U.S. History
Mr. Boothby
Chapter 30: Wilson Progressivism at Home and Abroad PT3
Hitler begins his slow Rise of Evil in WW1…
NO REACTION IF READY! Silently Read Pages:698-703
1. Why does the book use the heading “America Earns Blood Money”? What
happened about the Lusitania that really ticked off Americans in 1915?
2. What was the Sussex Pledge and why was it issued? What happened aboard the
Arabic and Sussex?
3. What was a German “caveat” or warning with the “Sussex Pledge”? Was this
possible and what would be the result if not?
KEY***Wilson Wins the Reelection in 1916…but will we fight???
Support Link HERE http://www.apnotes.net/notes-12e/ch30-12e.html
1. Why does the book use the heading “America Earns Blood Money”?
What happened about the Lusitania that really ticked off Americans in
American industry prospered off trade with the Allies. The Central Powers
protested American trade with the Allies, but America wasn't breaking any
international neutrality laws. Germany was free to trade with the U.S., but
Britain prevented this trade by controlling the Atlantic Ocean through which
Germany had to cross to trade with the U.S.
In 1915, several months after Germany started to use submarines in the war
(U-boats), one of Germany's submarines sunk the British ship, Lusitania,
killing 128 Americans.
2. What was the Sussex Pledge and why was it issued? What happened
aboard the Arabic and Sussex?
Americans demanded war but President Wilson firmly opposed war. When
Germany sunk another British ship, the Arabic, in 1915, Berlin agreed to not
sink unarmed passenger ships without warning.
After Germany sunk a French passenger steamer, the Sussex, Germany
agreed to the Sussex pledge, which again said that Germany would not sink
unarmed ships without warning.
3. What was a German “caveat” or warning with the “Sussex Pledge”? Was
this possible and what would be the result if not?
A German caveat to this pledge was that the U.S. would have to convince the
Allies to stop their trade blockade. This was not possible, so war with
Germany became imminent.
You and your family are going broke and you don’t even know it…
This means if you get a job at SUBWAY the minimum you will pay the government is
10% or 90 cents on every hour you work if you are earning 9 BUCKS an hour!
You are actually making 8.10 an hour, then your gas to work, time…
you payofsales
too…were the
1) What were the key events of Then
the election
candidates and what happened to Roosevelt (man this guy is tough)?
The Democrats chose Woodrow Wilson as their presidential candidate for
the election of 1912. The Democrats saw Wilson as a reformist leader who
could beat the Republican party's candidate, Taft. The Democrats had a
strong progressive platform that called for stronger antitrust laws, banking
reform, and tariff reductions (New Freedom program). They favored small
enterprise, entrepreneurship, and the free functioning of unregulated and
unmonopolized markets, but they did not support social-welfare programs
that Roosevelt supported.
Theodore Roosevelt ran again in the election as a 3rd party candidate for the
Progressive Republican party. Roosevelt ran with a New Nationalism
program, which supported stronger control of trusts, woman suffrage, and
programs of social welfare.
Both candidates favored a more active government role in economic and
social affairs, but they disagreed over specific strategies.
Roosevelt was shot during the campaign, he recovered after a couple of
Taft and Roosevelt split the Republican votes, giving Woodrow Wilson the
2) What was Wilson like as a person and President? Why did this make his
Wilson: The Idealist in Politics
Wilson relied on sincerity and moral appeal to attract the public. He was
smart, but he didn't have people skills. Wilson's idealism and sense of moral
righteousness made him incredibly stubborn in negotiating…He would
always do what he thought was morally right and wouldn’t compromise,
which ticked officials off!
3) What did Wilson do to tackle the tariff’s? What is the “Triple Wall of
President Wilson was determined to attack "the triple wall of privilege": the
tariff, the banks, and the trusts.
Wilson called a special meeting of Congress in 1913 to address the tariff. He
convinced Congress to pass the Underwood Tariff Bill, which significantly
reduced the tariff. The 16th Amendment was ratified in 1913. This enabled
Congress to collect a graduated income tax.
