OPA 102 Organisation theory and Public Bureaucracies 95.6 Kb

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THE OPEN UNIVERSITY OF TANZANIA
FACULTY OF ARTS AND SOCIAL SCIENCES
BACHELOR OF ARTS PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION
OPA 102: ORGANIZATION THEORY AND PUBLIC BUREAUCRACIES.
COURSE OUTLINE
Welcome to OPA 102 Organization Theory and Public Bureaucracies. This is a three unit core
course, supposed to be taken by all undergraduate students in the Bachelor of Arts (core Public
Administration) programme in the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (FASS) of the Open
University of Tanzania (OUT). Organizations have become the mainstay of human lives, as one
organizational philosopher once remarked: “We are born in organizations, live and work in
organizations, and when we die we shall get our last service in the organization (Amitai Etzion
n.d)” This remark not only reminds us of the eminence of these entities, but also, about the
integral relationships that exist between human beings and their organizations, and hence the
significance of this course to every student who studies it.
Organization Theory and Public Bureaucracies, is being introduced for the first time in the form
it is, although it was also taught in the past as part of Political Science and Public
Administration. The change of the course to the current structure and content was seen to be the
best way we can inculcate the detailed knowledge, skills, understanding and competencies of our
students on organizations. Theories on organizations are tools with which our learners enrich
their understanding about organizations. The course addresses the what’s, why’s and how’s of
organizations. Through this course students will get to know what organizations are, why at all
we need to have organizations, and how best can organizations be made to achieve what they are
meant to achieve ( through their structuring, management, functioning). The course comprises a
number of basic approaches to organization theory in the historical as well as in the
methodological aspects. The development of the organization theory during the 20th century is
presented in its relation to the social and economical processes of that period. At the end of the
course a phenomenon of globalisation is studied. It intensifies the interaction between cultures
which has a great influence on the functioning of national as well as multinational organizations.
Organizations are purposive human groupings and they exist to achieve the purposes for which
they were set. Schools were established to educate, police was intended to regulate while the
media is meant to communicate. Irrespective of the diverse purposes behind all types of
organizations, there are commonalities with regard to need to achieve goals in an effective and
efficient way as much as possible. This course will facilitate your understanding of all the
necessary knowledge, about organizations.
This course outline provides you with the necessary information about the contents of the course
and the materials you will need to be familiar with for a proper understanding of the subject
matter. It is suggested that you will need to use in addition to the materials recommended to you
by the course Lecturers, several other sources e.g. the internet materials, several journal articles
to which OUT Library has subscribed and other on line materials, as you will be advised by the
library staff from time to time. Please ensure that you become friendly with the search tools for
materials as well as the use of library services. One final point is the necessity to attach yourself
in a study group where you will be sharing information, exchanging notes and learning from
1 each other. As a student in distance learning system, acquaint yourself with self study skills and
strategies so that learning becomes interesting and motivating at the same time. The lecturers
will always be available to assist you whenever you get stuck, although it is not advisable to get
stuck. It is anticipated that in a future date you will be having study materials for the course, but
even with the availability of study materials you will need to supplement them with readings as
suggested above. We are confident that with this elaborate course outline you will be able to
study Organization Theory and Public Bureaucracies, with a view to knowing how these
important human associations have come to influence and continue to influence our daily lives.
You will be able to apply the theoretical pieces of information to the real world of work and as a
result be able to distinguish theory from practice. As an important contribution to your studies,
you will undertake a field practical of five weeks, which will help you merge theory with
practice, establish how they complement each other or how they may contrast sometimes.
I have selected readings to reflect diverse perspectives on how organizations can be analyzed,
designed, and managed. The field of organizational theory, both “micro” and “macro”, is
extremely broad. There are literally thousands of books and articles from which to choose.
Readings have been selected to reflect a diversity of perspectives on how organizations can be
analyzed, designed, and managed. Many are considered classic articles in the field. Efforts
should be made to acquire a book by Scott and Morgan
LEVEL ONE
1. COURSE OBJECTIVES:
(a) Overall objectives
(b) The course objective is to develop abilities to analyze complex organizational
systems using multiple theoretical frameworks, and by reading. set of classic and
contemporary works on organizational theory and bureaucracies, analyze, and discuss
the readings. The organisation theory and public bureaucracies is a fundamental
subject within modern managerial education. The course will present the fundamental
concepts of the organisation theory and bureaucracies, by using various approaches
and different theoretical frameworks.
© Specific objectives
(a) Define key concepts related to organization, theory, bureaucracy etc
(b) Provide a basic and well structured understanding of the different perspectives for
which organizations are understood
(c) Elucidate the design and structural approaches to organization setting
(d) Discuss the major environmental forces and the way they impact on organizations
(e) Examine the internal functions, structures, purposes and governance of organisations.
2 (f) Identify the main features of bureaucratic organizations and the way they impact on
the members of the organization
(g) Analyse the major political, economic, social and technological forces in the external
environment of organisations using alternative perspectives
(h) The different theories of organizations will guide the students in understanding
abstract images of what an organization is, how it functions, how its members and
other interested parties interact
(i) Explain the inter - relationships between the internal and external environments
(j) Appreciate the dynamics of organizations and the need for managing change
(k) Role of Leadership in making organizations achieve their goals
(l) Explain the importance of communication in organizations
(c) Curriculum.
