how useful is the film 'the untouchables' to a historian

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HOW USEFUL IS THE FILM ‘THE UNTOUCHABLES’ TO A HISTORIAN STUDYING PROHIBITION IN THE USA? Figure 1 (left): Author Unknown, 2011, MovieGoods, Inc., 6 November 2011, http://www.moviegoods.com/movie_product_static.asp?master_movie_id=8477&sku=405
240 Figure 2 (right): Author Unknown, 2011, Chicago History Online, 6 November 2011, http://chicagohistoryonline.wordpress.com/roaring-­‐twenties/al-­‐capone/ Word Count: 1897 A. Plan of the Investigation In this investigation I will seek to answer the question, “How useful is the film “The Untouchables”1 to a Historian studying Prohibition in the USA?”. I have chosen to investigate this era because I am intrigued by the factors which led to Prohibition, such as the ‘Woman’s Christian Temperance Union’2 and how Prohibition led to several Public Enemies such as Al Capone and John Dillinger. This era also influenced several Hollywood movies and Jazz musicians. The subject is still relevant today because it brought police investigations to a completely new level, forcing the police to advance in strategies for criminal investigations. In order to understand the Prohibition era, my analysis will start with an overview of the factors which led to the banning of alcohol sale and manufacture. In the main body of the analysis I will discuss the values and limitations of the film ‘The Untouchables’ alongside other sources that describe life during the Prohibition era, such as the ‘Studs Lonigan: trilogy’3, ‘His Master’s Voice’4 and ‘No Beer, No Work’5. Word Count: 171 1
The Untouchables, 1987, motion picture, Paramount Pictures, Directed by Brian De Palma, Starring Robert De Niro and Keven Costner 2
Women’s Christian Temperance Movement: An organization that combated against the influence of alcohol on family and society. 3
James T. Farrell, 1932, 1934, 1935, Studs Lonigan (trilogy), Penguin Putnam Inc. New York, (ISBN 0-­‐14-­‐
11-­‐8673-­‐9), p. 237 4
Taylor Hales, Nikolas Kazmers, 2004, ‘His Master’s Voice’ (cartoon), University of Michigan, 22 August 2011, http://www.umich.edu/~eng217/student_projects/nkazmers/prohibition1.html 5
Song, ‘NO BEER, NO WORK’, Music and Lyrics by Sammy Edwards, 1919, 1|Page
B. Summary of Sources On the 16th of January 1920, the United States made a drastic change to their country, the 18th Amendment was added to the U.S. Constitution, banning the sale, manufacture, and transport of alcohol. All their distilleries, saloons and breweries were obligated to shut down. Prohibition was led by several movements, for example the Anti-­‐Saloon League and the Woman’s Christian Temperance Union. The Anti-­‐Saloon League6 worked alongside with the American Issue Printing Company which helped spread their campaign. They created several stories and songs to reach out to the people, “Dispel the wrong, enthrone the right, and mark the whole world dry, we’ll work for Prohibition…”.7 The Woman’s Christian Temperance Union also played an important role, they worried about the social problems caused by the use of alcohol such as child abuse and wife beatings. They made several campaigns against alcohol for example the “Lips that touch liquor shall not touch ours”.8 Carry A. Nation was at the time seen by many as “Crazy Carry” but now is considered, “hatchet-­‐wielding… an outspoken advocate for women’s rights”.9 She is famously known for vandalizing saloons and with a hatchet, “I felt invincible. I smashed five saloons with rocks before I ever took a hatchet”.10 Even industrialist leaders like Henry Ford were worried about the alcohol’s effect on work efficiency, “the [18th Amendment] greatest force for the comfort and prosperity of the U. S.”.11 Before the 18th Amendment, war was also used to back-­‐up prohibition, “a number of breweries around the country which are owned in part by alien enemies [Germans]”.12 The 18th Amendment turned out to be very difficult to enforce, the American Government estimated enforcement to cost around $300 million. Many people made their own alcohol at home, for example Yak-­‐Yak Bourbon, Wood Alcohol, Pumpkin Wine, and Bathtub Gin13, others smuggled alcohol into the country. One of the most famous “bootleggers” was Al Capone who 6
