8_student_self_manag..

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Response to Intervention
Motivation:
M
ti ti
St
Student-Teacher
d tT h
Relationship: How can teachers
strengthen their connection with
students?
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1
Response to Intervention
Lack of Teacher-Student Relationship: What to Avoid
• What the Research Says: At times, instructors and students
can fall into a ‘negative
g
reinforcement trap’
p ((Maag,
g, 2001;; pp.
176) that actively undercuts positive relationships: A student
who has difficulty with the classwork misbehaves and is then
sent by
b the
h teacher
h to the
h principal’s
i i l’ office.
ffi B
Bothh teacher
h andd
student are reinforced by the student’s exclusion from the
classroom: The teacher is negatively reinforced by having a
difficult student removed from the room and the student is
aalso
so negatively
egat e y reinforced
e o ced by be
beingg aallowed
o ed to escape tthee
challenging classwork. Because this scenario is reinforcing to
both parties, it is very likely to be repeated with increasing
frequency unless the teacher intervenes to break the negative
cycle.
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2
Response to Intervention
• Greeting Students at the Classroom Door. A personalized
ggreetingg at the start of a class pperiod can boost class levels of
academic engagement (Allday & Pakurar, 2007).
The teacher
Th
t h spends
d a ffew seconds
d greeting
ti eachh student
t d t bby name
at the classroom door at the beginning of class.
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3
Response to Intervention
• Shaping Behavior Through Praise.
Praise To increase desired
behavior, the teacher praises the student in specific terms
whenever the student engages in that behavior (Kern & Clemens,
2007).
The teacher uses praise statements at a rate sufficient to motivate
and guide the student toward the behavioral goal:
– The teacher selects the specific desired behavior(s) to encourage through
praise;
– The teacher sets a goal for how frequently to deliver praise (e.g., to praise
a student at least 3 times pper class pperiod for workingg on in-class
assignments).
– The teacher makes sure that any praise statements given are
b h i
behavior-specific.
ifi
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4
Response to Intervention
• Maintaining a High Rate of Positive Interactions Teachers
ppromote a ppositive relationshipp with anyy student byy maintainingg a
ratio of at least three positive teacher-student interactions (e.g.,
greeting, positive conversation, high-five) for every negative
(di i li
(disciplinary)
) iinteraction
t
ti ((e.g., reprimand)
i
d) (Sprick,
(S i k B
Borgmeier,
i &
Nolet, 2002).
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5
Response to Intervention
• ‘Two by Ten’: Structuring Teacher-Student Interactions.
The teacher makes a commitment to have a 2-minute
conversation
ti with
ith th
the student
t d t across 10 consecutive
ti school
h l
days (20 minutes of cumulative positive contact) (Mendler,
2000) This strategy (‘non-contingent
2000).
( non-contingent teacher attention’)
attention ) can
be helpful with students who lack a positive connection with
the teacher.
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6
Response to Intervention
Motivation: Student SelfManagement. What tools can
help students to develop
independent work habits and
increase motivation?
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7
Response to Intervention
Teachers: Student Self-Management
Issues:
• Wh
When students
t d t lack
l k essential
ti l self-management
lf
t (‘self(‘ lf
regulation’) skills such as time management or workplanning these deficits can take a tremendous toll on
planning,
their academic work—and motivation.
• Teachers often feel that they lack sufficient tools to
address these ‘non-content area’ problems.
• A related problem is that faculty often fail to agree
among themselves what comprise essential student
self-management skills.
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8
Response to Intervention
The Problem That This Tool Addresses:
A d i Survival
Academic
S i l Skills
Skill Ch
Checklist
kli t
Students who would achieve success on the ambitious
Common Core State Standards must first cultivate a set of
general 'academic survival skills' that they can apply to any
coursework (DiPerna,
(DiPerna 2006).
2006)
Examples of academic survival skills include the ability to
study effectively,
effectively be organized
organized, and manage time well
well.
When academic survival skills are described in global terms,
though it can be difficult to define them
though,
them. For example
example, two
teachers may have different understandings about what the
term 'studyy skills' means.
Source: DiPerna, J. C. (2006). Academic enablers and student achievement: Implications for assessment and intervention
services in the schools. Psychology in the Schools, 43, 7-17.
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Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklist: What It Is…
• The teacher selects a global skill (e.g.,
h
homework
k completion;
l ti iindependent
d
d t seatwork).
t k)
The teacher then breaks the global skill down
i t a checklist
into
h kli t off componentt sub-skills.
b kill An
A
observer (e.g., teacher, another adult, or even
th student)
the
t d t) can then
th use the
th checklist
h kli t to
t note
t
whether a student successfully displays each of
th sub-skills
the
b kill on a given
i
dday.
