Vocabulary Lessons from Madison's Address

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First Inaugural Address
by James Madison
Vocabulary Study
allotted (uh LOT)
Definition: to distribut or parcel out
Synonyms: allocate
Derivatives: allott, allotting, allottment
We allotted five days for our vacation.
arduous (AR jew us)
Definition: very difficult to accomplish or to achieve, very demanding (task)
Synonyms: hard, toilsome, onerous, wearisome
Derivatives: arduously, arduousness
Early in the morning, the team began the arduous trip up Mount Everest.
avail (un VAIL)
Definition: to help, to be of use, to serve
Synonyms: benefit, advantage
Derivatives: availed, avails, availing
It will not avail you to be disobedient.
belligerent (buh LIJ er unt)
Definition: waging war; inclined to or exhibiting assertiveness
Synonyms: bellicose, pugnacious, combative, contentious, quarrelsome
Derivatives: belligerence, belligerency, belligerently
"I want to see your manager right now!" demanded the belligerent customer.
benign (buh NINE)
Definition: not causing harm, of gentle disposition, beneficial
Synonyms: amiable, complaisant, gentle, mild
Derivatives: benignly, benignant, benignancy, benignantly, benignity
Luckily, the tumor is benign and will not spread through the body to cause damage.
candor (KAN dor)
Definition: the state or quality of being frank, open, and sincere in speech or expression
Synonyms: openness, frankness, honesty, truthfulness
Derivatives: candid
I was impressed by the candor of his response; I didn't expect such openness.
edict (EE dict)
Definition: any authoritative proclamation or command
Synonyms: canon, command, decree, dictate, directive, mandate, precept, proclamation, writ
Derivatives:
The king passed an edict that called for even greater taxation.
enhance (en HANS)
Definition: to make better, to improve
Synonyms: aggrandize, appreciate, augment, complement, elevate
Derivatives: enhanced, enhancement, enhancing, enhancer, enhancive
We can enhance this photo so that the objects are better defined.
impel (im PEL)
Definition: to urge or to drive forward (usually with moral pressure)
Synonyms: boost, compel, drive, incite, oblige, prompt
Derivatives: impelling, impellment, impeller, impelled
The expectations of his family impelled him to make the right decision.
induce (in DOOS, in DYOOS)
Definition: to bring on or to bring about; cause, effect, influence
Synonyms: persuade, prevail
Derivatives: induced, inducing, inducement, inducer
The scientist tried to induce an effect in the experiment that would prove his point.
posterity (pah STER uh tee)
Definition: future generations, all descendants of a person
Synonyms: brood, descendants, lineage, offspring, progenitor, progeny
Derivatives: posterities
The dying man left his property to his children, hoping their posterity in generations to come would be sensible.
profundity (pruh FUN deh tee)
Definition: profound knowledge, intellectual depth
Synonyms: acumen, depth, erudition, perspicacity, sagacity
Derivatives: profound, profoundly, profoundness
Einstein had a profundity that was admired by all.
rendering (REN der ing)
Definition: a drawing or likeness; an interpretation
Synonyms: interpretation, manifestation, portrayal, representation
Derivatives:
The artist quickly drew a rendering of the scene before him.
repose (reh POSE)
Definition: to lie or to be at rest; the state of being at rest; absence of movement
Synonyms: inaction, leisure, quietude, relaxation, requiescence, respite
Derivatives: reposal, reposed, reposing, reposedly, reposedness, reposeful, reposefully, reposefulness
After a hard day at work, the man sought some solitude and repose.
scrupulous (SKROO pyuh lus)
Definition: very principled, very careful and conscientious
Synonyms: meticulous, punctilious
Derivatives:
Her scrupulous attention to detail saved the company from a million-dollar mistake.
suffrage (SUF rij)
Definition: right to vote
Synonyms: assent, attestation, franchise, right, voice
Derivatives: suffragette, suffragettism, suffragism, suffragist
Susan B. Anthony led the fight for women's suffrage in the United States.
tranquil (TRANG kwul)
Definition: peaceful, calm
Synonyms: placid, serene
Derivatives: tranquilization, tranquilize, tranquility, tranquilness, tranquilizer
The lake house is the most tranquil spot I can imagine, so I go there to rest and meditate.
vicissitude (veh SIS eh tood)
Definition: a passing from one thing to another, change of luck
Synonyms: alternation, fluctuation, permutation, transposition
Derivatives: vicissitudinous
The woman was so distressed that she could not deal with the vicissitudes of daily life.
virtuous (VIR choo us)
Definition: having excellent morals; righteous
Synonyms: ethical, noble
Derivatives: virtuously, virtuousness, virtue
Sarah was recognized for her virtuous behavior even in the midst of an immoral environment.
warranted (WAR un ted)
Definition: justified
Synonyms: affirmed, empowered, licensed, sanctioned, vindicated
Derivatives: warrant, warrantable, warrantableness, warrantably
Her reaction was completely warranted; almost anyone would behave the same.
First Inaugural Address
by James Madison
Vocabulary Test 1
Directions: Match the vocabulary word to its definition.
Practice 1
_____________1.
allotted
a.
not causing harm, of gentle disposition, beneficial
_____________2.
arduous
b.
very difficult to accomplish or to achieve
_____________3.
avail
c.
to make better, to improve
_____________4.
belligerent
d. to distribut or parcel out
_____________5.
benign
e.
the state or quality of being frank, open, and sincere
_____________6.
candor
f.
very principled, very careful and conscientious
_____________7.
edict
g. to help, to be of use, to serve
_____________8.
enhance
h.
any authoritative proclamation or command
_____________9.
impel
i.
waging war; inclined to or exhibiting assertiveness
j.
to urge or drive forward usually with moral pressure
_____________11. posterity
k.
future generations, all descendants of a person
_____________12. profundity
l.
right to vote
_____________13. rendering
m. to bring on or to bring about; cause, effect, influence
_____________14. repose
n.