Anti-­‐Saloon League: organization against Prohibitions Quote from song, “The World Is Going Dry”, Lyrics by J.H. Lakimore, Music by G. G. Grabill 8
Prof. David J. Hanson PhD, 2011, Lips that touch liquor shall not touch ours (Image) State University of New York Potsdam, NY 13676, 22 August 2011, http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/Prohibition.html 9
Fran Grace, 2001, Carry A. Nation: Retelling the Life, Indiana University Press, (ISBN 0-­‐253-­‐33846-­‐8) p.4 10
Kansas Historical Society, 2010, Kansapedia, 18 November 2011, http://www.kshs.org/index.php?url=kansapedia/carry-­‐a-­‐nation/15502 11
Author Unknown, 1930, The Times U.S. Magazine, 18 November 2011, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,738875,00.html 12
Wayne Wheeler (lobbyist for the Anti-­‐Saloon League), Steven Mintz, 2011, the Department of History and the College of Education at the University of Houston, August 15th, 2011, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441 13
Yak-­‐Yak Bourbon: homemade liquor fermented in old whisky barrels that became extremely popular in Philadelphia; Wood Alcohol: a dangerous form of alcohol made during prohibition; Pumpkin Wine: wine that was fermented inside a pumpkin; Bathtub Gin: homemade liquor mixed in a bathtub
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based in Chicago, in the film ‘The Untouchables’14 his well-­‐known dreadful reputation and elimination of other rival gangs was explored. The St Valentine’s Day Massacre on the 14th of February 1929 was one of the well-­‐remembered examples of his brutality as he machine gunned 11 members of the ‘Bugs’ Moran Mob, “seven men lay dead or dying, their bodies riddled with at least one-­‐hundred machine-­‐gun bullets”.15 Culture was also influenced by Prohibition, movies such as ‘Little Caesar’16, ‘Scarface’17 and ‘The Public Enemy’18 were inspired by Americans public enemies, Al Capone, John Dillinger, Baby Face Nelson, Pretty Boy Floyd, Bonnie and Clyde. Jazz music was extremely popular during Prohibition, many famous jazz singers like Duke Ellington, and Bojangles Robinson went to perform in speakeasies19. As a result of this many people considered jazz music “a Bolshevik element protesting against law and order” and “an influence for evil in society”.20 With the USA entering the Great Depression in 1929, “consumption [meant] economic opportunities… created jobs for hundreds of thousands of people… pumps billions of tax dollars into federal, state, and local economies”.21 During Franklin D. Roosevelt’s 1932 campaign for New York Governor he went against Prohibition to gain more votes. On December 5th, 1933 the 21st Amendment was passed after 36 states approved the repeal of Prohibition. Word Count: 529 14
The Untouchables, 1987, motion picture, Paramount Pictures, Directed by Brian De Palma, Starring Robert De Niro and Keven Costner
15
Olivia Mahoney, 2010, Chicago History Museum, 22 August 2011, http://blog.chicagohistory.org/index.php/2010/02/st-­‐valentines-­‐day-­‐massacre/ 16
Little Caesar, 1931, motion picture, First National Pictures, Directed by Mervyn LeRoy, Staring Edward G. Robinson 17
Scarface, 1932, motion picture, Universal Pictures and Caddo Company, Directed by Howard Hawks and Richard Rosson, Starring Paul Muni, Ann Dvorak, Karen Morley 18
The Public Enemy, 1931, motion picture, Warner Bros. Pictures, Directed by William A. Wellman, Starring James Cagney and Jean Harlow 19
Speakeasies: A place were alcohol was sold illegally, also called Blind Pig or Blind Tiger 20
Cathy Richard, 2011, Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation, 19 August 2011, http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00492/ 21
Mr. Garrett Peck, 2009, The Prohibition Hangover: Alcohol in America from Demon Rum to Cult Cabernet, Library of Congress Cataloging-­‐in-­‐Publication Data, (ISBN 978-­‐0-­‐8135-­‐4592-­‐9) p.3 3|Page