This course OPA 102 Organization theory and Public Bureaucracies is designed to be
studied in level one under the programme of Bachelor of Arts (Public Administration)
i.e BA (PA) and Bachelor of Arts (Local Government Administration) BA (LGA).
This is a core subject carrying 3 units. As usual, it is being delivered using ODL
teaching /learning mode.
(d) Assessment methods
Candidates will have to attempt Main Timed Test covering the first half of the
subjects given in this course outline, that will count 30% and then Annual
Examination covering either the first half part of the course outline or the whole
course outline that will count 70% of the subject course OPS 102 Organisation
Theory and Public Bureaucracies.
Topics to be covered
1.0.
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.
1.4.1.
1.4.2.
1.4.3.
1.4.4.
THEORIES OF ORGANIZATION
The meaning of organization theory
Organization Theorists
Objectives and uses of Organisation theory
Different theories of organization
Classical organization theories
Neo-classical or Behavioral theory/Humanistic theories
Systems organization theory and
Contingency theory
References 3 ™ Marry, Jo.Hatch, Organization Theory, (2nd Ed), Oxford University press, USA, 2006.
™ Daft, L.R (2008) Organization Theory and Design, (10th Ed), South West Cengage,
USA.
™ Daft, L.R (2004) Management. 6th ed. Thomson South Western. West David, C. &
Mirian, G. (2004) Organizational Theory, chartered Institute of Personnel and
Development, Britain,
™ Michael T.H. et.al. (2007) Logic of Organization Behaviour, Prencenton University
Press, 2007.
™ Weber, M. (1947) Bureaucracy: The Ideal Type
™ Scott, W.R. 1992. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Opens Systems . Chapter 1.
™ Perrow, C. 1973. The short and glorious history of organizational theory. Organizational
Dynamics , 2: 3 – 15
™ Scott, W.R. 2004. Reflections on a half -century of organizational sociology. Annual
Review of Sociology , 30: 1 - 21.
™ Taylor, F.W. 1967. The Principles of Scientific Management. New York: W.W. Norton
& Co. (first published 1911)
2.0 Main features of Formal Organizations
o Formal organizations are purposive complex human collectivities
o They are characterized by secondary (impersonal) relationships
o Have specialized and limited goals
o Integrated within a larger social system
o Provision of services and products to their environment
o Are dependent upon exchange with environment
o Henry, Nichols (2001) Public Administration and Public Affairs 8th ed.
Prentice – Hall of India. New Delhi
References Marry, Jo.Hatch, (2006) Organization Theory, (2nd Ed), Oxford University press, USA
Richard L.D, (2008) Organization Theory and Design, (10th Ed), South West Cengage Learning,
USA
Daft, D. (2003) Organization Theory and Design. West
Scott, W.R. 1992. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Opens Systems . Chapter 1.
Perrow, C. 1973. The short and glorious history of organizational theory. Organizational
Dynamics , 2: 3 – 15
Scott, W.R. 2004. Reflections on a half -century of organizational sociology. Annual Review of
Sociology , 30: 1 - 21.
4 3.0. ORGANIZATION STRUCTURES
3.0 Definition of organization structure
3.1 Importance of Structure
3.1. Organization Design
3.1.1. Fundamentals of organization Design
3.1.2. Design parameters
References ™ Takahara, Y. & Mesarovic M, Organization Structure, New York- USA, 2003.
™ Helmy H.B. Organization Structures, Duke University, USA. 2006.
™ Jones B. A hand Book on Organizational Structure, Konget learning Solution Inc,
USA. 2010.
™ Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th ed. Thoson. South Western. West
™ Scott, W.R. 2004. Reflections on a half - century of organizational sociology. Annual
Review of Sociology 30: 1 - 21.6
4.0. BASES OF DEPARTMENTALIZATION
4.1 Meaning of Departmentalization
4.2 Approaches to departmentalization (functional, divisional, matrix, team based and network
based
approaches)
4.2.1 Functional Approach4.2.2 Divisional Approach
4.2.3 Matrix Approach
4.2.4 Team based Approach
4.2.5 Network based Approach
4.2.6 Geographically Based Approach
4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of each approach
References Singla R.K, Principles of Management, VK (India), Enterprises-India. 2009.
Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
Scott, W.R. 1992. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems
Perrow, C. 1973. The short and glorious history of organizational theory. Organizational
Dynamics , 2: 3 - 15
Scott, W.R. 2004. Reflections on a half - century of organizational sociology. Annual
Review of Sociology , 30: 1 - 21.6
5 Baum, J.A.C., & Rowley, T.J. 2002. Companion to organizations: An introduction. P. 1 - 34
in Companion to Organizations , edited by J. Baum. Hinings, C.R., & Greenwood, R. 2002.
Disconnects and Consequences in Organization Theory? Administrative Science Quarterly,
47: 411 - 421.
