Autumn 2013 Newsletter - European Mycotoxins Awareness Network

European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
EU authorizations for Mycofix® Secure and Biomin® BBSH 797; first-ever products with official
anti-mycotoxin claim
BIOMIN announces the authorization of two BIOMIN products as “substances for reduction of the
contamination of feed by mycotoxins”.
November 04, 2013 – Two products from the well-established Mycofix® product line of BIOMIN, Mycofix®
Secure (bentonite/dioctahedral montmorillonite) and Biomin® BBSH 797 (Gen. nov. sp. nov., formerly
Eubacterium), have become the first-ever products authorized by the EU as substances with proven
mycotoxin counteracting properties.
Biomin® BBSH 797 is the first-ever microorganism to be authorized, thereby affirming its capability in the
biodegradation of trichothecenes. The patented active bacterium in Biomin® BBSH 797 modifies the
structure of these mycotoxins, a biotransformation process that renders trichothecenes such as
deoxynivalenol (DON) harmless. This makes Biomin® BBSH 797 a valuable feed additive for pigs,
considered the species most susceptible to in-feed DON contamination.
Mycofix® Secure is a bentonite (dioctahedral montmorillonite) that fulfills the strict requirements on
aflatoxin-binding capability according to the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL). In cooperation
with the EURL, BIOMIN developed an analytical method to characterize the AfB1-binding capacity of
bentonites which has now become a crucial part of the authorization process for aflatoxin binders. These
efforts spearheaded by BIOMIN have paved the way for legalizing “aflatoxin-binding” as an official claim.
The process towards the authorization of Mycofix® Secure and Biomin® BBSH 797 in the EU began when,
on the initiative of BIOMIN, the EU Association of Specialty Feed Ingredients and their Mixtures, or
FEFANA, established the Task Force “Mycotoxins” in 2005. In 2009, the Task Force succeeded in opening
a new functional group for mycotoxin counteracting products, signifying a landmark development in the
official approval of mycotoxin deactivating products within the EU. This led subsequently to the publication
of stringent European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance for anti-mycotoxin product registration—
including proofs for mycotoxin and species specificity, efficacy and safety—which have generally deterred
the industry from submitting dossiers for EU authorization of anti-mycotoxin feed additives.
In 2010, BIOMIN, however, became the first feed additive company to submit a dossier to legalize the claim
of “aflatoxin-binding” properties (Mycofix® Secure). This was followed in 2012 with a dossier for the
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
“biodegradation of trichothecenes” (Biomin® BBSH 797) for EU approval. After a thorough scientific
evaluation process, BIOMIN became the first feed additive company to obtain positive opinions from EFSA
on these technological feed additives capable of reducing the negative impacts of mycotoxins in animals.
These efforts, leading up to the legal recognition of scientific claims on mycotoxin deactivation, attest to the
dedication and long-standing commitment of BIOMIN in the field of research and development in functional
feed additives, specifically in products with proven mycotoxin deactivating properties.
For additional information on the news that is the subject of this release, contact or visit
BIOMIN, a leading company focusing on health in animal nutrition, develops and produces feed additives,
premixes and services to improve animal health and performance, in an economically viable way.
Leveraging on the latest technologies and extensive R&D programs, BIOMIN offers sustainable quality
products which include solutions for mycotoxin risk management, a groundbreaking natural growth
promoting concept as well as other specific solutions which address dietary requirements for swine, poultry,
dairy and aquaculture.
This month, we welcome our new sponsor Fermentek.
A global producer of mycotoxin standard reference material products
Mycotoxins are toxic metabolites that appear in food and feed as a result of fungal infection of crops such
as cereals, dried fruit and many other agricultural products.
Widespread mycotoxins such as aflatoxins are the most potent natural carcinogen known. Other
mycotoxins are genotoxic, or may target the kidney, liver or immune system; hence, mycotoxins are a wellknown cause of illness or death.
According to the FAO, more than 25 % of the world's agricultural production is contaminated with
mycotoxins. This equates to economic losses estimated at $923 million annually in the US grain industry
Mycotoxin detection
Mycotoxins are toxic in very low concentrations, therefore sensitive and reliable methods are required for
their detection.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Accurate analysis of mycotoxins depends on the use of mycotoxin standard reference materials that are
used for calibration and validation of the analytical equipment.
Fermentek's food & feed safety products
 Fermentek is a global leader in production of certified mycotoxin reference materials.
 Fermentek was established at 1994 by Dr. Yossef Behrend that was beforehand the R&D manager
of the fermentation and purification division of Sigma Aldrich.
 Since then Fermentek has focused on developing and launching dozens of mycotoxins that are
used world wide as reference materials in analytical food safety laboratories.
 Mycotoxin analysis of food and feed is nowadays required by legislation. The agricultural products
that are susceptible to be contaminated by mycotoxins include cereals such as rice, corn, wheat,
rye, oats; soy, almonds, nuts, peanuts, grapes figs, coffee, cocoa, spices, oil seeds and others.
 Fermentek is ISO-9000 and ISO 13485 certified, and is qualified as GMP Q7A compliant.
 Fermentek offers its high quality reference material crystalline mycotoxins as well as standard
solutions – FermaSol.
Fermentek's standard reference materials are used to detect Aflatoxins, Cytochalasins, Trichocothecenes,
Tremorgens and other mycotoxins.
Fermentek's staff consists of microbiologists, biotechnologists and chemists who are constantly screening
the research literature for opportunities to develop innovative production processes of food safety standard
The staff is dedicated to ensure quality and customer satisfaction by quick supplying our high quality
standard products at affordable prices.
Fermentek is interested in identifying further R&D needs and in providing solutions for mycotoxin
production through its innovative and competitive production platform.
Contact: Moti Rebhun PhD, 4 Yaziv st., Jerusalem 97800
Tel: +972-2-5853953 Fax: +972-2-5853943 Cell: +972-50-323-1065
Web: E-Mail:
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Sampling for mycotoxins: Do we care enough?
Author : Pichler E.
Source : Cereal Foods World (CFW)
ISSN : 0146-6283
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (May-June), 58 (3), 117-118 (6 ref.)
Language of Text : En
Abstract : The accurate determination of mycotoxin levels in grain and feed shipments is complicated by
the uneven distribution of mycotoxins caused by fungi growing unevenly throughout a field or bin, and the
complexity of the sampling and testing procedure, with improper sample estimated to account for almost
90% of the error associated with mycotoxin testing. This paper discusses the sources of sampling errors
and the consequences of false negative and false positive results, then proposes a suitable sampling
technique for accurate mycotoxin analysis, even from mixed feeds.
Detection of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in nutmeg extract using fluorescence fingerprint.
Author : Fujita K., Sugiyama J., Tsuta M., Shibata M., Kokawa M., Onda H., Sagawa T.
Source : Food Science and Technology Research
ISSN : 1344-6606
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 19 (4), 539-545 (29 ref.)
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : A rapid method for detecting aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 in nutmeg extract using fluorescence
fingerprint (FF) and partial least squares (PLS) regression was developed. The FF of nutmeg extract
artificially spiked with aflatoxin was determined using fluorescence spectroscopy. Following preprocessing
of FF data, the remaining fluorescence intensities were used as explanatory variables for PLS regression,
with total aflatoxin concentration as response variable. Eleven of 21 samples were used as the calibration
dataset, with the remaining samples as the validation dataset, and three latent variables were used to
develop the ideal PLS model by cross validation. Significant correlations between actual and predicted
values for the validation dataset were observed. The PLS regression coefficient, which showed the degree
of contribution of each wavelength to the model, indicated that prediction was based mainly on aflatoxin
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Occurrence of fumonisins B2 and B4 in retail raisins.
Author : Knudsen P.B., Mogensen J.M., Larsen T.O., Nielsen K.F.
