 26.66% because the students omit words
items that should not happen in sentences on the test. At last, there are 8 errors
committed in word order with the percentage 26.66% because the students less of
knowledge. Here is the explanation regarding causes of errors described in the
table below:
40
Table 3.15
Table of Number of Causes of Errors Explanation
No.
1.
Causes
of Errors
Inter-lingual
Number of
Percentage of
Causes of
Causes of
Errors
Errors
15
50%
8
26.66%
7
23.33%
Transfer
2.
Intra-lingual
Transfer
3.
Context of
Learning
Total
100%
Based on the table 3.15 above, there are 15 errors caused by inter-lingual
transfer with 50% because the students might be influenced by their mother
tongue influences in terms of patterns, systems, or rules. There are 8 errors caused
by intra-lingual transfer with 26.66% because the students strive to derive the
rules behind the data to which has been exposed by the students, and develop
hypotheses related neither to their mother tongue nor to their target language.
Also, there are 7 errors caused by context of learning with 23.33% because the
teachers or the textbooks may lead the students to create faulty hypotheses about
the language. Students might make errors because of a misleading explanation
from the teachers, textbooks, or patterns memorized rottenly. Here is the
explanation about frequency and percentage of the students‟ errors:
41
Table 3.16
The Frequency and Percentage of the Students’ Errors in Regular Plural
No Regular forms
Number item
Frequency of
Error
1
The majority of
plural noun
Total
Nouns ending with
the hissing sounds of
s,x,z, sh, or ch
Total
5
26.31%
9
4
21.05%
13
5
26.31%
23
5
26.31%
4
19
100%
15.83
4
7
15.90%
6
11
25%
7
13
29.54%
19
13
29.54%
4
44
100%
Average
3
Nouns ending in –y
of Error
5
Average
2
Percentage
36.66
14
14
40%
42
Total
17
11
31.42%
21
10
28.57%
3
35
100%
Average
4
Nouns ending in –o
Total
38.88
1
7
25%
11
10
35.71%
12
11
39.28%
3
28
100%
Average
5
Nouns ending in –f
or –fe
Total
Average
31.11
8
11
34.37%
16
10
31.25%
18
11
34.37%
3
32
100%
35.55
It shows the first type of regular plural noun is the majority of plural
noun with the average 15, 83. In item number 5, there are 5 students or 26, 31%
who choose the wrong answer. Item 9, there are 4 students or 21, 05%, who
choose the wrong answer. Number 13 and 23, there are 5 students or 26, 31%,
who choose the wrong answer. These errors happen because the students are still
confused in changing singular to plural noun in English pattern.
43
The second type of regular form is Nouns ending with the hissing sounds
of s,x,z, sh, or ch with the average 36, 66. In this type, the items have varied
frequencies. Number 7 and number 19 are the same frequency, with the
percentage is 29, 54% or 13 students choose the wrong answer. While the
frequency of difficulty in number 4 is 7 students or 15, 90%. In item number 6,
there are 11 students who choose the wrong answer or 25%. These errors occur
because the students did not understand well about the rule of regular plural.
The third type of regular form is Nouns ending in –y with the average 38,
88. In this type, at number 14, there are 14 students choose the wrong answer or
40%. Number 17, there are 11 students or 31, 42% and number 21, there are 10
students or 28, 57% who choose the wrong answer. Students are confused in
changing “y” to “ies”, their comprehension in making plural only add “s”. It is
because uncomprehending the rules.
The fourth type is Nouns ending in –o with the average 31, 11. In item
number 1, there are 7 students or 25% who choose the wrong answer. In item
number 11, there are 10 students or 35, 71% who choose the wrong answer. And
item number 12, there are 11students or 39, 28% who choose the wrong answer.
The students have not understood well the rules.