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Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklist: Homework Example
p
Source: Academic Survival Skills Checklist Maker. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.interventioncentral.org/tools/academic-survival-skillschecklist-maker
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11
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklist: Homework Example
p
Source: Academic Survival Skills Checklist Maker. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.interventioncentral.org/tools/academic-survival-skillschecklist-maker
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12
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklist: Homework Example
p
Source: Academic Survival Skills Checklist Maker. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.interventioncentral.org/tools/academic-survival-skillschecklist-maker
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13
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklist: Homework Example
p
Source: Academic Survival Skills Checklist Maker. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.interventioncentral.org/tools/academic-survival-skillschecklist-maker
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14
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklists: 5 Uses
Consistent expectations among teachers. Teachers at a grade
level, on an instructional team, or within an instructional
department can work together to develop checklists for
essential global academic-survival skills. As teachers
collaborate to create these checklists,
checklists they reach agreement
on the essential skills that students need for academic
success and can then consistentlyy promote those skills across
their classrooms.
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1
15
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklists: 5 Uses
Proactive student skills training. One excellent use of these
checklists is as a classwide student training tool. At the start of
the school year,
year teachers can create checklists for those
academic survival skills in which students are weak (e.g.,
study skills,
skills time management) and use them as tools to train
students in specific strategies to remediate these deficiencies.
Several instructors workingg with the same ggroup of students
can even pool their efforts so that each teacher might be
required to teach a checklist in only a single survival-skill area.
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16
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklists: 5 Uses
Student skills self-check. Teachers can use academic survivalskills checklists to promote student responsibility. Students are
provided with master copies of checklists and encouraged to
develop their own customized checklists by selecting and
editing those strategies likely to work best for them
them. Instructors
can then hold students accountable to consult and use these
individualized checklists to expand their repertoire of strategies
g
for managing their own learning.
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3
17
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklists: 5 Uses
Monitoring progress of academic survival-skills interventions.
Often, intervention plans developed for middle and high school
students include strategies to address academic survival-skill
survival skill
targets such as homework completion or organization.
Checklists are a good way for teachers to measure the
student's baseline use of academic survival skills in a targeted
area prior to the start of the intervention. Checklists can also
be used to calculate a student outcome goal that will signify a
successful intervention and to measure (e.g., weekly) the
student's
t d t' progress iin using
i an expanded
d d range off academic
d i
survival-skills during the intervention period.
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4
18
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills Checklists: 5 Uses
Parent conferences. When teachers meet with parents to
discuss student academic concerns, academic survival-skills
checklists can serve as a vehicle to define expected student
competencies and also to decide what specific school and
home supports will most benefit the student.
student In addition
addition,
parents often appreciate receiving copies of these checklists to
review with their child at home.
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19
Response to Intervention
Academic Survival Skills
Checklist Maker
http://www.interventioncentral.org/
tools/academic-survival-skillschecklist maker
checklist-maker
The Academic Survival Skills
Checklist Maker pprovides a starter set
of strategies to address:
•homework
• note-taking
• organization
•study skills
• time
ti management.t
Teachers can use the application to
create and print customized checklists
and can also save their checklists
online.
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Response to Intervention
Activity: Academic Survival Skills Checklists
• Discuss how you might use a version
of these Academic Survival Skills
Checklists with your students.
students
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21
Response to Intervention
How To…Help the Student Develop WorkPl i Skill
Planning
Skills: Pl
Plan, Evaluate,
E l t Adjust
Adj t
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22
Response to Intervention
TUTORIAL: How To…Help the Student Develop
Work Planning Skills: Plan
Work-Planning
Plan, Evaluate
Evaluate, Adjust
The student is trained to follow a plan>work>selfevaluate>adjust sequence in work-planning:
work planning:
• Plan. The student creates a work plan: inventorying a
collection of related tasks to be done
done, setting specific
outcome goals that signify success on each task,
allocating time sufficient to carry out each task.
• Work. The student completes the work.
Self-Evaluate.
Evaluate. The student compares actual work
• Self
performance to the outcome goals to evaluate success.
• Adjust. The student determines what to do differently in
the future to improve performance and outcomes.
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
23
Response to Intervention
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
24
Response to Intervention
TUTORIAL: How To…Help the Student Develop
Work Planning Skills: Plan
Work-Planning
Plan, Evaluate
Evaluate, Adjust
PLANNING: The teacher & student meet prior to the work
to create a plan,
plan with 3 phases to the meeting:
1. Task. The student describes each academic task in
clear and specific terms (e.g.,
(e g "Complete
Complete first 10
problems on page 48 of math book", "write an outline
from notes for history essay
essay").
).