Source : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
ISSN : 0021-8561
Publication Year : 2011
Reference : (January 26), 59 (2), 772-776
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aspergillus niger spores occur on raisins, and this fungus has been found to produce fumonisin
on grapes, causing the occurrence of fumonisin B2 in wine. Fumonisins were examined in retail raisins in
this study using liquid chromatography-MS-MS (LC-MS-MS). Levels of fumonisins B2 and B4 in brands
collected in Denmark, Germany and the Netherlands are presented; for wine, only fumonisin B2 was
detected. The authors suggest that fumonisins are produced mainly during grape drying. The package-topackage variation in results is highlighted.
Mycological analysis and multimycotoxins in maize from rural subsistence farmers in the former
Transkei, South Africa.
Author : Shephard G.S., Burger H.-M., Gambacorta L., Krska R., Powers S.P., Rheeder J.P., Solfrizzo M.,
Sulyok M., Visconti A., Warth B., van der Westhuizen L.
Source : Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
ISSN : 0021-8561
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August 28), 61 (34), 8232-8240
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Maize grown by subsistence farmers in the Centane region of the former Transkei, Eastern Cape
Province, South Africa, has been shown to be contaminated with fumonisin mycotoxins. The contents and
types of mycotoxins found in good and mouldy maize, harvested during 2011, were investigated using two
multimycotoxin LC-MS/MS methods. One approach involved extract cleanup on multitoxin immunoaffinity
columns before LC-MS/MS analysis for fumonisins, aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN),
and T-2 and HT-2 toxins. The second procedure was based on a “dilute-and-shoot” approach for these
mycotoxins and other fungal secondary metabolites. Both methods showed high incidences of fumonisins
B1 and B2 in good and mouldy maize, with all samples mouldy maize contaminated with fumonisins. A
wide range of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria and Penicillium mycotoxins and secondary metabolites
were also detected.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Ozonolysis mechanism and influencing factors of aflatoxin B1: a review.
Author : Diao E., Hou H., Dong H.
Source : Trends in Food Science and Technology
ISSN : 0924-2244
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 33 (1), 21-26
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aflatoxin B1 occurs as a contaminant in agricultural products and foods, and there is interest in
the use of ozone as a low-cost, high-efficiency method for decomposing aflatoxin B1 in the food industry.
This paper reviews the ozonolysis mechanism and the factors affecting its degradation efficiency, including
measures to improve the ozonolysis efficiency of aflatoxin B1.
Effect of microwave heating during alkaline-cooking of aflatoxin contaminated maize.
Author : Perez-Flores G.C., Moreno-Martinez E., Mendez-Albores A.
Source : Journal of Food Science
ISSN : 0022-1147
Publication Year : 2011
Reference : (March), 76 (2), T48-T52}
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The potential presence of aflatoxins in maize for human consumption is a serious problem within
the Mexican food supply. New detoxification procedures are needed that eliminate or minimise the aflatoxin
risk. The effectiveness of a modified tortilla-making process (MTMP) for the detoxification of maize
contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin B2 (AFB2) processed into tortillas was evaluated. The
MTMP significantly decreased aflatoxin content, with extract acidification prior to mycotoxin quantification
causing some reformation of the aflatoxin structure in tortillas. The MTMP appeared to be a safe
decontamination process for aflatoxins in maize.
Cornmeal and starch influence the dynamic of fumonisin B, A and C production and masking in
Fusarium verticillioides and F. proliferatum.
Author : Lazzaro I., Falavigna C., Galaverna G., dall Asta C., Battilani P.
Source : International Journal of Food Microbiology
ISSN : 0168-1605
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August 16), 166 (1), 21-27
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The effects of cornmeal and corn starch, as sole nutrition source, on production of all fumonisins
including hidden forms in different strains of Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium proliferatum incubated at
25 C for 7 to 45 days were investigated. Both Fusarium species produced high levels of fumonisin B (FB),
with chemotype FB1 being highest, followed by FB2 and FB3, while lower amounts of fumonisin C (FC) and
fumonisin A (FA) were produced, and no fumonisin P was detected. Fumonisin production was higher for
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Fusarium verticillioides than Fusarium proliferatum under all conditions assessed. Fumonisin production
was higher in cornmeal than in starch-based medium for both Fusarium species, with FA and FC only being
detected in cornmeal. Amylopectin and acidic pH conditions were suggested to induce fumonisin
biosynthesis. Fumonisin hidden forms might occur in cornmeal medium.
Mycotoxin-degradation profile of Rhodococcus strains.
Author : Cserhati M., Kriszt B., Krifaton C., Szoboszlay S., Hahn J., Toth S., Nagy I., Kukolya J.
Source : International Journal of Food Microbiology
ISSN : 0168-1605
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August 16), 166 (1), 176-185
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Application of microorganisms for biodegradation of mycotoxins has shown potential as a novel
method in food and feed processing. The mycotoxin degradation ability of 32 Rhodococcus strains on
economically important mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, zearalenone, fumonisin B1, T2 toxin and ochratoxin A was
investigated, together with the safety of aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone degradation processes and
degradation products using previously developed toxicity profiling methods. The multi-mycotoxin degrading
ability of the best toxin degrader/detoxifier strains on aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and T2 toxin mixtures was
assessed. This allowed selection of the safest and most effective Rhodococcus strains, even for multimycotoxin degradation. Several Rhodococcus species were determined to be effective for degradation of
aromatic mycotoxins, and might be applied in mycotoxin biodetoxification processes.
Regional differences in species composition and toxigenic potential among Fusarium head blight
isolates from Uruguay indicate a risk of nivalenol contamination in new wheat production areas.
Author : Umpierrez-Failache M., Garmendia G., Pereya S., Rodriguez-Haralambides A., Ward T.J., Vero S.
Source : International Journal of Food Microbiology
ISSN : 0168-1605
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August 16), 166 (1), 135-140
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) is the main cause of Fusarium head blight
(FHB) in wheat. Species identity and trichothecene toxin potential of 151 FGSC isolates in wheat samples
from Uruguay were determined using multilocus genotyping. Fusarium graminearum with the 15ADON
trichothecene type accounted for 86% of isolates examined, with five different FGSC species and all three
trichothecene types being identified. Fusarium asiaticum, Fusarium brasilicum, Fusarium cortaderiae and
Fusarium austroamericanum were reported in Uruguay for the first time. Regional differences in the
composition of FGSC species and trichothecene types within Uruguay were observed. Fusarium
graminearum 15ADON-type isolates were the most prevalent in western provinces, while Fusarium
asiaticum and the NIV type predominated further east. Fusarium graminearum 15ADON-type isolates were
significantly more aggressive on wheat than NIV-type or 3ADON-type isolates, but were more sensitive to
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Application of plant derived compounds to control fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in
Author : da Cruz Cabral L., Pinto V.F., Patriarca A.
Source : International Journal of Food Microbiology
ISSN : 0168-1605
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August 16), 166 (1), 1-14
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Plant extracts have been found to contain diverse bioactive compounds with the ability to control
fungal growth. This review considers results of in vitro and in vivo experiments assessing the efficacy of
plant-derived products for controlling fungal growth. Data from research into the mechanism of action of
these plant metabolites inside fungal cells are examined, together with the influence of abiotic external
factors such as pH and temperature. The impact of stress factor derived from the presence of plant extracts
and essential oils on the secondary metabolism of fungi, specifically mycotoxin synthesis, is detailed. The
effectiveness of using plant-derived compounds in combination with other natural antimicrobials is
discussed, together with applications in food using novel technologies.
Fluorescence imaging spectroscopy (FIS) for comparing spectra from corn ears naturally and
artificially infected with aflatoxin producing fungus.
Author : Hruska Z., Yao H., Kincaid R., Darlington D., Brown R.L., Bhatnagar D., Cleveland T.E.
Source : Journal of Food Science
ISSN : 0022-1147
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 78 (8), T1313-T1320}
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Spectral differences in aflatoxin production in kernels from a corn field inoculated with spores of
Aspergillus flavus were examined in this study as a means of rapidly detecting aflatoxin in grain. Results for
natural infestation were compared. A visible NIR (VNIR) hyperspectral system under UV excitation was
used, and aflatoxins were analysed using affinity column fluorometry. Averaging spectral data across all
groups obscured any potential differences between groups, but contaminated and clean ears could be
distinguished based on contaminated hot pixel classification. Fluorescence peaks differed for contaminated
and naturally infected control ears, compared with uninfected corn ears. The use of the method in the rapid,
non-invasive detection of aflatoxins in grain is suggested.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Direct and indirect contamination with ochratoxin A of ripened pork products.
