Pectoral Girdle Checklist Pectoral girdle Consists of the clavicles and scapulae. It is the attachment site of the upper limbs and muscles moving the upper limb. Manubrium Superior part of the sternum; functions as a midline support, or brace, for the clavicles. Clavicle Bone extending from the manubrium to the scapula; helps to hold the scapula (and arm) in position, but also allows the scapula to move, resulting in increased mobility of the shoulder and arm. Scapula A triangular-shaped bone that is 1. mobile because its only skeletal attachment to the trunk is the clavicle. 2. the attachment site of the arm bone (humerus) to the trunk. 3. the attachment site for muscles moving the arm. 4. the attachment site for muscles holding/moving the scapula. Acromion process Part of the scapula joining the clavicle. Glenoid cavity Part of the scapula joining to the arm bone (humerus); allows a wide range of arm movements. Points of the scapula The scapula is triangular-shaped with three “points”: inferior angle, superior angle, and glenoid cavity. Edges Medial and lateral borders. The lateral border is on the same side as the glenoid cavity. Spine Raised ridge on the posterior surface of the scapula. Fossae Supraspinous fossa Infraspinous fossa Subscapular fossa The fossae are depression on the surface of the scapula. Located above the spine Located below the spine Located on the anterior surface of the scapula. Coracoid process Anterior projection of the scapula. Muscles moving the arm. Muscles moving the arm attach to the fossae, spine, acromion, coracoid process, and clavicle. Muscles holding/moving the scapula Muscles holding/moving the scapula attach to the edges, angles, spine, acromion, and coracoid process of the scapula. Upper Limb Checklist Upper limb Consists of the arm, forearm, wrist, and hand. Arm bone Forearm bones Wrist bones Hand bones Humerus Radius (lateral forearm) and ulna (medial forearm) Eight carpal bones Five metacarpal bones (palm of hand) and 14 phalanges (thumb and fingers) Head of humerus Ball-like proximal end of humerus; connects to the scapula, allowing a wide range of movements. Greater and lesser tubercles Lateral bump (greater tubercle) and anterior bump (lesser tubercle); attachment site for muscles moving the arm. Intertubercular groove Furrow between the greater and lesser tubercles; tendon for a muscle passes through the intertubercular groove. Anatomical neck Groove immediately distal to the head; attachment site for connective tissue that holds the humerus in position. Surgical neck Constriction of the humerus distal to the head and tubercles; part of the humerus often broken and repaired surgically. Shaft of humerus Weight bearing part of the humerus; attachment site for muscles moving the arm and forearm. Capitulum/head of radius The capitulum and head of radius allow the elbow to bend and straighten. Head of radius/head of ulna While the ulna remains stationary, allows the radius to move relative to the ulna, as when turning the hand from face up to face down. Trochlea/trochlear notch The trochlea of the humerus and the trochlear notch of the ulna allow the elbow to bend and straighten. Olecranon process Posterior edge of the trochlear notch; attachment site for muscles moving the forearm. Upper Limb Checklist Coronoid process Anterior edge of the trochlear notch; attachment site for arm muscle moving the forearm. Ulnar/radial tuberosities Attachment sites for arm muscles moving the forearm. Medial and lateral epicondyles Attachment sites for muscles moving the wrist and fingers. Shaft of radius and ulna Weight bearing part of the radius and ulna; attachment site for muscles moving the forearm, wrist, thumb, and fingers. Carpal bones Allow movement of the wrist; muscle attachment sites. Metacarpal bones Allow movement of the wrist, thumb, and fingers; muscle attachment sites. Phalanges Allow movement of the thumb and fingers; muscle attachment sites. The fingers have proximal, distal, and middle phalanges. The thumb has only proximal and distal phalanges.