_____________15. induce
o. profound knowledge, intellectual depth
_____________16. suffrage
p. justified
_____________17. tranquil
q.
to lie or to be at rest; the state of being at rest
_____________18. vicissitude
r.
a passing from one thing to another, change of luck
_____________19. virtuous
s.
peaceful, calm
_____________20. warranted
t.
a drawing or likeness; an interpretation
_____________10. scrupulous
Practice 2
having excellent morals; righteous
First Inaugural Address
by James Madison
Vocabulary Test 2
Directions: For each definition, select the best answer from among the choices given.
________ 1. not causing harm, of gentle disposition, beneficial
(A) posterity
(B) scrupulous
(C) benign
(D) belligerent
(E) repose
(D) suffrage
(E) vicissitude
(D) repose
(E) induce
(D) suffrage
(E) profundity
(C) arduous
(D) posterity
(E) vicissitude
(C) avail
(D) enhance
(E) scrupulous
(C) posterity
(D) belligerent
(E) edict
(C) edict
(D) candor
(E) avail
(D) profundity
(E) suffrage
________ 2. distributed or parceled out
(A) allotted
(B) candor
(C) induce
________ 3. to bring on or to bring about; cause, effect, influence
(A) enhance
(B) avail
(C) allotted
________ 4. future generations, all descendants of a person
(A) belligerent
(B) posterity
(C) edict
________ 5. very difficult to accomplish or to achieve, very demanding (task)
(A) benign
(B) scrupulous
________ 6. to make better, to improve
(A) allotted
(B) repose
________ 7. very principled, very careful and conscientious
(A) scrupulous
(B) benign
________ 8. to help, to be of use, to serve
(A) enhance
(B) induce
________ 9. waging war; inclined to or exhibiting assertiveness
(A) scrupulous
(B) belligerent
(C) repose
________ 10. to lie or to be at rest; the state of being at rest; absence of movement
(A) avail
(B) allotted
(C) repose
(D)
enhance
(E) induce
________ 11. any authoritative proclamation or command
(A) posterity
(B) suffrage
(C) profundity
(D) edict
(E) vicissitude
(B) vicissitude
(C) scrupulous
(D) posterity
(E) profundity
(B) enhance
(C) avail
(D) edict
(E) candor
(D) scrupulous
(E) candor
________ 12. profound knowledge, intellectual depth
(A) repose
________ 13. right to vote
(A) suffrage
________ 14. a passing from one thing to another, change of luck
(A) induce
(B) profundity
(C) vicissitude
________ 15. the state or quality of being frank, open, and sincere in speech or expression
(A) scrupulous
(B) candor
(C) benign
(D) belligerent
(E) edict
First Inaugural Address
by James Madison
Vocabulary Test 3
Directions: Find the correct word from the box below to complete the sentences that follow.
Part A
1. ________________
allotted
arduous
avail
belligerent
benign
candor
edict
enhance
impel
induce
My parents tried to ________ a change in my behavior by increasing my allowance, but it
didn't bring about the effect they had hoped.
2. ________________
I know you really want to help, but your presence is of no _______________.
3. ________________
In order to distribute the pieces evenly, we ______________ five pieces to each person .
4. ________________
We were relieved to discover that the tumor was ____ and was not really harmful.
5. ________________
New speakers will _____ your music by improving the sound quality.
6. ________________
The _____ work of editing is the most demanding task of the writing process.
7. ________________
Because he was so frank and forthright, his comments were full of _____________.
8. ________________
My dad tried to _____ me to attend a state college; his urging was based on a financial
matter.
9. ________________
My _____ neighbor has been waging war against the Greens ever since they moved in.
10. _______________
To form his own laws, the king passed an _________ regarding a new form of taxation.
Part B
posterity
profundity
rendered
repose
scrupulous
suffrage
tranquil
vicissitude
virtuous
warranted
11. ________________ Why not seek a moment of _______ and think peacefully on the issue.
12. ________________ We were amazed by his intellect and the _________ of his explanations.
13. ________________
She was very tired and quickly sank into a _____ sleep untroubled by dreams.
14. ________________ The grandfather set up an estate to pass on his wealth to his _______.
15. ________________ However _______ his punishment, the way he was outcast from the group was unjustifiable.
16. ________________ When he broke his leg, he was ___________ helpless and could not walk.
17. ________________ The fifteenth amendment granted _____ to former slaves, who never could have voted before.
18. ________________ That preacher has a _____ wife who exemplifies righteousness and high morals.
19. ________________ A meticulous accountant will pay ______ attention to every transaction.
20. ________________ The young couple was unprepared for the ___________ they would face when moving to
another country.
First Inaugural Address
by James Madison
Answers
Voc. Test 1
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
d
b
g
i
a
e
h
c
j
f
k
o
t
q
m
l
s
r
n
p
Voc. Test
1.
c
2.
a
3.
e
4.
b
5.
c
6.
d
7.
a
8.
e
9.
b
10.
c
11.
d
12.
e
13.
a
14.
c
15.
b
Voc. Test 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
induce
avail
allotted
benign
enhance
arduous
candor
impel
belligerent
edict
repose
profundity
tranquil
posterity
warranted
rendered
suffrage
virtuous
scrupulous
vicissitude