Name _______________________________ Date __________________ Ch 33 – Animal Nutrition (Biology in Focus) – to be used in conjunction with Mr. Anderson video on Digestive system Overview The Need to Feed 1. Review the terms herbivore, carnivore, omnivore Concept 33.1 An animal’s diet must supply chemical energy, organic molecules and essential nutrients 2. What are essential nutrients? What function do they have? Give Examples. 3. What is the difference between a vitamin and a mineral? 4. What is the difference between malnutrition and undernutrition? Concept 33.2 The main stages of food processing are ingestion, digestion, absorption, and elimination 5. Define and give an example of each. a. ingestion b. digestion c. absorption d. elimination 6. Explain the difference between intracellular and extracellular digestion. Give an example of each. Concept 33.3 Organs specialized for sequential stages of food processing form the mammalian digestive system 7. What is peristalsis? 8. What are sphincters? 9. Label Figure 33.8. Use an arrow to show where four sphincters would be located. 10. What is a bolus? How does it get moved around? 11. Explain how food gets digested in the stomach using the following diagram. 12. Complete the following chart of chemical digestion in humans. 13. Review the functions of all of the digestive organs from Mr. Anderson’s video. 14. Why do you think the small intestine needs both the villi and microvilli? 15. Explain how fats are absorbed. 16. What is the purpose of the hepatic portal vein? 17. What is the function of the cecum in the large intestine? 18. How long does it take for material to travel the length of the colon? 19. What is the purpose of the bacteria in our colon? 20. What does our feces contain? Concept 33.4 Evolutionary adaptations of vertebrate digestive systems correlate with diet 21. Explain how teeth show evolutionary adaptations. 22. Explain two mutualistic symbiosis adaptations in animals. 23. What are some stomach and intestinal adaptations and how are they an advantage? Concept 33.5 Feedback circuits regulate digestion, energy allocation and appetite 24. Explain how hormones control digestion using the figure below. 25. Referring to Figure 33.18, how is energy lost in the process of digestion? 26. What is metabolic rate? How is it measured? 27. What is the difference between a basal metabolic rate and a standard metabolic rate? 28. What is diabetes mellitus? What is the difference between type I and type II diabetes? How is each treated? 29. What hormone triggers hunger? 30. What hormones suppress appetite?