The last type is Nouns ending in –f or –fe with the average 35, 55. In this
type, 11 students or 34, 37 % who choose the wrong answer in item number 8 and
18. Number 16, there are 10 students or 31, 25% get the difficulty in answering
this number. The students made errors because they do not understand the formula
until do not attention more about the changing “f or fe” becomes “ves”
Table 3.17
The Frequency and Percentage of the Students’ Errors in Irregular Plural
Forms
No
Irregular form
Number item
Frequency of
Percentage
44
Error
1
Nouns with
identical plural and
singular
Total
2
20
35.71%
3
19
33.92%
20
17
30.35%
3
56
100%
Average
2
Irregular –e(n)
of Error
62.22
10
20
100%
1
20
100%
plural
Total
Average
3
Noun with identical
66.66
15
25
100%
1
25
100%
singular and plural
Total
Average
4
83.33
Umlaut plural
30
19
100%
Total
1
19
100%
Average
5
Irregular plurals
from Latin and
63.33
25
22
13.17%
22
20
11.97%
45
Greek
Total
24
22
13.17%
26
25
14.97%
27
26
15.56%
28
26
15.56%
29
26
15.56%
7
167
100%
Average
79.52
It can be concluded, the first type of irregular form is Noun with identical plural
and singular with the average 62, 22. In item number 2, there are 20 students or
35, 71% who choose the wrong answer. In item number 3, there are 19 students or
33, 92% who choose the wrong answer. The students who choose the wrong
answer are in item number 20, there are 17 students or 30, 35%. Based on
students‟ understanding to make plural form is just add s, but not all plural form
adding by “s” in the end of the word because irregular plural has own structure.
The second type of irregular form is Irregular –e (n) plural with the
average 66, 66. In this type, there is only one number item that is number 10
which of its percentage is 100% or 20 students who choose the wrong answer. It is
caused the students have not memorized it. In understanding irregular plural, the
students have to memorize it because there is not certain formula.
The third type of regular form is Noun with identical singular and plural
with the average 83, 33. There are 25 students or 100% who choose the wrong
answer in item number 15. Most of students made errors in this type because they
are confused and have lack of knowledge about it.
46
The fourth type of regular form is Umlaut plural with the average 63, 33.
There are 100 % or 19 students who choose the wrong answer in item number 30.
These errors occur because they do not observe the rules.
Finally, Irregular plurals from Latin and Greek with the average 79, 52
In this type, there are 7 questions; item number 27, 28 and 29, there are 26
students or 15, 56 %. Number 24 and number 25, there are 22 students or.13,
17%. There are 20 students or 11, 97% who choose the wrong answer in number
22. At number 26 there are 25 students who choose the wrong answer. These
errors occur because the students are still confused in understanding irregular
plural. Understanding irregular plural is more complicated than regular plural.
C.
Data interpretation
After classifying the items into area tested and explaining the
frequency and percentage of error on each items, the following table
describes the sequence of percentage of error on regular plural and
irregular plural areas and their category of error.
Table 3.18
The Sequence of Plural Forms Area
Based on Their High Percentage of Errors
No
1
Plural forms area
Percentage of error
Regular forms
a. The majority of plural nouns
b. Nouns ending with sounds of ss,x, sh, or ch
c. Nouns ending in –y
d. Nouns ending in –o
e. Nouns ending in –f or –fe
15,83%
36,66%
38,88%
31,11%
35,55%
47
2
Total
158,03%
Average
31,60%
Irregular forms
a. Noun with identical plural and singular
b. Noun with identical singular and plural
c. Irregular –(e) n plural
62,22%
66,66%
83,33%
d. Umlaut plurals
63,33%
e. Irregular plurals from Latin and Greek
79,52%
Total
355,06%
Average
71,01%
The whole total
513,09
The whole average
102,61%
Based on the table above, it can be seen that on the regular forms, the
highest percentage of errors is on type of nouns ending in –y with the average 38,
88%. The second level is ending with sounds of ss,x, sh, or ch with the average
36, 66% . The third level is nouns ending in –f or –fe with the average 35, 55%.
