Annotated Bibliography

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YSU Writing Center
Annotated Bibliography
An annotated bibliography is a way to track sources and help with research. Keeping a
working annotated bibliography allows you to select only the most helpful and informational
sources you uncovered while researching a topic. This allows you to quickly decide what sources
you will use for your end project, and you will be able to easily find them again. Your annotated
bibliography might consist of 10 to 30 sources or the quantity specified by your instructor’s
requirements. This will give you room to get rid of sources that are inaccurate, not credible, or
off topic from your focus.
An annotated bibliography consists of a citation and an annotation. Always follow your
instructor’s directions for formatting. There are several ways to indent and space an annotated
bibliography, so it is best to ask the instructor what s/he is looking for. See examples that follow.
An annotation should consist of two parts: the content of the source and how the source
may be helpful. An annotated bibliography should be descriptive enough that others would be
able to tell the usefulness of the sources. The annotation does not have to state directly, “This
source is useful because. . .” It may just simply state a few facts or some key evidence for your
argument that you know is important. The annotation also does not have to be composed with
complete sentences, but even fragments should start with a capital letter and end with a period
(see Example 2).
Example 1 (MLA):
Citation is appropriately formatted in size 12, Times New Roman font,
double spaced, with a hanging indent.
Brink, William. “The Science and Policy of Performance Enhancing Supplements.” Life Extension.
8.9 (2002): 58-63. Electronic Journal Center. Web. 21 Oct. 2004.
Throughout this article there is a strong debate on the use of performance enhancing
supplements by athletes. The highlighted substances are Creatine, Dehydroepiandrosterone,
and Ephedrine. The dosages and physiological effects were also discussed. Examples of
persons who used such substances are former baseball star Mark McGuire and former track
star Florence Griffith Joyner. While taking performance enhancing supplements, these
athletes were able to compete at an optimal performance level.
The annotation includes key information about
the selected topic and why the source would be
useful.
Revised KLD, AJM 8/14
YSU Writing Center
Example 2 (Chicago):
The citation single spaced,
and has a hanging indent.
The annotation is one
space below the citation
and is also single spaced.
Revised KLD, AJM 8/14
Thompson, Oscar, ed. International Cyclopaedia of Music
and Musicians. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1936.
An admirable work that brings Grove up to date and
deals adequately with contemporary music and American
composers.
YSU Writing Center
The following is a sample page of an annotated bibliography.
Kreider, Richard B. “Effects of Creatine Supplementation on Performance and Training
Adaptations.” Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry. 244 (2003): 89-94. Electronic
Journal Center. Web. 21 Oct. 2004.
Within this article, creatine is described as an increasingly more popular supplement
among athletes. Recent research has also suggested that there may be a number of
potential therapeutic uses of creatine. The paper reviews the available research that has
examined the potential of ergogenic value of creatine supplementation on exercise
performance and training adaptations. Numerous studies have examined the effects of a
short-term or weekly program as well as the long-term monthly program of creatine
supplementation on exercise performance.
O’Dea, Jennifer A. “Consumption of Nutritional Supplements Among Adolescents: Usage and
Perceived Benefits.” Theory and Practice. 18.1 (2003): 98-107. Electronic Journal
Center. Web. 21 Oct. 2004.
The aim of the study was to obtain rich qualitative data about the type of nutritional
supplements and drinks consumed by adolescents and the reasons for their consumption,
with particular emphasis on the perceived benefits of nutritional supplementation. These
results have important implications for use of health education theory in planning
nutrition education and health promotion activities.
Revised KLD, AJM 8/14
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