Author : Bertuzzi T., Gualla A., Morlachini M., Pietri A.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (November), 34 (1), 79-83
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Direct and indirect contamination by ochratoxin A (OTA) in different ripened pork products was
investigated. Large White pigs were fed naturally OTA-contaminated diets containing OTA levels of 0.40 to
171 mcg/kg for 2 weeks. Dry sausage, dry-cured pork neck, dry-cured streaky bacon and dry-cured ham
prepared using contaminated tissues were ripened, and OTA contents in plasma, organs, tissues and
ripened pork products were assessed. For pigs fed less than 50 mcg/kg OTA, OTA levels in muscle and
ripened products were about 1 mcg/kg. Dry sausage and dry-cured pork neck exhibited much higher OTA
contents. OTA was partially degraded during the long dry-cured ham ripening time. Direct contamination
was low in dry sausage and dry-cured pork neck, and not detected in dry-cured streaky bacon, while very
high OTA levels were determined in several dry-cured ham samples.
Survey of aflatoxin in dairy cow feed and raw milk in China.
Author : Han R.W., Zheng N., Wang J.Q., Zhen Y.P., Xu X.M., Li S.L.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (November), 34 (1), 35-39
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aflatoxin contents in dairy cow feed samples and milk samples collected from milk-producing
provinces in China were assessed. Feed samples were analysed for aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2
using HPLC, while AFM1 in milk samples was determined by an ELISA. AFB1 and AFB2 were detected in
feed samples, with 42% containing AFB1 at 0.05 to 3.53 mcg/kg, and 36% containing AFB2 at 0.03 to 0.84
mcg/kg. AFB1 content was significantly higher than AFB2 content in feeds, but still below EU and Chinese
legal limits, while total AFs content was below the US legal limit. For milk samples, 32.5% were positive for
AFM1 at 5.2 to 59.6 ng/l, well below the legal limit in China and the US. Three milk samples contained
AFM1 at levels higher than the EU legal limit of 50 ng/l.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Alternaria mycotoxins in wheat - a 10 years survey in the northeast of Germany.
Author : Muller M.E.H., Korn U.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (November), 34 (1), 191-197
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Alternaria mycotoxins in 1,064 freshly harvested winter wheat samples from commercial farms in
Brandenburg, Germany, collected from 2001 to 2010, were assessed. Alternariol (AOH) and its
monomethyl ether (AME), altenuene (ALT) and tenuazonic acid (TeA) were analysed using HPLC with
diode array and fluorescence detection. TeA was the most frequently determined Alternaria mycotoxin, with
30.3% of samples being naturally contaminated by TeA, 8.1% by AOH, 3.1% by AME and 2.6% by ALT.
Maximum toxin contents in all years evaluated were determined. Co-occurrence of several Alternaria
mycotoxins in wheat samples was infrequent. Contamination of wheat ears was more pronounced in wet
years 2010, 2009 and 2002, while 2001 and 2008 were Alternaria toxin free years. Minimum tillage
practices and corn together with winter wheat as preceding crops led to increased TeA concentrations in
Determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its derivatives: current status of analytical methods.
Author : Ran R., Wang C., Han Z., Wu A., Zhang D., Shi J.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (November), 34 (1), 138-148
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Deoxynivalenol (DON), a major trichothecene mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium
graminearum, induces acute and chronic toxic effects in humans and animals via contaminated foods and
feeds. Surveillance and control of DON and its derivatives in foods and feeds are important for producers,
regulatory authorities and researchers in order to protect consumer health and reduce economic losses.
This review considers currently available analytical methods for DON and its derivatives, including both
qualitative and quantitative analysis, and focusing on the basic principles together with advantages and
disadvantages of each method. New emerging technologies and their potential applications are also
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Monitoring aflatoxin M1 levels in ewe’s and goat’s milk in Thessaly, Greece; potential risk factors
under organic and conventional production schemes.
Author : Malissiova E., Tsakalof A., Arvanitoyannis I.S., Katsafliaka A., Katsioulis A., Tserkezou P.,
Koureas M., Govaris A., Hadjichristodoulou C.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (November), 34 (1), 241-248
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in raw sheep milk and raw goat milk in Greece were
investigated, together with possible risk factors, and comparison of organic and conventional milks. Milk
samples were screened for AFM1 using an ELISA and confirmed by HPLC. Analytical results were
statistically analysed to determine any associations with possible risk factors. Of 234 samples analysed, no
AFM1 was detected in 191, while four were found to have AFM1 levels above the EU maximum tolerable
limit of 50 ng/kg. No conventionally produced samples were over the maximum limit for AFM1, while four of
117 organic samples exceeded 50 ng/kg. Among several potential risk factors for AFM1 milk contamination
assessed, use of a warehouse for feed storage, winter season and feeding field pea were identified as
being statistically significant.
Management of potato dry rot.
Author : Bojanowski A., Avis T.J., Pelletier S., Tweddell R.J.
Source : Postharvest Biology and Technology
ISSN : 0925-5214
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (October), 84 (1), 99-109
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Dry rot is a postharvest fungal disease affecting potato tubers, caused by several species of
Fusarium. The Fusarium species associated with dry rot are examined and the toxins produced by these
fungi are described. The seed tuber, and to a lesser extent infested soil, is considered as the main source
of inoculums. Control of the disease and integrated disease management programmes to reduce incidence
and severity of dry rot are discussed. These include detection strategies, appropriate cultural practices and
storage conditions, together with the use of synthetic chemical fungicides as seed tuber and/or postharvest
treatment. The potential integration of generally recognised as safe (GRAS) compounds and microbial
antagonists into dry rot management strategies is considered.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Aflatoxin M1 contamination in white and Lighvan cheese marketed in Rafsanjan, Iran.
Author : Mohajeri F.A., Ghalebi S.R., Rezaeian M., Gheisari H.R., Azad H.K., Zolfaghari A., Fallah A.A.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (October), 33 (2), 525-527
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Contamination of dairy products with carcinogenic aflatoxins (AF) can be a health concern for
both industry and consumers. The occurrence of AFM1 in white cheese (45 samples) and Lighvan cheese
(37 samples) obtained from supermarkets and retail outlets in Rafsanjan city, Iran, were screened using
competitive enzyme immunoassay. AFM1 was detected in 29 (64.4%) white cheese (93.3-309 ng/kg) and
10 (27%) Lighvan cheese (70.5-203 ng/kg), with the Iranian national limit being 200 ng/kg. Contamination
of cheeses with these levels of AFM1 could be a serious public health problem.
Quantification of aflatoxin risk associated with Chinese spices: point and probability risk
assessments for aflatoxin B1.
Author : Zhao X., Schaffner D.W., Yue T.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (October), 33 (2), 366-377
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Spices can be susceptible to contamination with aflatoxin and their consumption might be a
source of exposure for consumers. The risk of illness posed by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from consumption of
Chinese spices (pepper, chilli, prickly ash, cinnamon, aniseed, fennel, curry powder, cumin and ginger) was
investigated. Quantitative estimates of cancer risk from AFB1 residues in retail spices were constructed.
Levels of AFB1 were determined by HPLC. About 11% of the 480 Chinese spices contained detectible
levels ofAFB1, with the highest concentrations found in chilli, prickly ash and pepper. Probabilistic risk
assessments estimated higher levels of risk compared with the deterministic risk assessment, with data
indicating that spices might contribute about 10% of all Chinese exposure to aflatoxins.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Incidence and level of aflatoxin contamination in chilli commercialised in Turkey.