The fourth level is noun ending in –o with the average 31, 11%. And the lowest
percentage is on type the majority of plural nouns with the average 15, 83%. It
is because regular plural forms have the exact rule and more easy to understand
48
For the irregular forms, a noun with identical singular plural and is the
highest percentage with the average (83, 33%). The second level is irregular
plurals from Latin and Greek (79, 52%). The third level is irregular – (e) n
plurals (66, 66%). The fourth level is Umlaut plurals (63, 33%). And the lowest
level is noun with identical and plural singular (62, 22%).
From the interpretation data above, it can be summarized; many students
made errors most in irregular forms than in regular forms with the average of
percentage 71, 01% while in regular forms 31, 60%.
Here can be summarized that the factors of student‟s error in learning
irregular forms are there is no definite formula in forming irregular plural. So the
way to know and master irregular plural forms is just by memorizing the words
and does more the exercises. Meanwhile the causes of student‟s error in learning
regular form are they do not understand well about the rules that they learnt and
make them confused to use it; they do not concentrate with teacher‟s explaining.
Their comprehension in learning plural form in Indonesia comprehends also can
cause error in learning plural form in English rules. Both of them has own and
different concept. Therefore the students must be able to distinguish between
Indonesian structure and English structures in order avoid them from mistaken in
changing singular into plural forms in English. The students also have to enrich
their knowledge about plural by learning more and understanding well the rules.
49
CHAPTER IV
CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS
A.
Conclusion
Based on the analysis and the interpretation of data in the previous chapter,
the writer would like to conclude the whole total of percentage of error is 513, 09
with the average is 102, 61. Most of students made errors on the type of irregular
forms, because the rule of irregular is more complicated. It errors occur when the
students forgot the rules and cause them make error in testing irregular plural. It
can also be seen on the average percentage for an irregular form is 71, 01%. Most
of the students chose the wrong answer in this type, while the average percentage
for regular is only 31, 60%. As the writer has said in the interpretation of data, the
cause of student’s errors in irregular forms because there is no the exact rule to
change singular forms become irregular plural, the students have to memorize the
word and practice more. Meanwhile the factors of student’s errors in regular
plural because they did not understand and forgot the rules and make them
confused to change the word from singular into plural forms. The student also
presumed that in forming plural, only add-s at the end of the word, but actually
there are some exceptions. Errors also are caused by student’s comprehension
which is still influenced by Indonesian pattern and translate the words literally.
To reduce these errors the students have to learn and master more about the rule,
49
50
do more plural forms exercises in English plural and practice more in learning
plural form.
B.
Suggestions
In order to reduce the errors in learning plural forms of noun, the writer
would like to present some suggestions for both English teachers and English
learners:
1. The rule for making plural forms of noun in English is different from
Indonesian. Therefore, it is important for students to know and
understand the rules through practice more
2. It can be seen from the conclusion, that irregular forms are more
complicated than regular plural. So, the students have to pay more
attention in learning through drills.
3. The students need to do more plural forms exercises. It is intended in
order that the students can use English plural and understand well.
50
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http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/plural
http://grammar.about.com/od/pq/g/pluralterm.htm
Appendix I
RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
Name:
Class:
Rewrite the sentence! Change the word in the brackets into plural forms!