C. Evaluation of Sources Source 1: ‘The Untouchables’ (film), by Paramount Pictures, 1987 I am going to analyze how useful the source ‘The Untouchables’22 is to a historian studying the U.S. Prohibition. In terms of origin, the film was made in 1987 and filmed in the USA inspired by the book written by Eliot Ness23, ‘The Untouchables24, and the T.V. series, ‘The Untouchables’25. The purpose of this film was purely to entertain, many scenes were historically inaccurate, such as the scene Eliot Ness throws Frank Nitti26 off a building and he falls inside a car. In the ‘Chicago tribune’ newspaper article it states Nitti actually committed suicide, “put a gun to his head while in a stupor alongside a railroad embankment in North Riverside”.27 The film is valuable to a Historian because it shows Al Capone’s brutal reputation, such as the scene Capone kills a member of his gang with a baseball bat because he betrayed his trust, or when he says, “I want him [Eliot Ness] DEAD! I wanna PISS ON HIS ASHES!”. The film also shows Al Capone confidence, “People are gonna drink! You know that, I know that, we all know that, and all I do is act on that. I'm a businessman!”.28 Al Capone’s brutality and self-­‐confidence is seen in other sources, “to engorge his will, Capone had an army of sluggers, bombers and machine gunners”.29However the film fails to show the life of ordinary people during prohibition and focuses on Al Capone’s and Elliot Ness’s character. Word Count: 239 22
The Untouchables, 1987, motion picture, Paramount Pictures, Directed by Brian De Palma, Starring Robert De Niro and Keven Costner 23
Eliot Ness: Prohibition Agent of the U.S. Treasury Department 24
Eliot Ness, Oscar Fraley, 1957, The Untouchables, Buccaneer Books, Cutchogue, New York, (ISBN 1-­‐
56849-­‐198-­‐0) 25
The Untouchables, 1959-­‐63, television series, Desilu Productions and Langford Productions, Director unknown, Starring Robert Stack and Walter Winchell. 26
Frank Nitti: Member of Al Capone’s Gang, also known as “The Enforcer” 27
Ronald Koziol, Edward Baumann, 1987, Chicago Tribune, 5 November 2011, www.articles.chicagotribune.com/keyword/frank-­‐nitti 28
Quote from The Untouchables, 1987, motion picture, Paramount Pictures, Directed by Brian De Palma, Starring Robert De Niro and Keven Costner 29
John Kobler, 1971, Capone: The Life and World of Al Capone, Da Capo Press, (ISBN 0-­‐306-­‐81285-­‐1) p. 14 4|Page
Source 2: ‘Studs Lonigan: trilogy’, written by James T. Farrell, 1932-­‐35 The second source I will evaluate is ‘Studs Lonigan: trilogy’30 by James T. Farrell, a novel of American naturalism following the life of William “Studs” Lonigan. The novels originated from Chicago in 1932, 1934, and 1935 and main character “Studs” was inspired by Farrell’s own experiences of growing up in south-­‐side Chicago. The purpose of the trilogy was to show the hardships people faced during Prohibition and the Great Depression through this character. Farrell also highlights the health issues associated with excessive drinking, when “Studs” gets a heart attack and enters a coma due to his heavy drinking. The trilogy is very valuable to a Historian, because it shows how easily people could get a hold of alcohol during Prohibition and many people would, "drown [their] sorrows in drink". This backed up by the graph31 below which shows how before Prohibition the consumption of alcohol was decreasing, but after the first year of Prohibition the alcohol consumption rose drastically. Word Count: 159 30
James T. Farrell, 1932, 1934, 1935, Studs Lonigan (trilogy), Penguin Putnam Inc. New York, (ISBN 0-­‐14-­‐
11-­‐8673-­‐9), p. 242
31
Clark Warburton, 1932, The Economic Results of Prohibition, New York Colombia Press, p. 33 5|Page
D. Analysis Historical Significance: Prohibition is historically significant because it greatly affected a whole nation. Alcohol consumption is linked to over 23,000 deaths of motor accidents per year in the USA.32 In the novel ‘Prohibition: Thirteen Years that Changed America’33 the author acknowledges that “some of its [Prohibition] methods were strikingly similar to those used today to fight drug abuse, with equally disappointing results”. Before Prohibition: The film, ‘The Untouchables’ is limited in information about conditions before Prohibition. The idea of Prohibition was first started in the U.S. in the 1850s, and