Author : Golg O.E., Hepsag F., Kabak B.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (October), 33 (2), 514-520
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Spices can be contaminated by the potentially carcinogenic aflatoxins (AF). The levels of AF in
182 chilli samples collected from two provinces of Turkey during 2011-2012 were analysed using
immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC coupled to a fluorescence detector after post-column
derivatisation. Quantification limits for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 were 0.111, 0.110, 0.115 and 0.140
mcg/kg, respectively. AFs were found in 150 of the samples, with the main AF being AFB1, followed by
AFB2 and AFG1. Fifty and 35 chilli samples exceeded the EU limits of 5 ad 10 mcg/kg for AFB1 and total
Molecularly imprinted polymer-based solid phase clean-up for analysis of ochratoxin A in ginger
and LC-MS/MS confirmation.
Author : Cao J., Zhou S., Kong W., Yang M., Wan L., Yang S.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (October), 33 (2), 337-343
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Ginger is a widely used spice that is also a traditional medicinal herb. However, it can be
susceptible to ochratoxin A (OTA) contamination, a thermostable and toxic carcinogen. An ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (UPLC-FLR) is proposed for the
determination of OTA in ginger. The method was based on molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as
selective sorbent of solid-phase extraction (SPE). Limits of detection and determination under optimal
conditions were 0.09 and 0.3 ng/ml, respectively, with 87.6-94.5% recovery from spiked samples. The
method provided a simple, reliable and low-cost approach for quantification of OTA in ginger.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Degradation of the minor Fusarium mycotoxin beauvericin by intracellular enzymes of
Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Author : Meca G., Ritieni A., Zhou T., Li X.Z., Manes J.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (October), 33 (2), 352-358
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Beauvericin (BEA) is a cyclic depsipeptide, found with the fungus Beauveria bassiana, with
antibiotic and insecticidal properties. It is also produced by several Fusarium strains and can be a
contaminant of cereals, such as corn, wheat and barley. The degradation of BEA by intracellular raw
enzymes of four strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (LO9, YE5, A34 and A17) was investigated in a
model solution and corn flour. BEA was analysed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection.
Degradation of BEA in a model solution was 83-100% while that in enzyme-treated corn flour was 66-91%.
Degradation products were also identified.
Potential use of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy for identification of molds capable of
producing mycotoxins.
Author : Bhat R.
Source : International Journal of Food Properties
ISSN : 1094-2912
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 16 (8), 1819-1829
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The use of Fourier-transform IR (FTIR) spectroscopy for differentiating between different genera
of fungi producing mycotoxins was examined in this study. A unique spectrum was produced for each
fungus, irrespective of the overall similarities between the spectra, and differences in the functional groups
were found. The production of a fingerprint for each of the fungal strains able to produce mycotoxins, and
potential use of the method in assisting quarantine rules are discussed.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Detection of masked mycotoxins derived from type A trichothecenes in corn by high-resolution LCOrbitrap mass spectrometer.
Author : Nakagawa H., Sakamoto S., Sago Y., Kushiro M., Nagashima H.
Source : Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A
ISSN : 0265-203X
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 30 (8), 1407-1414
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Mycotoxin glucosides, masked mycotoxins derived from type A trichothecenes, were detected in
commercially available corn powder reference materials. These new glucosides were identified as
neosolaniol-glucoside and diacetoxyscirpenol-glucoside on the basis of accurate mass determination of
characteristic ions and fragmentation patterns using high-resolution liquid chromatography-Orbitrap mass
spectrometry. Absolute structure was not identified, but 3-hydroxyl group glucosylation appeared to be
likely when considering the structure of neosolaniol and diacetoxyscirpenol and the fragmentation profiles
of these masked mycotoxins. This probable structure was further confirmed by concomitant detection of
deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, the most well-known masked mycotoxin derived from the type B trichothecene
Risk control and food safety.
Author : Yamamoto S., Voss K.A.
Source : Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A
ISSN : 0265-203X
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 30 (8), 1349-1350
Language of Text : En
Abstract : The 11th International Symposium of the Joint Panel on Toxic Microorganisms, US-Japan
Cooperative Program on Development and Utilization of Natural Resources, was held in Tokyo, Japan on
4th to 9th March 2012. The symposium theme was risk control and food safety, with sessions on seafood
toxins, fungal toxins and pathogenic bacteria highlighting the multidisciplinary approach required to reduce
foodborne health risks. Development of sensitive and robust analytical methods for known and novel toxins
is important for assuring seafood product safety. Minimisation of mycotoxin exposure needs to target the
entire farm to fork process, including improved ability to predict geographical distribution of fungi and
mycotoxins in crops in changing climatic conditions. Rapid and accurate identification and determination of
pathogenic bacteria involved in foodborne disease outbreaks have been achieved using optical genome
mapping and DNA microarray genotyping.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Quantum dot loaded liposomes as fluorescent labels for immunoassay.
Author : Beloglazova N.V., Shmelin P.S., Speranskaya E.S., Lucas B., Helmbrecht C., Knopp D., Niessner
R., de Saeger S., Cgoryacheva I.Y.
Source : Analytical Chemistry
ISSN : 0003-2700
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August 6), 85 (15), 7197-7204
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Liposomes loaded with water-soluble and water-insoluble quantum dots (QD) were used as
labels in different heterogeneous immunoassays for determination of mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN).
Selection of phospholipids for liposomes preparation was optimised, together with factors influencing
liposome size and stability. The effects of thin-film hydration and reverse-phase evaporation on liposome
stability and QD loading efficiency were assessed. Conjugation of liposomes with proteins and the impact
of crosslinking agents on non-specific interaction of obtained liposomes with surfaces of microtitre plates
and cartridges were investigated. Limits of detection for ZEN in fluorescence-labelled immunosorbent
assays were 0.6, 0.08 and 0.02 mcg/kg, using QD and liposomes loaded with water-soluble QD or waterinsoluble QD, respectively. Tests using different QD labels, taking into account EU maximum residues level
for ZEN in unprocessed cereals, showed cut-off levels of 100, 50 and 20 mcg/kg.
Alkaline cooking (nixtamalisation) and the reduction in the in vivo toxicity of fumonisincontaminated corn in a rat feeding bioassay.
Author : Voss K.A., Riley R.T., Moore N.D., Burns T.D.
Source : Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A
ISSN : 0265-203X
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 30 (8), 1415-1421
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The effects of nixtamalisation of whole kernel corn on fumonisin toxicity were investigated. Male
rats were fed diets containing low, intermediate or high levels of uncooked (LU, MU, HU) or alkaline-cooked
(LC, MC, HC) fumonisin B1 (FB1)-contaminated corn for 3 weeks. Apoptotic kidney lesions of the type
caused by FB1 were not observed in LC or MC groups. Lesions in rats fed HC were minimal and less
severe than those seen in rats fed LU, MU or HU. Greatly increased sphinganine and sphingosine
concentrations indicative of FB1 exposure were determined in kidneys of rats fed LU, MU or HU, while
concentrations were also increased, but to a lesser extent, in rats fed HC. FB1 concentrations in LC, MC
and HC diets were greatly reduced compared with LU, MU and HU counterparts as determined by HPLC.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Toxicological evaluation and bioaccumulation potential of lolitrem B, endophyte mycotoxin in
Japanese black steers.
Author : Shimada N., Yoshioka M., Mikami O., Tanimura N., Yamanaka N., Hanazumi M., Kojima F.,
Miyazaki S.
Source : Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A
ISSN : 0265-203X
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 30 (8), 1402-1406
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Lolitrem B, a causative mycotoxin in ryegrass staggers, is produced by Neotyphodium lolii
infection of perennial ryegrass. Sensitivity of Japanese black cattle to lolitrem B was investigated, together
with residual lolitrem B levels in different tissues. Japanese black steers were fed 0, 500, 750, 1,000, 1,500
or 2,000 mcg/kg diet of lolitrem B from endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass straw for 12 weeks. All cattle
fed the 2,000 mcg/kg diet and several cattle in the 750, 1,000 and 1,500 mcg/kg diet groups exhibited
clinical symptoms of ryegrass staggers. Results indicated that daily intake of 18 mcg/kg body weight of
lolitrem B produced ryegrass staggers in Japanese black steers. Perirenal fat tissues of steers showing
ryegrass staggers symptoms contained about 150 ng/g of lolitrem B, while only low lolitrem B levels were
detected in muscle, liver and kidney.
