A&P II Study Objectives: Digestive System

A&P II Study Objectives
Digestive System
Describe the overall functions of the digestive system and differentiate between organs of the alimentary
canal (GI tract) and accessory digestive organs.
Define peritoneum; describe its function and name the portions/divisions of it; specifying the role of each
Describe the tissue composition of the four layers of the GI tract wall. Describe the general function of each
a. Mucosa, with lamina propria from submucosa
b. Submucosa
c. Muscularis
d. Serosa
Define peristalsis and describe its mechanism.
Describe modifications (structural) in the wall of the stomach and small intestine which enhance their roles in
digestion: stomach( gastric pits and glands, rugae, 3 muscle layers), small intestine(Brunner’s
glands,intestinal crypts and glands,villi).
Describe the composition of gastric juice and name the cells/structure which secretes the various components.
Describe the role of each component.
Describe how gastric secretion is regulated. (gastrin)
Describe the functions of local hormones produced by the duodenum (CCK, secretin, leptin)
State the role of bile in digestion using the term emulsification. Describe the production, transport, storage
and release of bile.
10. Describe the composition of pancreatic juice. Describe how its production is regulated and how it enters the
11. Define the 3 sections of small intestine and explain the terms intestinal pits or crypts of Lieberkuhn and
duodenal Brunner’s glands
12. Distinguish between bolus and acid chyme.
13. Describe role of salivary glands in digestion. Locate and name these glands.
14. Define and describe the process of mechanical digestion in the mouth and in the stomach.
15. Be able to describe the process/actions of digestion occurring in each organ/section of the GI tract.
16. List the major parts of the large intestine (colon) and describe its functions.
17. List the major enzymes or enzyme groups involved in hydrolytic catabolic chemical digestion. Name the
reactants (substrates) and product. Specify optimal pH’s needed.
18. Describe the process of absorption of digested food in the duodenum.
19. Describe the anatomy and blood circulation of the liver
20. Discuss the any roles of the liver; explain why it is a vital organ.
21. Discuss the role f the parasympathetic system in control of digestion.
22. Describe/discuss the following digestive system disorders
a. Ulcers
g. cirrohosis
b. Esophageal reflux(GERD)
h. diabetes: juvenile/adult-onset
c. Diarrhea/constipation
d. Hemorrhoids
e. Spastic colon/IBS/colitis
f. Colon cancer/fiber influence