1. I have two (mango) in refrigerator.
2. There are two (fish) in aquarium
3. He has three (deer)
4. This school is consisting of five (class)
5. They give many (opinion)
6. I have two (stitch)
7. There are three (flash)
8. There are four (bookshelf) in the classroom
9. In vase there are many (flower)
10. My mother has three (child)
11. My sister buys some (tomato)
12. In Indonesia there are many (hero)
13. On the tree there are two (bird)
14. Police gets several (possibility) to find her daughter
15. The story consist of two (series)
16. I see some (wolf) in the zoo
17. Next to campus there are many (dormitory)
18. He has five (wife)
19. There are a lot of (tax) in pool
20. I have five (sheep)
21. In the garden there are several (butterfly)
22. He sends many (memorandum)
23. He gives me two (doll)
24. I have many (criterion) for looking married partner
25. The teacher gives some (stimulus) to make students actively.
26. In the river there are some (larva)
27. We face some (crisis) in this globalization era
28. There are several (vortex)
29. There are many (plateau)
30. I have two (foot)
Appendix II
ANSWER KEY
1. Mangoes
2. Fish
3. Deer
4. Classes
5. Opinions
6. Stitches
7. Flashes
8. Bookshelves
9. Flowers
10. Children
11. Tomatoes
12. Heroes
13. Birds
14. Possibilities
15. Series
16. Wolves
17. Dormitories
18. Wives
19. Taxes
20. Sheep
21. Butterflies
22. Memoranda
23. Dolls
24. Criteria
25. Stimuli
26. Larvae
27. Crises
28. Vortices
29. Plateaux
30. Feet
Ciputat,11Mei 2011
No
:Istimewa
Lamp:1(satu)berkas
Hal
: Pensaiuan Judul Skripsi
Kepada Yth.
Ketua JurusanPendidikan BahasaInggris
Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan
UIN Syarif Hidayatull ah J akarta
Di
Tempat
Assalamua' alaikum lVr, Wb
Mengingat akan berakhirnyamasastudy sayadi tingkat stratasatu (S1), maka
sayayang bertandatangan dibawah ini:
Nama
NIM
Fakultas
Jurusan/semester
Ade Irma Suryani
107014000693
Ilmu TarbiyahdanKeguruan
Pendidikan
BahasaInggris/ VIII A
judul skripsisebagaisalahsatusyaratmenyelesaikan
Bermaksudmengajukan
programstratasatu(S-1)UIN SyarifHidayatullahJakarta,adapunjudul yang
sayaajukanadalah:
..AN ANALYSIS ON THE DIFFICULTIES FACEHBY THE
STUDENTSIN LEARNING PLURAL FORMS NOUNg
(A CaseStudyat theFirst year studentsof MTsAl-MukhlisinCiseeng)
Bersamaini sayalampirkansatuberkasproposalskripsiyangterdiri dari:
L OutlineSkripsi
2. Abstract
Skripsi,dan
3. Daftar Pustakasementara
Demikiansuratpengajuanini sayasampaikan.Atas segalapertimbangandan
perhatiannya
sayaucapkanbanyakterimakasih.
Wassalamu'aluikumWr. Wb.
Pemohon.
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/t
t,t
l7h'-
Ade Irma Survani
NIP tsO041070
NIM 107014000693
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KEMENTERIAN
AGAMA
UINJAKARTA
F IT K
FORM(FR)
Jl. lr. H. Juanda No 95 Ciputat 15412 tndonesia
No.Dokumen :
Tgl.Terbit
:
FITK-FR-AKD-081
1 Maret 2010
No.Revisi:
Hal
01
:
1t1
S U R A TB I M B I N G A N
SKRIPSI
Nomor: Un.O
1/F.I/KM.O
1.3/F36.120
1I
Lamp.: Hal
Jakarta,2SMei 2011
: Bimbingan Shripsi
KepadaYth.
Drs. AM Zaenuri. M.Pd
PembirnbingSkripsi
FakultasIlmu Tarbiyahdan Keguruan
UIN Syarif Hidayatullah
Jakarta.
Assalantu'alaikumwr.wb.
Dengan ini diharapkan kesediaan Saudara untuk rnenjadi pembirnbing IlIl
(materi/teknis)
penulisanskripsimahasiswa:
Nama
Ade IrmaSuryani
NIM
1070I 4000693
Jurusan
Pendidikan
Bahasa
Inggris
Semester
VIII ( Delapan
)
JudulSkripsi
''AN ANALYSIS ON TFIE DIFFICULTIES FACED
BY THE STUDENTS IN
LEARNING PLURAL FORMS OT'NOUNSJ'
( A CaseStudy at the First Year Studentsof MTs Al-Mukhlisin Ciseeng )
Judul tersebuttelah disehrjuioleh Jurusanyang bersangkutan
padatanggal l9 Mei 2011,
abstraksi/ozrtline
terla;rtpir.Saudaradapat melakukan perubahanredaksional pada judul
tersebttt.Apabilaperubahan
substansial
dianggapperlu,mohon pembimbingmenghubungi
Jurusanterlebilidahulu.