Exposure and risk assessment for ochratoxin A and fumonisins in Japan.
Author : Sugita-Konishi Y., Kamata Y., Sato T., Yoshinari T., Saito S.
Source : Food Additives and Contaminants: Part A
ISSN : 0265-203X
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 30 (8), 1392-1401
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Exposure and risk assessments based on surveillance studies of retail foods in Japan from 2004
to 2010 were carried out. Exposure to ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins (FBs) in different age groups,
including toddlers and young children, older children, adolescents and adults was simulated, and risk of
these mycotoxins was assessed by comparing the provisional maximum tolerated daily intake (PMTDI) for
FBs and the provisional maximum tolerated weekly intake (PMTWI) for OTA established by the FAO/WHO
Joint Export Committee on Food Additives. Exposure assessment for both mycotoxins in each age group in
Japan indicated that the highest exposure occurred in toddlers and children, while in all age groups the
percentage of PMTWI and PMTDI at the 99th percentile of exposure was less than 35% for OTA and 10%
for FBs.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Occupational exposure to aflatoxin B1: the case of poultry and swine production.
Author : Viegas S., Veiga L., Figueredo P., Almeida A., Carolino E., Sabino R., Verissimo C., Viegas C.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 309-315
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Although there is considerable information about the ingestion of food contaminated with
aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), only a few studies examine mycotoxin exposure in occupational settings. Occupational
exposure to AFB1 was evaluated in workers at Portuguese poultry and swine production facilities using a
specific biomarker. Eighteen poultry workers (58.6%) and six workers from swine production facilities
(54.5%) showed detectable levels of AFB1, with no differences in AFB1 levels in workers from poultry and
swine farms. AFB1 values in the control group were below 1 ng/ml, while poultry workers, showed the
highest serum levels. Exposure to AFB1 by inhalation can represent an additional risk in occupational
Effects of washing and drying applications on deoxynivalenol and zearalenone levels in wheat.
Author : Yener S., Koksel H.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 335-341
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Methods are needed for the effective decontamination of mycotoxins in wheat. The effects of
washing and drying processes on deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEA) contents in naturally
contaminated wheat were investigated. Wheat grain was washed with water, chlorinated water and/or
sodium carbonate and sodium hydroxide solutions for 1 and 2 minutes using a pressurised washing
system, followed by oven drying at low temperatures, microwave or IR drying. Pressure washing with
microwave and IR drying had potential for the decontamination of wheat grains, even at high mycotoxin
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Validation study on urinary biomarkers of exposure for aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, fumonisin B1,
deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in piglets.
Author : Gambacorta S., Solfrizzo H., Visconti A., Powers S., Cossalter A.M., Pinton P., Oswald I.P.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 299-308
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Guidance and maximal permitted levels of mycotoxins are defined in various EU regulations and
directives. Urinary biomarkers in piglets administered boluses contaminated with mixtures of
deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), fumonisin B1 (FB1), zearalenone (ZEA) and ochratoxin A
(OTA) at different concentrations were validated using the multi-biomarker approach. There was a good
correlation between the amount of mycotoxins ingested and the amount of relevant biomarkers excreted in
24 hour post dose urine, with linear dose-response correlation coefficients of 0.68-0.78 for the tested
mycotoxin/biomarker couples. The mycotoxin biomarkers were validated for piglets at dietary levels close to
EU guidance values.
Fusarium verticillioides and maize interaction in vitro: relationship between oxylipin cross-talk and
fumonisin synthesis.
Author : Scala V., Camera E., Ludovici M., dall Asta C., Cirlini M., Giorni P., Battilani P., Bello C., Fabbri
A.A., Fanelli C., Reverberi M.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 343-351
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Fusarium verticillioides is a fungal pathogen that causes ear and stalk rot in maize, and produces
the mycotoxic fumonisins. Plant and fungal oxylipins (OL) play a crucial role in the pathogen/host
interaction and can modulate secondary metabolism in fungi. The relationship between OL production and
fumonisin synthesis in Fusarium verticillioides was analysed through molecular and physiological
parameters. Expression of genes related to OL synthesis (lipoxygenase, diol synthases and fatty acid
oxidase) was studied. The OL profile of cracked maize and the pathogen was determined using a lipidomic
approach and the synthesis of fumonisin B1. A close relationship was found between the modification of
the OL profile with fumonisin synthesis. The OL profile of the pathogen was modified during its growth on
cracked maize.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Role of topoisomerase inhibition and DNA repair mechanisms in the genotoxicity of alternariol and
Author : Tiessen C., Gehrke H., Kropat C., Schwarz C., Bachler S., Fehr M., Pahlke G., Marko D.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 233-244
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Alternariol (AOH) and altertoxin-II (ALTX-II) possess genotoxic properties but the underlying
mechanisms of action have not been fully elucidated. The involvement of DNA repair pathways in the
extent of DNA damage by AOH and the role of interference with topoisomerase II in the genotoxicity of
ALTX-I was investigated. AOH enhanced the level of covalent DNA-topoisomerase II complexes in HT29
cells, acting as a topoisomerase poison in DNA damaging concentrations, whereas LTX-II in genotoxic
concentrations did not impact on complex stability. Differences in genotoxic mechanisms appeared to be
reflected in p53 activation of p53, with AOH increasing p53 phosphorylation in HT29 cells in DNA damaging
concentrations. The expression of the 70 kDa Ku autoantigen and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen
were involved in AOH-mediated DNA damage.
Global occurrence of mycotoxins in the food and feed chain: facts and figures.
Author : Schatmzmayr G., Streit E.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 213-222
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Mycotoxins, which are ubiquitous in agricultural commodities such as cereals and oil seeds, can
have toxic effects in humans and animals if ingested in sufficiently high concentrations. The results of a
survey programme launched in 2004 to assess the extent of mycotoxin contamination in feed and feed raw
materials are reported. More than 19,000 samples have been analysed, with more than 70,000 individual
analyses conducted. The trends indicated that high mycotoxin contamination was often linked to unusual
weather. Overall, 72% of samples contained detectable amounts of aflatoxins, fumonisins, ochratoxin A,
zearalenone or deoxynivalenol. By-products, such as distillers dried grain with solubles, can significantly
contribute to the overall contamination of feed. Preventive measures, including crop rotation and resistance
breeding, are discussed together with the need for continuous monitoring and efficient detoxification
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Mycotoxins and female reproduction: in vitro approaches.
Author : Santos R.R., Schoevers E.J., Roelen B.A.J., Fink-Gremmels J.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 245-253
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Mycotoxin exposure has been linked to adverse effects on female reproduction. The different
models, such as cell lines and oocytes, commonly used to assess the potential adverse effects of
mycotoxins on female reproduction are overviewed. Studies into the possible endocrine actions of
mycotoxins, focussing on specific cell lines known to express key enzymes involved in the synthesis of
steroid hormones, are discussed. The role of zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, ochratoxin A, T-2 and HT-2
toxins, and aflatoxin B1 as endocrine active substances is examined. Although zearalenone, which has
been classified as an endocrine disruptor, is the most widely studied mycotoxin in relation to female
reproduction, deoxynivalenol has also shown effects on oocyte maturation.
Antifungal properties of zinc-compounds against toxigenic fungi and mycotoxin.
Author : Savi G.D., Bortoluzzi A.J., Scussel V.M.
