a list of organelles we will learn this year.

Organelle Info
Organelles – the tiny structures insides a cell (tiny “organs”)
1. Cell Wall – Only found in a plant cell, and provides the plant cell with support
and protection. Made with cellulose, which is a non-living, undigestible material.
2. Cell Membrane – Is the outer boundary of an animal cell, and just under the cell
wall of an plant cell. The cell membrace is porous (full of small openings) to
allow materials in and out of the cell. The cell membrane is flexible and allows
the cell to change shape under pressure, much like a water balloon.
3. Nucleus – is often called the “brain” of the cell, and control’s the cell’s activities.
It contains the cell’s chromosomes, or genetic material.
4. Chromosomes – are strands of genetic material (DNA) within the nucleus which
contain all the information about the living thing they are part of. Human cells
contain 23 pairs (46 altogether) chromosomes in the nucleus of each of their body
5. Nucleolus – is a round structure within the nucleus. Its purpose isn’t totally
understood, however, it is believed that ribosomes are produced here.
6. Nuclear membrane – is the outer boundary of the nucleus and, like the cell
membrane, allows materials to pass in and out tof the nucleus.
7. Endopalsmic reticulum – is a network of tubular passageways in the cell which is
used to transport materials within the cell. Often ribosomes are attached to the
inner walls of the E.R.
8. Ribosomes – produce protein within the cell. Proteins are used to build and repair
cellular material. Ribosomes may be free-floating in the cytoplasm, or attached to
the E.R.’s wall.
9. Mitochondria – are often called the powerhouse if the cell, since they supply
energy to the cell. They turn the energy from our food into energy the cell can
use. The more active a cell is, the more mitochondria it contains.
10. Vacuoles – are storage tanks for the cells. Vacuoles may store water, food or
wastes. In a plant cell, there is often one large vacuole whose purpose is to store
water, and help keep the plant from wilting (drooping). Plant cells with little
water in this vacuole tend to look droopy (wilted).
11. Lysosomes – are often referred to as the cell’s digestive system, since it contains
enzymes (chemicals) that break materials down. Sometimes lysosomes are also
referred to as “suicide sacs”, since dying cells often release these enzymes to help
break themselves down within the body.
12. Chloroplasts – are only in plant cells. They are in charge of performing
photosynthesis (food production) within the plant cells. They contain a green
pigment called chlorophyll, which is responsible for the green coloring in many