Earth Science 11 Chapter 9 Review: Interpret and Apply Answers 1. Largely because (a) precipitation is frozen (snow and ice), and (b) frost in upper soil layers makes the ground impermeable. 2. The sand has greater porosity. Silt fills the pore spaces between sand grains, reducing porosity. The permeability of the sand is also greater, for the same reason. 3. The distance should decrease because the water table would probably rise. 4. Hillside springs occur where the water table crosses a hillslope. Fissure springs rise through a crack in the cap rock of an artesian formation. The hillside spring contains ordinary groundwater. The fissure spring contains artesian water. 5. The shallower well should have cooler water with lower mineral content. Reasons: Deeper water would be warmer due to temperature rise at depth. Warmer water can dissolve more minerals. Also, deep groundwater has probably been underground longer and has had more time to dissolve minerals. Because it is far from surface contaminants, it may be less polluted. 6. In order for dripstone to be deposited form groundwater, the water must be able to evaporate. If the cavern is below the water table, no water can evaporate. 7. The mineral that replaces wood to form petrified wood will be whichever mineral is carried in solution in the groundwater. This, in turn, depends on the materials that the groundwater has passed through. Critical Thinking Answers: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. July Zero. The ground is frozen and plants need no moisture at that time. May and June December All have their peak moisture need in July. Moisture need is higher in Little Rock in both winter and summer. Therefore, temperatures in Little Rock must be higher in both summer and winter.