Source : International Journal of Food Science and Technology
ISSN : 0950-5423
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 48 (9), 1834-1840
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Zinc compounds exhibit antimicrobial properties and could be useful in the food industry. The
antifungal and antimycotoxin properties of zinc nanoparticles, zinc sulfate, zinc perchlorate and zinc oxide
were investigated. The zinc compounds were evaluated against toxigenic strains of Fusarium
graminearum, Penicillium citrinum and Aspergillus flavus. Conidia production, hyphae morphological
alterations, mortality and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were evaluated. The effect of the zinc
compounds on fungal growth was concentration dependent. Zinc sulfate and zinc perchlorate completely
inhibited the growth and mycotoxin-producing ability of the fungi, leading to morphological changes, cell
death and ROS production.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Fumonisins biomarkers in maize eaters and implications for human disease.
Author : van der Westhuizen L., Shephard G.S., Gelderblom W.C.A., Torres O., Riley R.T.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 223-232
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Maize is the main food source contaminated by fumonisins, which can have particular health
risks for communities in which maize is the staple diet. The development of a urinary exposure biomarker
based on the measurement of the non-metabolised toxin sphinganine for assessing fumonisin exposure is
reported. The positive correlation between consumption of maize and urinary fumonisin B1 (FB1) was
shown in studies conducted in a Mexican population consuming tortillas as a staple food, with further
validation in a South African study. More recent developments, aimed at measuring multiple mycotoxin
biomarkers in urine, including FB1, are described.
Biological and synthetic binders for immunoassay and sensor-based detection: generation and
characterisation of an anti-AFB2 single-chain variable fragment (scFv).
Author : Edupuganti S.R., Edupuganti O.P., O Kennedy R.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 273-280
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Methods to detect carcinogenic aflatoxins, which occur in a variety of food and feed samples, are
essential to ensure safety for human consumption. Aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and B2 (AFB2) can co-occur in a
range of foodstuffs. The generation of single-chain variable antibody fragments (scFvs) that are highly
specific to AFB2 with no cross-reactivity for other aflatoxins is reported. The analytical potential of scFvs E9
and H12 was evaluated competitive inhibition ELISA and half maximal inhibitory concentrations. Affinity and
sensitivity of scFv-E9 was determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based competitive inhibition
assay and kinetic analysis. An inhibition assay was developed and validated for the detection of AFB2 in
spiked almond extracts.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Penitrem A and analogues: toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics including mechanism of action and
clinical significance.
Author : Eriksen G.S., Moldes-Anaya A., Faeste C.K.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 263-272
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Penitrem A (PA) is a mycotoxin mainly produced by Penicillium crustosum, a fungal species
producing a wide range of toxic metabolites, including penitrems, thomitrems and roquefortine C. The
toxicokinetics, toxicodynamics, mechanism of action, metabolism and clinical significance of PA and its
analogues are reviewed. Symptoms of acute PA intoxication and outcomes of PA intoxication in animals
are discussed.
Critical evaluation of LC-MS-based methods for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol,
ochratoxin A, zearalenone, aflatoxins, fumonisins and T-2/HT-2 toxins in maize.
Author : de Girolamo A., Solfrizzo M., Lattanzio V.M.T., Stroka J., Alldrick A., van Egmond H.P., Visconti A.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 317-334
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Information about performance can help in the optimisation and selection of methods used in
interlaboratory validation studies. Strengths and weaknesses of various methodologies used by 41
participating laboratories for the LC-MS/(MS) determination of up to 11 mycotoxins in maize were identified
using a proficiency test. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2,
deoxynivalenol, T-2 and HT-2 toxins and zearalenone were analysed using external, matrix-matched or
stable isotope-labelled internal standards. Extraction mixtures of water with acetonitrile and/or methanol
generally gave good results for quantitative extraction of mycotoxins from maize. There was a high
variability of results observed for all tested mycotoxins, with good results obtained by laboratories analysing
crude extracts. Matrix-matched calibration or isotope-labelled internal standards efficiently compensated for
matrix effects, while reliable results were obtained using external calibration.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Single laboratory method validation comparing MS3 with FI/MS fingerprinting and quantitation
strategies for the accurate determination of ochratoxins in beer.
Author : Lim C.W., Chan S.H.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 281-290
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Current mycotoxin safety approaches require reliable and selective control systems to measure
the content of mycotoxins in foods consumed daily. A prospective analytical tool is described that uses a
flow injection mass spectrometry (FI/MS) tandem artificial neural network (ANN) strategy to predict the
amount of ochratoxin A and B (OTA and OTB) in beer. Results were compared with those from triple stage
mass spectrometry with chromatographic separation. Artificial neural network models for each ochratoxin
were validated using matrix-matched and matrix-free calibration curves at 2.5-500 mcg/l. Limits of
quantitation for both approaches were 0.2 mcg/kg. The FI/MS approach did not involve chromatographic
separation and could improve analyte specificity.
Effect of Kluyveromyces thermotolerans on polyketide synthase gene expression and ochratoxin
accumulation by Penicillium and Aspergillus.
Author : Ponsone M.L., Kuhn Y.G., Schmidt-Heydt M., Geisen R., Chulze S.N.
Source : World Mycotoxin Journal
ISSN : 1875-0710
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 6 (3), 291-297
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Kluyveromyces thermotolerans strains have been shown to reduce both growth and ochratoxin A
(OTA) accumulation by Aspergillus section Nigri strains. The effects of selected strains of Kluyveromyces
thermotolerans as potential biocontrol agents on the otapks gene expression of ochratoxigenic Aspergillus
and Penicillium spp. Were investigated. The transcriptional activity of the polyketide synthase (pks) gene, a
key enzyme in the OTA biosynthetic pathway, was studied. Both strains strongly influenced growth, OTA
and OTB biosynthesis, and expression of the mycotoxin biosynthesis genes. However, no direct correlation
was found between the impact of the biocontrol yeasts on pks gene expression, OTA and OTB production.
Mycotoxin production appeared to be an adaptation mechanism to environmental stress conditions by
these mycotoxigenic species.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Monitoring and determination of fungi and mycotoxins in stored Brazil nuts.
Author : Baquiao A.C., de Oliveira M.M.M., Reis T.A., Zorzete P., Atayde D.D., Correa B.
Source : Journal of Food Protection
ISSN : 0362-028X
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 76 (8), 1414-1420 (7 ref.)
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The results from a survey of the occurrence of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxins (aflatoxins
and cyclopiazonic acid) in stored Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) are presented. The most prevalent fungi
in nuts and shells were Aspergillus and Fusarium species. Aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid were not
detected in any of the samples. The low water activity of the nuts is thought to offer protection but the high
frequency of isolation of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus section Flavi strains and their persistence during storage
increase the chances of aflatoxin production.
Mycotoxin content of organic and conventional oats from southeastern Poland.
Author : Kuzdralinski A., Solarska E., Mazurkiewicz J.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 33 (1), 68-72
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Mycotoxin levels in oats were examined in this study, in terms of the effect of organic and
conventional farming systems. Only the concentration of diacetoscirpenol (DAS) was higher in conventional
farm samples, and cropping systems did not affect other mycotoxins. Higher numbers of mycotoxin-positive
samples were found for samples from organic farms, compared with conventional production. Correlations
between different mycotoxins were evaluated, and only organic farming samples showed a correlation
between the level of aflatoxins and ochratoxins.
Survey of the presence of patulin and ochratoxin A in traditional semi-hard cheeses.
Author : Pattono D., Grosso A., Stocco P.P., Pazzi M., Zeppa G.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 33 (1), 54-57
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The presence of ochratoxin A (OTA) and patulin was detected in traditional handmade semihard
cheeses. The rind and inner part of the cheeses showed the presence of OTA, with patulin being mainly
detected in the rind and inner part of one sample only. Concentrations of patulin and OTA are presented,
and patulin content in the rind exceeded the maximum level set by EC Regulation for fermented apple
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
drinks and other fruit juice. The need to closely monitor traditional cheese production to determine the
origin of mycotoxin contamination, and to develop prevention methods is highlighted.
Ability of selected microorganisms for removing aflatoxins in vitro and fate of aflatoxins in
contaminated wheat during baladi bread baking.