Baum, J.A.C., & Rowley, T.J. 2002. Companion to organizations: An introduction. P. 1 - 34
in Companion to Organizations , edited by J. Baum. Hinings, C.R., & Greenwood, R. 2002.
Disconnects and Consequences in Organization Theory? Administrative Science Quarterly,
47: 411 - 421.
PAPER PRESENTED
Simran B. A paper on Departmentation, Presented on 26th October 2011 at Walden
University.
5.0. CENTRALISATION AND DECENTRALISATION
5.1. Factors influencing departmentalization
5.2. Authority structure
5.2.1 Authority
5.2.2. Responsibility
5.2.3. Accountability
5.2.4. Decentralization
5.3. Line and staff relationships
5.3.1. Type of staff authority
5.3.2. Line and staff conflicts
5.3.3. Location of staff units
5.4. Barriers to delegation
5.4.1. Overcoming barriers to delegation.
References Mok Ka-Ho, Centralization and Decentralization, Educational Reforms, Cluwer
Academic Publisher, China 2005.
Thomas A.L, (2nd Ed), The Practice of System and Network administration Adson
Waesley Profesional Printers, 2007.
Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
Scott, W.R. 1992. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems
6.0. ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE AND CULTURE
6.1.
Concept of organizational climate
6.1.1. Dimensions of organizational climate
6.1.2. Impact of organizational climate
6 (a) External Political Influences
(b) Internal Political Influences
(c ) Basic Organization goals
(d)Stages of corporate growth
6.1.3. Measurement of organizational climate
6.1.4. Determinants of organizational climate
6.2. Concept of organizational culture
6.2.1. Sub-cultures of organizations
6.2.2. impact of culture on work
6.2.3. Socialization
References Neal M &Etal, hand Book of Organization Culture & Climate, Sage Publication Inc,
India 2003.
Michael M. A. A Hand Book on Human Resource management, Kogan Printer, Enland.
2009.
Edgar, H.S. (New Revised Edition), The Corporate Culture, Survival Guide, Jossey HB
Printing, USA 2009.
Robert A.s. Leadership and Organization Climate, south printers, England 2002.
Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
Scott, W.R. 1992. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems
7.0. ORGANIZATIONAL CHARTS AND MANUALS
7.1. Meaning of Organization Charts
7.1.1. Types of Organization Charts
7.1.2. Advantages and Limitations of Charts
7.1.3. Principles of Organization Charts
7.2. Meaning of Organization Manuals
6.2.1. Advantages and Limitations of manuals
7.2.2. How to make manuals effective.
References Marc Scharacq, Changing Organization Charts & manuals, John Wiey and sons ltd,
England. 2007.
Nick S. & Scott H. Organization Charts, Gale Group Printers, Netherlands, 2003.
Dean Mayor N. The Building Blocks to Organization Charts, USA 2002.
Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
Scott, W.R. 1992. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Open Systems
8.0 Power and Politics in Organizations
7 o . Definition of concepts (power and politics)
o Types of power in getting things done
References Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
Larry D.T. Leadership and Public Bureaucracies, International Publishers, Wales, 2002.
9.0 Leadership in Organizations
9.1 Nature of Leadership in organizations
9.2 Meaning of Leadership
9.3 Sources of power of the leader
-
Position Power legitimate, reward and coercive power
-
Personal Power – expert and referent power
References Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
Norman F. Public Sector management, (5th Ed), British library Catalog Publishing Data,
Britain 2007.
Larry D.T. Leadership and Public Bureaucracies, International Publishers, Wales, 2002.
10.0
Managing Change in Organizations
10.1
Change Defined
10.2
Forces and need for change
10.3
Types of change (technology, structure and people/culture change)
References Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
Scott, W.R. 1992. Organizations: Rational, Natural, and Opens Systems
Rosebloom, D.H. & Goldman, D.D (1993) Public Administration: Understanding
Management, Politics and Law in the Public Sector Mc Graw Hill New York
11.0
Communication in Organizations
11.1
Meaning of Communication
11.2
Communication Process
11.3
Importance of Communication in the organization
11.4 Barriers to Communication
8 References ™ Prince Jide, A, The Hand Book on management theories, USA 2011.
™ Daft, L.R. (2004) Management. 6th Thomson. South Western. West
™ Rosebloom, D.H. & Goldman, D.D (1993) Public Administration: Understanding
Management, Politics and Law in the Public Sector Mc Graw Hill New York
JOURNAL
™ International Research Journal of Finance and Economics, the Classical Theory and its
Relevance, Euro Journal Publishing Inc, England. 2010.
12.0. CASE STUDIES IN RELATION TO STATE AND GOVERNMENTS OF TODAY
ON PUBLIC BUREAUCRACIES
References ™ Norman F. Public Sector management, (5th Ed), British library Catalog Publishing Data,
Britain 2007.
™ Larry D.T. Leadership and Public Bureaucracies, International Publishers, Wales,
2002.
™ Marshall. W.M, Change of Public Bureaucracies, South Law Books, India 2008.
9 
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