Vice President Born and died: Thomas R. Marshall 12/29/18562/3/1924 Political Party: Democrat State elected From: New Jersey Born in: Virginia Political Platform: New Freedom Woodrow Wilson 1913-1921 (1) Election of 1912- Teddy caused the Republican vote to split- allowing Wilson (the democrat) to win (a)William Howard Taft Republican- the incumbent- no platform (b)Thomas Woodrow Wilson Democrat- New FreedomHE WON!!! (c) Theodore Roosevelt Progressive Party- New Nationalism took over half of Republican vote DOMESTIC POLITICAL/ ECONOMIC/ SOCIAL I. “New Freedom” (Political/Economic) Political/ Economic A. Wilson’s Political Platform: “New Freedom” called for 3 major areas of reform (change): 1.Tariff 2. Banking and Monetary 3. Business and Labor B. Tariff & Banking Reform (Economic) (5) Underwood Tariff of 1913 a. Replaced the Payne-Aldrich Tariff b. Sponsored by Rep. Underwood (AL) c. Reduced the tariff rate from 37% to 27% d. Placed items such as iron, steel, and raw wool on the free list. (“free list” = no tariff) e. Promoted the federal income tax (as established in the 16th Amendment of 1909) (6) Federal Reserve Act of 1913 a. Created the modern Federal Reserve System b. Established a 3-tiered banking system: i. Federal Reserve Board- a group appointed by the president and in charge of running the system. ii. 12 Federal Reserve Banks- served as the bankers’ banks and were not for public use. iii. Private Banks- kept a portion of their capital on deposit at a federal reserve bank. i. Federal Reserve Board ii. 12 Federal Reserve Banks iii. Private Banks The US Dollar • The circle/letter combination tells where the dollars are from… Let’s see if this class can find all 12!... Get out your dollars 1. Boston, Massachusetts 4. Cleveland, Ohio 7. Chicago, Illinois 10. Kansas City, Kansas 2. New York, New York 3. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 5. Richmond, Virginia 6. Atlanta, Georgia 8. St. Louis, Missouri 9. Minneapolis, Minnesota 11. Dallas, Texas 12. San Francisco, California C. Business/ Labor Reform 1. Wilson’s first progressive act was to add the position of Secretary of Labor to his cabinet. William B. Wilson (no relation to pres) i. founder of United Mine Workers ii. House Labor Committee Chair iii. helped in creating Dept. of Labor (8)Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 a. Wilson believed that in order to protect small businesses, more limits needed to be placed on the power of monopolies. b. Large companies could not sell goods below cost to drive competitors out of business. c. Large companies could not buy competing companies’ stock in order to create a monopoly. d. It legalized tools of collective bargaining such as peaceful strikes, pickets, and boycotts. (9) Federal Trade Commission a. Established in 1914 b. Allowed small businesses to better compete with big businesses. c. President appointed members to the commission. d. The FTC had the power to investigate the business practices of interstate corporations. e. However, its powers were limited by the Supreme Court. 4. The Keating-Owen Act of 1916 a. Child labor law that barred the shipment of goods manufactured by children under 14. b. Supreme Court struck it down in Hammer v. Dagenhart (1918). c. Congress responded with the Child Labor Act of 1919 which placed a 10% tax on the profits of companies employing children. i. This too was declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court in Bailey v. Drexel Furniture Co. (1922). The law forbade the transportation among states of products of factories, shops or canneries employing children under 14 years of age, of mines employing children under 16 years of age, and the products of any of these employing children under 16 who worked at night or more than eight hours a day. 5. Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 a. provided low-interest loans to farmers 6. Adamson Act of 1916 a. RR strike threatens to paralyze the nation’s rails. b. Wilson’s arbitration attempts with both sides failed. c. Congress passed this act, reducing RR workers’ workdays from 10 hours to 8 hours. II. Social Issues (2) 1912- New Mexico and Arizona become 47th and 48th states- completing the 48 contiguous states. Wilson is the first to be elected by the 48 states A. Sixteenth Amendment (3)16th Amendment- Passed in 1913 1. Provided for Graduated Income Tax (a push started by farmers and other Populists during the late 1800s.) 2. It was written under Taft and ratified under Wilson. A. Seventeenth Amendment (4)17th Amendment- Passed in 1913 1. Provided for the Direct Election of Senators (a push started by farmers and other Populists during the late 1800s.) 2. Earned the support of Wilson because of his interest in lessening the power of the state political machines. B. Eighteenth Amendment th 18 (27) Amendment- Passed in 1919 1. Called for PROHIBITION: the outlawing of the sale, purchase, or consumption of alcohol. 2. Wilson supported prohibition both publicly and privately. C. The Increasing Demand for Women’s Rights and minority rights 1. Suffragettes: women who fought for their right to vote. Some even died in protests to earn this right. a. Alice Paul and Carrie Chapman Catt of the NAWSA (Nat’l Amer. Woman They were led by Suffrage Assoc.) b. National Woman’s Party in 1916. Paul helped form the Washington DC ,Suffrage March 2. Wilson came out in support of women’s suffrage in 1918. (31) The 19th Amendment will be ratified in 1920, giving women the right to vote (more to come…) (12) KKK - The Birth of a Nation • The Birth of a Nation was a silent film directed by D. W. Griffith and released in 1915, is one of the most influential and controversial of American motion pictures. Set during and after the American Civil War. It has provoked great controversy for its treatment of white supremacy and sympathetic account of the rise of the Ku Klux Klan. Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the US, generally in the southern states, that are best known for advocating white supremacy and acting as vigilantes while hidden behind cone masks and white robes. The KKK has a record of terrorism, violence, and lynching to intimidate and oppress African Americans, Jews, and Roman Catholics during periods of turmoil. (14) Margaret Sanger- Birth Control An American birth control activist, and the founder of the American Birth Control League (which eventually became Planned Parenthood). Initially met with fierce opposition to her ideas, Sanger gradually won some support, both in the public as well as in the courts, for a woman's choice to decide how and when, if ever, she will bear children.