Author : Elsanhoty R.M., Ramadan M.F., el-Gohery S.S., Abol-Ela M.F., Azeke M.A.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 33 (1), 287-292
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The potential of strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to remove aflatoxins from wheat flour was
examined in this study. The strain with highest ability to bind aflatoxins was used to examine the effect on
removing aflatoxins from contaminated wheat flour during the baking of baladi bread. Strains showed
significant differences in their ability to bind aflatoxins, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed highest ability
to bind aflatoxin B1; treatment involving fermenting by a mixture of bakery yeast and Lactobacillus
rhamnosus was most effective for removing aflatoxins from contaminated wheat flour during baking.
Assessment of aflatoxin intake in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Author : Jager A.V., Tedesco M.P., Souto P.C.M.C., Oliveira C.A.F.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 33 (1), 87-92
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aflatoxins were determined in peanut, corn, bean, milk and products from homes of residents of
Sao Paulo, Brazil, and volunteers completed a food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to allow intake to be
estimated. HPLC with immunoaffinity clean-up was used to determine aflatoxins; 35% of peanut samples
tested positive for aflatoxin, with highest incidence for bean samples. Corn meal showed a higher incidence
than corn, and aflatoxin M1 was found in fluid milk samples and cheese, with no detectable levels in
yoghurt. Aflatoxin intake was assessed based on aflatoxin concentrations in the food products and FFQ
results. The highest contribution to aflatoxin intake was for peanut products, and milk was the main source
of aflatoxin M1 for individuals. The potential contribution of the food products evaluated to overall human
exposure is highlighted.
European Mycotoxins Awareness Network
Application of near infrared spectroscopy to detect aflatoxigenic fungal contamination in rice.
Author : Sirisomboon C.D., Putthang R., Sirisomboon P.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 33 (1), 207-214
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : NIR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used in this study to determine the percentage of fungal infection
in rice. Naturally and artificially contaminated samples were analysed for total fungal infection and yellowgreen Aspergillus infection, and calibration models for total fungal infection were developed using partialleast-square regression (PLSR). Greatest accuracy in prediction was obtained with the statistical model
developed from the untreated spectra, and a pretreated NIR spectra for yellow-green Aspergillus infection.
The authors conclude that NIRS could be used to detect aflatoxigenic fungal contamination in rice; the
overall extent of fungal infection was affected by the moisture and starch content in rice.
Nuts and dried fruits: natural occurrence of emerging Fusarium mycotoxins.
Author : Tolosa J., Font G., Manes J., Ferrer E.
Source : Food Control
ISSN : 0956-7135
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (September), 33 (1), 215-220
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Samples of nuts, dried fruit and dates were examined for enniatins (ENs) and beauvericin (BEA)
contamination using an ultrasonic-C18 extraction and liquid chromatography-MS-MS with a triple
quadrupole mass analyser. The most predominant EN in nuts was enniatin A, and in dates it was enniatin
B. Results indicated a protective effect of the shell, preventing contamination of the fruit.
Isolation and characterization of endophytic bacilli bacterium from maize grains able to detoxify
aflatoxin B1.
Author : el-Deeb B., Altalhi A., Khiralla G., Hassan S., Gherbawy Y.
Source : Food Biotechnology
ISSN : 0890-5436
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : 27 (3), 199-212
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aflatoxins in cereals are a threat to the food industry and animal food production. The properties
of strain TUBF1, selected amongst a collection of aflatoxin-degrading endophytic bacteria isolated from
corn grains, were examined in this study. Strain TUBF1 was found to belong to the Bacillus sp. Group and
had strong ability to detoxify the toxin. Optimal temperature and pH for the degradation of AFB1 were
determined, and the crude enzymes had high AFB1-detoxifying ability.
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Antibacterial activity and antifungal and anti-mycotoxigenic activities against Aspergillus flavus
and A. ochraceus of green coffee chlorogenic acids and dodecyl chlorogenates.
Author : Suarez-Quiroz M.L., Taillefer W., Mendez E.M.L., Gonzalez-Rios O., Villeneuve P., FigueroaEspinoza M.C.
Source : Journal of Food Safety
ISSN : 0149-6085
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 33 (3), 360-368
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : In vitro antimicrobial activity of green coffee chlorogenic acids (CGA) and dodecyl chlorogenates
(DCGA) against different bacterial strains, including Bacillus cereus, Clostridium sporogenes, Listeria
innocua, Micrococcus luteus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens and
Salmonella Enterica, was investigated together with antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activity against
Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus ochraceus. Salmonella Enterica was resistant to both CGA and DCGA.
CGA exhibited an antimicrobial effect on Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, with bactericidal
activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Staphylococcus aureus being observed, but no sporicidal
activity against Bacillus cereus and Clostridium sporogenes. DCGA was active against three Gram-positive
bacteria and inactive against Gram-negative bacteria. CGA and DCGA demonstrated anti-Aspergillus
activity, and were better antimycotoxigenic agents for ochratoxin A than for aflatoxin B1. Antibacterial,
antifungal and antimycotoxigenic activities of CGA and DCGA were reported for the first time.
Aflatoxin detoxification potential of Ocimum tenuiflorum.
Author : Panda P., Mehta A.
Source : Journal of Food Safety
ISSN : 0149-6085
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 33 (3), 265-272
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aflatoxins, secondary metabolites produced by toxigenic fungi, occur as common contaminants
in foods and feeds. The efficacy of Ocimum tenuiflorum extract as a safe additive for inhibiting aflatoxin
production and degrading existing toxin was assessed. Aqueous extract of Ocimum tenuiflorum was shown
to control aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) synthesis by Aspergillus flavus, together with direct degradation of AFB1 and
its decontamination on rice. In the presence of Ocimum extract, Aspergillus flavus culture in yeast extractsucrose medium demonstrated an increase in mycelium mass and reduction in AFB1 production of up to
64%. Direct treatment of AFB1 with Ocimum tenuiflorum extract at 85 C for 4 hours led to 74.7%
degradation, while degradation of 70.2% was seen in rice spiked with AFB1. This degradation resulted in
detoxification, which was confirmed using a mammalian cell culture method.
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A simple and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination
of ochratoxin A in hard cheese.
Author : Biancardi A., Piro R., Galaverna G., dall Asta C.
Source : International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
ISSN : 0963-7486
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 64 (5), 632-640
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Ochratoxin A was determined in hard cheese using MS hyphenated chromatography. The
extraction method is described, and the extract after defatting was analysed using liquid chromatographyMS-MS. The linearity, specificity, sensitivity and validation of the method are discussed. Results for
commercial samples of grated hard cheese are presented.
Extraction of mycotoxins.
Author : Jabour J., Saul S.J., Tess M. E.
Company : Charm Sciences Inc.
Patent Application : PCT Patent Application
Originating State : WO
Patent Number : WO 2013/116847
Patent Type : A1
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Country : (US 3.2.2012) (US 30.3.2012)
Filing Date : 4.2.2013
Designated Contracting State : See published patent document for Designated Contracting States.
Abstract : An improved method for extracting analytes, such as mycotoxins, from agricultural products that
uses a non-hazardous extraction composition having a substance with high ionic strength (such as proteins
and amino acids), is described. The composition uses bovine serum albumin, which is inexpensive, readily
available and compatible with lateral flow test strips. The invention eliminates the need for relatively
hazardous and expensive solvents in determining whether a product is contaminated with a toxin. It is
particularly useful for detecting the presence of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin, ochratoxin, T2 and
zearalanone, and can be used to analyse feeds and grains such as barley, corn, wheat and rice.
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Mycotoxin binder.
Author : Schoeters E., Li H., van Dyck S., Lao Y.
Company : Kemin Industries Inc.
Patent Application : United States Patent
Originating State : US
Patent Number : 8 507 019
Patent Type : B2
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Filing Date : 17.5.2011
Abstract : An improved mycotoxin binder consisting of 45% or more humic acid that is suitable for use in
agricultural feed production, particularly in animal production, is disclosed. The invention is claimed to
exhibit improved solubility and in vitro mycotoxin binding efficiency. The humic substances, preferably
derived from leonardite, are preferably combined with a predetermined amount of at least one source of
metal ions, clay minerals and clays, such as sepiolite and bentonite. The mycotoxin consists of
Special theme: analysis of flour and cereals.
