SYNTAX TERMS Coordinating Conjunctions and or but so yet (FANBOYS) for nor Loose or Cumulative Sentence – main clause followed by additional grammatical units added after it Periodic Sentence – main clause at end of sentence with additional grammatical units leading up the point Syntax – the arrangement of words and the order of grammatical elements in a sentence Juxtaposition – a poetic and rhetorical device in which normally unassociated ideas, words, or phrases are placed next to one another, creating an effect of surprise and wit. Natural Order – of a sentence involves constructing a sentence so the subject comes before the predicate. Asyndeton – a deliberate omission of conjunctions in a series of related clauses: The kitten yawned, stretched, gave a piteous meow, trotted out of the attic and down the stairs. Parallel Structure Parallelism – refers to a grammatical or structural similarity between sentences or parts of sentences: Calvin led the way to the wall, and then sat there, his red hair shining silver in the moonlight, his body dappled with patterns from the tangle of branches. Polysyndeton – is the deliberate use of many conjunctions for special emphasis, slowing the pace: There was a gust of wind and a great thrust and a sharp shattering as she was shoved through – what? Repetition – is a device in which words, sounds, and ideas are used more than once to create emphasis: Six large doors kept swinging open, shut, open, shut, as people went in and out, in and out, looking straight ahead, straight ahead, paying no attention to the children whatsoever, whatsoever. Anadiplosis – is the repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause: Quite calmly, as though this old woman and her boots were nothing out of the ordinary, Mrs. Murry pulled until the second boot relinquished the foot. This foot was covered… Anaphora – is the repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginning of successive clauses: Let the wilderness and the cities thereof lift their voice; let the inhabitants of the rock sing, let them shout from the top of the mountains. Let them give… Epanalepsis – is the repetition at the end of a clause of the word that occurred at the beginning of the clause: Eat! Meg exclaimed as Mrs. Murry went out through the lab. How does she expect me to eat? Epistrophe – is the repetition of the same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses: Your development has to go at its own pace. It just doesn’t happen to be the usual pace. Antimetabole – is a sentence strategy in which the arrangement of ideas in the second clause is a reversal of the first: To live is to read; to read is to live. Inverted Order – of a sentence involves constructing a sentence so that the predicate comes before the subject: As the skipping rope hit the pavement, so did the ball. Active Voice – the subject is performing the action: Mortimer scanned the headlines. Passive Voice – the subject does not act but is acted upon and has some version of a “be” verb (am, are, is, was, were): The headlines were scanned by Mortimer. Rhetorical Question - is a question that requires no answer. It is used to draw attention to a point and is generally stronger that a direct statement: How could they sleep? Rhetorical Fragment – is a sentence fragment used deliberately for a persuasive purpose or to create a desired effect: A whirl of darkness. An icy cold blast.