the majority of cartoons before Prohibition were in its favor, in ‘His Master’s Voice’34, a barrel of rum represents the saloon and its power over people’s lives is shown by the speaker attached to the barrel. The man faced dog represents a politician which illustrates the corruption of Chicago politicians in this era. This cartoon is very useful primary source because they tend to show the public opinion at that particular period, this cartoon is trying to persuade its viewers that prohibition is the way to defeat corrupt politicians in Chicago. This cartoon was proven to be false because a new form of corruption began after Prohibition, the bootleggers. There were several campaigns that opposed Prohibition as well, including the ‘No Beer, No Work’ movement which started in 1919. Many posters35, pins36, and songs were written to unify the movement. Nevertheless, it is important to remember that cartoons and songs are used purely for propaganda37. The movement aimed to start a national strike, but failed when the strike did not take place and the 18th Amendment took place instead. Although this source draws upon the Prohibition opposition, there is very little information about the movement 32
Steven Mintz, 2011, the Department of History and the College of Education at the University of Houston, August 15th, 2011, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441 33
Edward Behr, 1996, Prohibition: Thirteen Years that Changed America, Arcade Publishing, (ISBN 978-­‐1-­‐
61145-­‐009-­‐5) p. xxi 34
Taylor Hales, Nikolas Kazmers, 2004, ‘His Master’s Voice’ (cartoon), University of Michigan, 22 August 2011, http://www.umich.edu/~eng217/student_projects/nkazmers/prohibition1.html 35
Author Unknown, 2011, ‘No Beer, No work’ (cartoon/poster), The Authentic History Center, 29 August 2011, http://www.authentichistory.com/1921-­‐1929/2-­‐socialchange/1-­‐prohibition/2-­‐
music/1919_SM_No_Beer_No_Work.html 36
Frank, 2011, photograph, 27 August 2011, http://familyephemera.tumblr.com/post/3071533629/these-­‐
are-­‐two-­‐old-­‐pins-­‐i-­‐found-­‐the-­‐no-­‐beer-­‐no 37
“No beer, no work’ will be my battle cry. ‘No beer, no work’ when I am feeling dry. I never could like lemonade… for beer is all I'll buy”; Quote from song ‘NO BEER, NO WORK’, Music and Lyrics by Sammy Edwards, 1919 6|Page
because it was not successful. It is important to bear in mind that “History is written by the winners”38, so the amount of sources available of anti-­‐Prohibition is very limited. During Prohibition: The Untouchables storyline tends to focus on discovering evidence to put Al Capone in jail, but does not show life for ordinary people in Chicago. The novel ‘Studs Lonigan: trilogy’39, focuses more on life in Chicago was for men during this era.40 This source is reliable because it was written based on the author’s own experience growing up in the Prohibition era, bearing in mind that the novel is fictional. End of Prohibition: There are numerous sources from the end of the Prohibition era such as the cartoons, ‘Repealing National Prohibition’ and ‘Small laws are pieced together into huge tyrannies’41. These cartoons express the nations desire to end Prohibition. The main reason prohibition failed was because there were not enough people to enforce it, “nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and the law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced”42. There were only 4,500 G-­‐men43 to enforce a law over 100 million U.S. citizens44. In addition, bootleggers earned fortunes by selling illegally countermanded alcohol so they had the means to bribe officers. Different Interpretations: On the one hand, the film ‘The Untouchables’, depicts the most famous bootlegger in Chicago, Al Capone as cruel arrogant, and always wearing and living in luxury, “People are gonna drink! And all this talk of bootlegging -­‐ what is bootlegging?”. On the other hand there are sources which contradict this egotistical attitude, “Capone did not act like a gangster. He did not parade around his property toting guns, dressed in mobster finery”.45 The main reason Prohibition failed was because it was not enforced, so if there were enough G-­‐