Bimbingan skripsi ini diharapkanselesaidalarn waktr: 6 (enam) bulan, darr dapat
cliperpanjang
selama6 (enam)bulanberikutnyatanpasuratperpanjangan.
Atas perhatiandan kerja sarnaSaudara,karni ucapkanterima kasih.
I4/as
sal amu'alaikurnwr. wb.
a.n.Dekan
Kaju
, ,. : '
idikanBahasalnggris
,' *$
1 0 3I 002
Tembusan;
l
Dekan FITK
2 . M a h a s i s w yab s ,
KEMENTERIAN
AGAMA
[email protected] UINJAKARTA
ix
i}m* .lj FlrK
gS
I -ryY
lr. H.
Jl.
JuandaNo
FORM(FR)
Ciputat15412tndonesia
No.Dokumen :
:
Tgl.Terbit
FITK-FR-AKD-082
1 Maret 2010
No. Revisi:
Hal
01
:
1t1
SURATPERMOHONAN
IZINPENELITIAN
N o m o:r Un .0 1 /F
1 /K
. M.0.3
1 1 ........1201
1
Lamp. : Outline/Proposal
,l*il
.',Psr.nnahanapJeinPene,titian
2011
Jakarta,29 September
KepadaYth.
KepalaSekefah[ATsNlusulbluda
di
Tempat
Assalamu'alaikum wr.wb.
Denganhormatkamisampaikan
bahwa,
Nama
:A d e l r maSur yani
NIM
:107014000693
Jurusan
: Pendidikan
BahasaInggris
Semester
: lX (Sembilan)
TahunAkademik
:201012011
JudulSkripsi
FACEDBY THE
: AN ANALYSIS
ON THE DIFFICULTIES
STUDENTS
IN LEARNING
PLURALFORMSOF NOUNS
(Casestudyat the FirstYearstudentsof MTsNurulHuda)
adalahbenarmahasiswa/i
UINJakartayang
Fakultas
llmuTarbiyah
dan Keguruan
sedang menyusun skripsi, dan akan mengadakanpenelitian(riset) di
yangSaudarapimpin.
instansi/sekolah/madrasah
Untuk itu kami mohon Saudara dapat mengizinkanmahasiswatersebut
penelitian
melaksanakan
dimaksud.
Atasperhatian
terimakasih.
dankerjasamaSaudara,
kamiucapkan
Wassal
amu'alaikum wr.wb.
a.n.De
Kaihr
didikan BahasaInggris
TJ
Drs. auki. M.Pd
4r2r2199103
r 002
NIP.
Tembusan:
1. DekanFITK
2. PembantuDekanBidangAkademik
3. Mahasiswayang bersangkutan
v
YAYASAN PENDIDIKAN ISLAM NURUL HUDA (YAPINDA)
MADRASAH TSANAWIYAH NURUL HUDA
TERAKREDITASI
SK. Kanwil DepartemenAgama Propinsi JawaBarat
No. B/KW. 10.4lWl s/ | 7/ 0A6//2000NSM : 212.320.3| .7|
Jl. SumurwangiKelurahanKayumanisKecamatanTanahSarealKota Bogor telp.(0251)7537203
SURAT KETERANGAN
Denganini menerangkanbahwa:
Nama
NIM
Semester
Fakultas/Jurusan
AdeIrmaSuryani
r07014000693
IX (Sembilan)
Bahasa
Inggris
Ilmu TarbiyahdanKeguruan(FITK)/ Pendidikan
Adalah benar telah melakukanpenelitiandi MTs Nurul Huda pada tanggal 29 Septembersampai
dengan8 Oktober2011
untuk dapat
Demikian surat keteranganini dibuat dengan sesungguhnyadan sebenar-benamya
digunakansebagaimana
mestinya.
9 Oktober2011
s Nurul Huda
S.Ag
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