4) What did Wilson do with our banks and money that changed everything in
The most serious problem of the National Banking Act (passed during the
Civil War) was the inelasticity of money. In times of financial stress, banking
reserves, which were located in New York and other large cities, could not
distribute money fast enough into areas of need.
In 1913, Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act. The new Federal Reserve
Board, appointed by the President, oversaw a nationwide system of 12
regional Federal Reserve banks. Each reserve bank was the central bank for
its region. The final authority of the Federal Reserve Board guaranteed a
substantial level of public control. The board could also issue paper money,
called Federal Reserve Notes (the U.S. Dollar). Because of this, the amount
of money in circulation could be increased as needed for the requirements of
KNOW: The Federal Reserve Act of 1913 got our money where it is today
(and our DEBT) took us off the Gold Standard and created FRN’S and
Hyper Printing!
President Wilson assisted the workers with the Workingmen's Compensation
Act of 1916, giving assistance to federal civil-service employees during
periods of disability. Also in 1916, the President approved an act restricting
child labor on products flowing into interstate commerce. The Adamson Act
of 1916 established an 8-hour work day for all employees on trains in
interstate commerce.
Wilson nominated Louis D. Brandeis to the Supreme Court. He was a
progressive reformer, and he was the first Jew to be a Supreme Court
1) Henry Demarest Lloyd’s book Wealth Against Commonwealth and Jacob
A. Riis’s How the Other Half Lives shocked Americas! How did it do this and
what were these books about?
Henry Demarest Lloyd was critical of the Standard Oil Company in 1894
with his book, Wealth Against Commonwealth. Jacob A. Riis shocked
middle-class Americans in 1890 with How the Other Half Lives, which
described the slums of New York.
2)Do you remember what a “Muckraker” is (or was)? Who coined the term
and name a few (at least 3) and what they “raked” up?
Muckrakers were reform-minded journalists who wrote articles in
magazines that exposed corruption and scandal. President Roosevelt coined
this term. These reporters went after trusts and politicians.
In 1902, New York reporter, Lincoln Steffens wrote "The Shame of the
Cities" which unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and
municipal government.
Ida M. Tarbell published a devastating depiction of the Standard Oil
David G. Phillips published a series, "The Treason of the Senate" in
Cosmopolitan that charged that 75 of the 90 senators did not represent the
people, but they rather represented railroads and trusts.
Some of the most effective attacks of the muckrakers were directed at social
evils. The suppression of America's blacks was shown in Ray Stannard's
Following the Color Line (1908). John Spargo wrote of the abuses of child
labor in The Bitter Cry of the Children (1906).
3)What type of person was a progressive reformer according to the text and
what were there 2 main goals?
***Progressive reformers were mainly middle-class men and women.
The progressives sought 2 goals:
1) To use state power to control trusts
2) To improve the common person's conditions of life and labor.
Progressives wanted to regain the power that had shifted from the hands of
the people into those of the "interests." Progressives supported the
"initiative" so that voters could directly propose legislation. They also
supported the "referendum" and the "recall," which allowed voters to
directly vote on laws to remove corrupt elected officials, respectively.
4)Explain the cases of Muller vs. Oregon (1908), and Lochner vs. New York
What were they about and why would these be court cases (do you support
In Muller vs. Oregon (1908), the Supreme Court ruled that it was
constitutional to enact laws that specifically protected women factory
Lochner vs. New York (1905) invalidated a New York law that limited the
work day to 10 hours for bakers.
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------#5 DISCUSSION AND CONTINUE YOUR BUMPER STICKERS!
5) What was TR’S “Square Deal” and look up the Roosevelt Corollary
President Roosevelt believed in the progressive reform. He enacted a
"Square Deal" program that consisted of 3 parts: control of the
corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources.
In 1902, coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike and demanded a 20%
raise in pay and a workday decrease from 10 hours to 9 hours. When mine
spokesman, George F. Baer refused to negotiate, President Roosevelt stepped
in and threatened to operate the mines with federal troops. A deal was
struck in which the miners received a 10% pay raise and 9 hour workday.
The increasing hostilities between capital and labor forced Congress to create
the Department of Commerce in 1903. This department provided oversight
of businesses engaged in interstate commerce.
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