men to supervise the law, subsequently Prohibition could have been a successful operation. Nevertheless, if the opposition movements like ‘No Beer, No Work’ had started earlier like the 38
Quote attributed to Winston Churchill, but of unknown origin. James T. Farrell, 1932, 1934, 1935, Studs Lonigan (trilogy), Penguin Putnam Inc. New York, (ISBN 0-­‐14-­‐
11-­‐8673-­‐9) 40
, "The boys run the streets, and grow up in poolrooms, drink and become hooligans. They don't know any better … and they kill themselves with diseases from whores and this gin they drink", 41
Paul Reisberg, 2007, Repealing National Prohibition’ and ‘Small laws are pieced together into huge tyrannies’ (cartoons),Wellesley Collage, 25 August 20011, http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/alcohol/prohib.html 42
Quote by Albert Einstein, 1921 43
G-­‐men: FBI agents that enforced Prohibition 44
Steven Mintz, 2011, the Department of History and the College of Education at the University of Houston, August 15th, 2011, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441
45
Nate Hendley, 2010, Al Capone: Chicago’s King of Crime, Five Chapmanry, (ISBN 978-­‐0-­‐986542-­‐ 2-­‐5) p. 7 39
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Woman’s Christian Temperance Union that originated in 1876, then the movement could have gained power and numbers to fight and strike against Prohibition, hence Prohibition could have never taken place. Word Count: 633 E. Conclusion The Prohibition era was a very important part of U.S. History because it was a time of National degradation. The USA was pressured by Prohibition movements which led to imposing a law which they had no control over since only 4,500 G-­‐men were assigned to enforce the law to 100 million citizens. The 18th Amendment gave way to a time of gangsters, corruption, and illegal consumption of alcohol. By 1927 there were 30,000 speakeasies46 in Cleveland, which is more than twice the number of legal bars before Prohibition started.47 The film ‘The Untouchables’ is useful to a historian interesting in the character of Al Capone and Elliot Ness and how the police took actions against him. However the film is only shows Prohibition in Chicago and lacks detail on why Prohibition took place, how this affected people’s lives and how Prohibition came to an end. In addition there are historically inaccurate scenes resulting in the film being entertaining rather than informative to historians researching this era. Word Count: 166 46
Speakeasies: A place were alcohol was sold illegally, also called Blind Pig or Blind Tiger Steven Mintz, 2011, the Department of History and the College of Education at the University of Houston, August 15th, 2011, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441 47
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F. List of Sources Books: Edward Behr, 1996, Prohibition: Thirteen Years that Changed America, Arcade Publishing, (ISBN 978-­‐1-­‐61145-­‐009-­‐5) p. xxi Eliot Ness, Oscar Fraley, 1957, The Untouchables, Buccaneer Books, Cutchogue, New York, (ISBN 1-­‐56849-­‐198-­‐0) Fran Grace, 2004, Carry A. Nation: retelling the life, Indiana University Press, (ISBN 0-­‐253-­‐33846-­‐
8) p. 4 James T. Farrell, 1932, 1934, 1935, Studs Lonigan (trilogy), Penguin Putnam Inc. New York (ISBN 0-­‐14-­‐11-­‐8673-­‐9), p. 237 and p. 242 John Kobler, 1971, Capone: The Life and World of Al Capone, Da Capo Press, (ISBN 0-­‐306-­‐81285-­‐
1) p. 14 Mr. Garrett Peck, 2009, The Prohibition Hangover: Alcohol in America from Demon Rum to Cult Cabernet, Library of Congress Cataloging-­‐in-­‐Publication Data, (ISBN 978-­‐0-­‐8135-­‐4592-­‐9) p.3 Nate Hendley, 2010, Al Capone: Chicago’s King of Crime, Five Chapmanry, (ISBN 978-­‐0-­‐986542-­‐ 2-­‐5) p. 7 Articles: Allan May, 1999, Crime Magazine: an encyclopedia of crime, 22 August 2011, http://www.crimemagazine.com/first-­‐shooting-­‐frank-­‐nitti Ian Tyrell (Professor of History at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia), 2010, Word Press, 29 August 2011, http://iantyrrell.wordpress.com/alcohol-­‐prohibition-­‐in-­‐the-­‐usa/ June Sawyers, Cheryl Kent, Daniel Greene, 2011, Chicago Department of Cultural Affairs, 25 August 2011, http://www.chicagotribute.org/Markers/Farrell.htm