Author : Behrens S., Haase I., Mayer F., Fischer M., Reichel M. Haseler J.
Source : Deutsche Lebensmittel-Rundschau
ISSN : 0012-0413
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 109 (8), 408-423 (0 ref.)
Language of Text : De
Abstract : This special feature consists of a series of articles on analysis and analytical techniques for flour
and cereals. The first article looks at calibration and why ANN (Artificial Neural Network) technology makes
a difference in whole grain analysis. The second looks at spelt, its composition, analysis and relationship to
wheat. This is followed by an article on new solution strategies for assessing old and new risks from
mycotoxins in cereals and a final article looks at different sorts of wheat and cereals and options in terms of
analysis and analytical equipment.
Catechol metabolites of the mycotoxin zearalenone are poor substrates but potent inhibitors of
Author : Pfeiffer E., Wefers D., Hildebrand A.A., Fleck S.C., Metzler M.
Source : Mycotoxin Research
ISSN : 0178-7888
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 29 (3), 177-183
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) exhibits oestrogenic effects and is biotransformed to two
catechol metabolites, analogous to the endogenous steroidal oestrogen, 17-beta-oestradiol (E2). Catechol
metabolites of E2 elicit genotoxic effects and their impaired O-methylation might increase the
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tumourigenicity of steroidal oestrogens. The effects of the two catechol metabolites of ZEN, 13-hydroxyZEN and 15-hydroxy-ZEN, on human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were investigated. The
metabolites were poor substrates of human COMT but were strong inhibitors of the O-methylation of 2hydroxy-E2, with 14-hydroxy-ZEN exhibiting significantly greater inhibition potency. The powerful inhibitory
effect of catechol metabolites of ZEN on COMT might have potential against the tumourigenic activity of
Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.
Author : Turcotte A.-M., Scott P.M., Taque B.
Source : Mycotoxin Research
ISSN : 0178-7888
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 29 (3), 193-201
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Levels of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa products sampled in Canada (2011-2012)
were analysed using enhanced methods. Methanol and methanol-water extracts were cleaned on an
immunoaffinity column (IAC), with determination by reverse-phase HPLC and detection of aflatoxins with a
post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification
(LOQ) were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1) of chocolate and cocoa powders, respectively.
Levels were determined in natural cocoa, baking chocolate, milk chocolate, dark chocolate, cocoa liquor
and cocoa butter.
Mycoflora and mycotoxin contamination of Roundup Ready soybean harvested in the Pampean
Region, Argentina.
Author : Garrido C.E., Gonzalez H.H.L., Salas M.P., Resnik S.L., Pacin A.M.
Source : Mycotoxin Research
ISSN : 0178-7888
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 29 (3), 147-157
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Mycotoxins are common contaminants of grain and other crops, which are produced by various
fungal species. A total of 89 freshly harvested soya bean samples (transgenic Roundup Ready cultivars)
from the 2010/2011 crop season, collected from five locations Argentina, were analysed for internal
mycoflora, toxin production of isolated fungi, and various mycotoxins. Aflatoxins (AFs), zearalenone (ZEA),
fumonisins (FBs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) were determined. Mycotoxin production was confirmed for
several isolates of toxigenic species, including Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Alternaria
alternata, Alternaria tenuissima, Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium verticillioides and Fusarium semitectum.
The frequent presence of toxigenic fungal species indicates a risk of contamination from multiple
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A limited survey of aflatoxin B1 contamination in Indonesian palm kernel cake and copra meal
sampled from batches.
Author : Pranowo D., Nuryono, Agus A., Wedhastri S., Reiter E.V., Razzazi-Fazeli E., Zentak J.
Source : Mycotoxin Research
ISSN : 0178-7888
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 29 (3), 135-139
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a mycotoxin that is a contaminant of grain and other crops. The levels of
AFB1 in palm kernel cake and copra meal from four Indonesian feed mill manufacturers were analysed by
ELISA. All samples were found positive for AFB1, at levels from 5.8-93.1 mcg/kg and 1.1-17 mcg/kg for
palm kernel cake and copra meal, respectively. Around 50% exceeded both EU and US regulations for
AFB1 in animal feed.
Aflatoxin B1 and zearalenone in dairy feeds in Portugal, 2009-2011.
Author : Almeida I.F.M., Guerra M.M., Martins H.M.L., Costa J.M.G., Bernardo F.M.A.
Source : Mycotoxin Research
ISSN : 0178-7888
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 29 (3), 131-133
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) are important mycotoxins that can contaminate
grain. Survey data into the levels of AFB1 and ZEA in feeds for dairy cattle, ewes and goats in Portugal,
collected over three years (2009-2011) are reported. Although AFB1 was found in 1.6, 2.3 and 4.8% of feed
samples for cow, ewe and goat, respectively, levels were below the EU maximal value of 5 mcg/kg. Some
45% of samples contained ZEA, but at relatively low levels of 5-136.9 mcg/kg, below the EU value of 500
Propidium monoazide combined with real-time quantitative PCR to quantify viable Alternaria spp.
contamination in tomato products.
Author : Crespo-Sempere A., Estiarte N., Marin S., Sanchis V., Ramos A.J.
Source : International Journal of Food Microbiology
ISSN : 0168-1605
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August 1), 165 (3), 214-220
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Alternaria is a common contaminating fungi in grains, fruits and vegetables that causes severe
economic losses to both farmers and the food industry. Alternaria can produce phytotoxic metabolites and
mycotoxins of concern to human and animal health. A DNA amplification-based PMA sample pretreatment
protocol for detecting viable Alternaria cells was developed and optimised. A primer pair (Alt4-Alt5) was
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designed to specifically amplify and quantify Alternaria by qPCR. Quantification data of qPCR for tomato
showed a detection limit of 102 conidia/g. The PMA-qPCR method could be a suitable approach for
quantifying viable Alternaria cells and estimating potential risks of mycotoxin contamination.
Occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxin fumonisin B1 and B2 in animal feeds in Korea.
Author : Seo D.-G., Phat C., Kim D.-H., Lee C.
Source : Mycotoxin Research
ISSN : 0178-7888
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (August), 29 (3), 159-167
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Fusarium spp produce mycotoxins, such as , that can contaminate grain and grain feedstuffs.
The occurrence and levels of fumonisin B1 (FB1) and fumonisin B2 (FB2) in animal feeds and feed
ingredients in South Korea (2011) were investigated. Most of the feeds (85%) were contaminated with FB1,
with 47% contaminated with FB2. Levels of FB1 and FB2 in feed ingredients were 50% and 40%,
respectively. The highest total (FB1 + FB2) contamination rates were found in compound feeds for cattle,
followed by poultry feed and swine feed.
Induction of phytochemical glyceollins accumulation in soybean following treatment with biotic
elicitor (Aspergillus oryzae).
Author : Eromosele O., Bo S., Ping L.
Source : Journal of Functional Foods
ISSN : 1756-4646
Publication Year : 2013
Reference : (July), 5 (3), 1039-1048
Language of Text : En
Language of Summary : en
Abstract : Isoflavonoid phytoalexins produced by soya beans are reported to have antioxidant and
oestrogenic effects, and this study examined the effect of Aspergillus oryzae-induced stress on the
composition of the wounded surface of Nigerian soya seeds. As a result of fungal infection, the phytoalexin,
glyceollin, was produced by the Nigerian soya beans, and glyceollins I, II and III were separated by
preparative HPLC from other phytochemicals. Conditions providing maximum concentration of glyceollins
are presented, and a suitable soak time was determined for the soya bean seeds in water. Glyceollins were
produced by the cut or wounded surface of soya bean cotyledons as a result of fungal treatment as elicitor.
The use of food-grade Aspergillus oryzae Lu brewing 3042 in the biosynthesis of phytoalexins, giving
enhanced bioactivity of soya bean for use as a functional food ingredient is discussed.