For this part of the work plan, the teacher may need to
model for the student how to divide larger global
assignments into component tasks. in the future to
improve performance and outcomes.
outcomes
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
25
Response to Intervention
TUTORIAL: How To…Help the Student Develop
Work Planning Skills: Plan
Work-Planning
Plan, Evaluate
Evaluate, Adjust
PLANNING: The teacher & student meet prior to the work
to create a plan,
plan with 3 phases to the meeting:
2. Time Allocated. The student decides how much time
should be reserved to complete each task (e.g.,
(e g For a
math workbook assignment: "20 minutes" or "11:20 to
11:40 ).
11:40").
Because students with limited planning skills can make
unrealistic time projections for task completion, the
teacher may need to provide initial guidance and
modeling in time estimation.
estimation
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
26
Response to Intervention
TUTORIAL: How To…Help the Student Develop
Work Planning Skills: Plan
Work-Planning
Plan, Evaluate
Evaluate, Adjust
PLANNING: The teacher & student meet prior to the work
to create a plan,
plan with 3 phases to the meeting:
3. Performance Goal. The student sets a performance
goal to be achieved for each task.
task Performance goals
are dependent on the student and may reference the
amount, accuracy, and/or qualitative ratings of the
work: (e.g., for a reading assignment: "To read at least
5 pages from assigned text, and to take notes of the
content"; for a math assignment: "At least 80% of
problems correct"; for a writing assignment: "Rating of
4 or higher on class writing rubric").
rubric")
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
27
Response to Intervention
TUTORIAL: How To…Help the Student Develop
Work Planning Skills: Plan
Work-Planning
Plan, Evaluate
Evaluate, Adjust
SELF-EVALUATION: The teacher & student meet after the
work to evaluate with 2 phases to the meeting:
1. Comparison of Performance Goal to Actual
Performance For each task on the plan,
Performance.
plan the student
compares his or her actual work performance to the
original performance goal and notes whether the goal
was achieved. In addition to noting whether the
performance goal was attained, the student evaluates
whether the task was completed within the time
allocated.
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
28
Response to Intervention
TUTORIAL: How To…Help the Student Develop
Work Planning Skills: Plan
Work-Planning
Plan, Evaluate
Evaluate, Adjust
SELF-EVALUATION: The teacher & student meet after the
work to evaluate with 2 phases to the meeting:
2. Adjustment. For each task that the student failed to
reach the performance goal within the time allocated,
allocated
the student reflects on the experience and decides
what adjustments to make on future assignments. For
example, a student reviewing a homework work-plan
who discovers that she reserved insufficient time to
complete math word problems may state that, in future,
she should allocate at least 30 minutes for similar
tasks
tasks.
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
29
Response to Intervention
Source: Martin, J. E., Mithaug, D. E., Cox, P., Peterson, L. Y., Van Dycke, J. L., & Cash, M.E. (2003). Increasing selfdetermination: Teaching students to plan, work, www.interventioncentral.org
evaluate, and adjust. Exceptional Children, 69, 431-447.
30
Response to Intervention
TUTORIAL: How To…Help the Student Develop
Work Planning Skills: Plan
Work-Planning
Plan, Evaluate
Evaluate, Adjust
Teachers can modify the format of the Plan-Evaluate-Adjust
conference for students of younger ages and diverse abilities. For
example, a 4th-grade instructor may not use a form to organize a
st dent’s work-planning
student’s
ork planning phase
phase. Instead the teacher ma
may ha
havee the
student write down answers to open-ended questions for an
assignment such as:
assignment,
– What do you want to accomplish today? (TASK)
– How longg do yyou think it will take? ((TIME ALLOCATION))
– How will you know that you have done a good job? (PERFORMANCE
GOAL)
At the follow-up conference, teacher and student would compare
the actual work to the student’s written plan.
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31
Response to Intervention
Self-Regulation Skills: Work-Plan Conference
• Pair off at your tables. Review the
STUDENTWORK-PLANNING
structure for student work-planning
conferences shared today.
today Discuss PreP and
d Post-Planning
P t Pl i
Conferences
how you might use or adapt it to
PLANNING
train students in work planning.
planning
1. Task
• Consider questions such as:
2. Time Allocated
 What assignments you might
3. Performance Goal
use it for: in-class?
SELF-EVALUATION
homework? longer-term
g
1. Comparison of
assignments?
Performance Goal to
 Who might conference with
Actual Performance
the student: teacher? counselor? 2. Adjustment
mentor?
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32
Response to Intervention
Teachers: Student Self-Management
Suggestions for Implementation:
• T
Teachers
h att a grade
d level,
l l on an iinstructional
t ti l tteam, or
within a department should work together to:
– create
t their
th i own shared
h d sett off Academic
A d i Survival
S i l
Skills Checklists.
– agree on a structure and organizer for work-planning
work planning
skills.
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33
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