Olivia Mahoney, 2010, Chicago History Museum, 22 August 2011, http://blog.chicagohistory.org/index.php/2010/02/st-­‐valentines-­‐day-­‐massacre/ Steven Mintz, 2011, the Department of History and the College of Education at the University of Houston, August 15th, 2011, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441 9|Page
Taylor Hales, Nikolas Kazmers, 2004, University of Michigan, http://www.umich.edu/~eng217/student_projects/nkazmers/bibliography.html Websites: Author Unknown, 2011, 123HelpMe, 28 August 2011, http://www.123helpme.com/view.asp?id=33278
Author Unknown, 1930, The Times U.S. Magazine, 18 November 2011, http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,738875,00.html Cathy Richard, 2011, Oracle ThinkQuest Education Foundation, 19 August 2011, http://library.thinkquest.org/04oct/00492/
Kansas Historical Society, 2010, Kansapedia, 18 November 2011, http://www.kshs.org/index.php?url=kansapedia/carry-­‐a-­‐nation/15502
Steven Mintz, 2011, the Department of History and the College of Education at the University of Houston, August 15th, 2011, http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=441 The FBI Federal Bureau Investigations, 2011, U.S. Federal Government, U.S. Department of Justice, 25 August 2011, http://www.fbi.gov/contact-­‐us Westerville Public Library, 2011, 126 South State St. Westerville, Ohio, August 21st, 2011, 43081 http://www.wpl.lib.oh.us/AntiSaloon Woman's Christian Temperance Union, 2011, Frances Willard Memorial Library and Archives 1730 Chicago Ave. Evanston, Illinois 60201, August 21st, 2011, http://www.wctu.org/ Films: Little Caesar, 1931, motion picture, First National Pictures, Directed by Mervyn LeRoy, Staring Edward G. Robinson Scarface, 1932, motion picture, Universal Pictures and Caddo Company, Directed by Howard Hawks and Richard Rosson, Starring Paul Muni, Ann Dvorak, Karen Morley The Public Enemy, 1931, motion picture, Warner Bros. Pictures, Directed by William A. Wellman, Starring James Cagney and Jean Harlow The Untouchables, 1959-­‐63, television series, Desilu Productions and Langford Productions, Director unknown, Starring Robert Stack and Walter Winchell. The Untouchables, 1987, motion picture, Paramount Pictures, Directed by Brian De Palma, 10 | P a g e
Starring Robert De Niro and Keven Costner Appendices: Author Unknown, 2011, ‘No Beer, No work’ (cartoon/poster), The Authentic History Center, 29 August 2011, http://www.authentichistory.com/1921-­‐1929/2-­‐socialchange/1-­‐prohibition/2-­‐
music/1919_SM_No_Beer_No_Work.html Author Unknown, 2011, MovieGoods, Inc., 6 November 2011, http://www.moviegoods.com/movie_product_static.asp?master_movie_id=8477&sku=405240 Author Unknown, 2011, Chicago History Online, 6 November 2011, http://chicagohistoryonline.wordpress.com/roaring-­‐twenties/al-­‐capone/ 11 | P a g e
Clark Warburton, 1932, The Economic Results of Prohibition, New York Colombia Press, p. 33 Frank, 2011, photograph, 27 August 2011, http://familyephemera.tumblr.com/post/3071533629/these-­‐are-­‐two-­‐old-­‐pins-­‐i-­‐found-­‐the-­‐no-­‐
beer-­‐no ‘NO BEER, NO WORK’ (song), Music and Lyrics by Sammy Edwards, 1919 “No beer, no work’ will be my battle cry. ‘No beer, no work’ when I am feeling dry. I never could like lemonade… for beer is all I'll buy” Paul Reisberg, 2007, Repealing National Prohibition’ and ‘Small laws are pieced together into huge tyrannies’ (cartoons),Wellesley Collage, 25 August 20011, http://www.wellesley.edu/Chemistry/Chem101/alcohol/prohib.html 12 | P a g e
Prof. David J. Hanson PhD, 2011, Lips that touch liquor shall not touch ours (Image) State University of New York Potsdam, NY 13676, 22 August 2011, http://www2.potsdam.edu/hansondj/FunFacts/Prohibition.html Taylor Hales, Nikolas Kazmers, 2004, ‘His Master’s Voice’ (cartoon), University of Michigan, 22 August 2011, http://www.umich.edu/~eng217/student_projects/nkazmers/prohibition1.html ‘The World Is Going Dry’ (song), Lyrics by J.H. Lakimore, Music by G.G.Grabill “No beer, no work’ will be my battle cry. ‘No beer, no work’ when I am feeling dry. I never could like lemonade… for beer is all I'll buy” 13 | P a g e