VOCABULARY TEACHING STRATEGIES AND TOOL MATRIX

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VOC ABUL AR Y TE AC HIN G ST R AT EGIE S AND TO OL M AT RI X
Successful readers use a number of strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words.
A helpful distinction for thinking about these word-learning strategies is to group them into
“outside-the-word” strategies and “inside-the-word” strategies.
Outs id e-th e- Wor d St rat eg ies include :
• Using context clues (clues outside of the word itself, i.e. the sentence before or after,
charts, graphics) to figure out a word's meaning
• Using background knowledge
• Using reference tools (i.e. dictionaries and glossaries) to figure out a word’s meaning
• Asking someone for help to figure out a word’s meaning
• Using grammar and syntax to figure out a word’s meaning
Inside-t he- Wor d Stra te gie s in clude :
• Using clues within the word itself (i.e. prefixes, suffixes and roots) to figure out a word’s
meaning
• Using a knowledge of a word’s origin (i.e. old English, Latin, and Greek cognates) to figure
out a word’s meaning
Successful readers also use a number of strategies that encourage word development
through “word play.” As Graves and Watts-Taffe state, “...words and phrases can
simultaneously feel good on the tongue, sound good to the ear, incite a riot of laughter in
the belly. 1
Wor d P la y and Wo rd C ons cio us ness St r ateg ies include :
• Exploring verbal phenomena such as homophones, homographs, idioms, and clichés
• Exploring connotation through word play with puns, figurative language, and other literary
devices
• Understanding a large set of synonyms and antonyms
• Solving and creating Pundles, Plexers, Wacky Wordies, Word Winks and similar puzzles2
In addition, some tools are included here specifically for teachers to use identified as
“teacher tools.”
Teache r t oo ls in clu de:
• Strategies for identifying and selecting the most important words to teach
• Strategies to determine student background knowledge as it relates to key vocabulary
• Great professional books on vocabulary instruction
• Great books for students on word play
• Great vocabulary websites
1
Michael Graves and Susan M. Watts-Taffe in The Place of Word Consciousness in a Research-Based Vocabulary
Program, page 147.
2
The object of word puzzles like Pundles, Plexers, or Wacky Wordies is to figure out what familiar phrase, saying,
cliché, or name is represented by each arrangement of letters and/or symbols.
Name of Strategy/Tool
Act It Out
Affix or Root Chart
Before and After Grid
Biopoem
Books About Words
Clarifying Cue Card
Clue Web
Cognate Squares
Create New Words from a Single Root Word
Dump and Clump
Flip a Chip
Frayer Four Square Concept Box
Good Professional Resources on Teaching
Vocabulary
Guess and Adjust
Heteronym Word Part Practice
Homonym Illustrations
How Do Word Learning Tasks Differ?
Idiom Inquiry Game
I Have... Who Has?
Interview a Word
Morpheme Squares
Morpheme Triangles
Multiple Meaning Grid
New Word Meanings
Nym Gym
Original Roots Grow Words
P.A.V.E. Procedure
Prefix and Suffix Web
Rectangle, Triangle, and Circle Game
Remote Control Reading
Searching for Etymologies on the Internet
Semantic Organizer
Sensory Web
SLICE
Stoplight Vocabulary
Synonym/Antonym Square
Take Along Word Wall
Teaching Individual Words
Term Transformation
Think Tac Toe
Inside the
Word
Outside
the Word
x
Word
Play
Teacher
Tools
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Name of Strategy/Tool
3-D Words
Topic Vocabulary
Vocabulary Cubes
Vocabulary Exploration Chart
Vocabulary Grid
Vocabulary Lesson Planning Matrix
Vocabulary Teaching and Learning Websites
What’s The Common Word?
Which Languages Are Related?
Word Cube
Word Knowledge Assessment Charts
Word Ladder
Word Origin Explore: Use the Dictionary
Word Puzzles
Word Scales
Word Sort
Word Tree
Wordo
You May Be Asking
Inside the
Word
Outside
the Word
x
x
Word
Play
Teacher
Tools
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
Vocabulary Supplement for Primary Classrooms
Many of the strategies above can be adapted for use with primary students. In addition, we
have added a number of strategies specifically for primary students.
Name of Strategy/Tool
Antonym Dominoes
Barrier Boxes Game
Hink Pinks
How Children Learn New Words
Key Vocabulary to Teach Language Deprived
Primary Students
Spider Leg Synonyms Game
Spin-O-Nyms
Stop Light Vocabulary—Primary
Weighty Word Book
Inside the
Word
Outside
the Word
Word
Play
x
x
Teacher
Tools
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
x
ACT IT OUT an “Outside the W ord” Strategy
Choose ten important words from the text that the students might struggle to understand.
(Make sure that six or seven of the words can be acted out to portray the meaning.) Write the
words on chart paper, the overhead, or chalkboard. Introduce each one to the class and discuss
its meaning(s) and give examples.
Have each word written on a card. Divide the class into groups of 4 (or so) and give each group
a card with one of the words that can be acted out. Have them work quietly in various parts of
the room or hallway to plan how they will portray the word. It may be a good idea to choose a
“captain” for each group. Be available to help the students if the meaning is still “fuzzy” or
they need suggestions.
When each group has had time to plan, call everyone back to their seats. Have all ten words
listed so that everyone can see them. Call the groups to the front of the room, one at a time,
to perform. The captain can call on audience members to guess the word that has been acted
out. It is important to have all ten words listed so when the last group performs there are still a
few words to choose from. Make sure the students realize that the audience should get the
word right away if they have done a good job.
This is a fairly time consuming activity, so save it for a lesson that has quite a number of
difficult and important words. It is very effective, though. The students immediately recognize
these words and remember their meanings as they read the story or selection .
Example:
Vocabulary words for The Gold Cadillac by
Mildred Taylor:
objection
insisted
caravan
lynch
eased
strolling
uppity
lurk
unison
heedful
Students were divided into six groups and
acted out the words: objection, insisted,
uppity, caravan, lurk, and unison.
AFFIX CH ART 3 an “In sid e the W ord” Strategy
Name:
Date:
Period:
To complete this worksheet you must remember that:
 An affix that is added to the beginning of a word is called a “prefix.”
 An affix added to the end of the word is called a “suffix.”
 These affixes mean something and when added to the word, change the word’s meaning.
Write the word the teacher gives you below:
Write the definition of the affix in this box.
This word contains (circle one) a prefix, a suffix.
Write the affix here:
Now write a definition of the whole word here.
Write the word the teacher gives you below:
Draw a picture here to help you remember the
word’s meaning.
Write the definition of the affix in this box.
This word contains (circle one) a prefix, a suffix.
Write the affix here:
Now write a definition of the whole word here.
3
Created by Karen Antikajian
Draw a picture here to help you remember the
word’s meaning.
Adapted from p. 85 of Stretching Students’ Vocabulary by Karen Bromley
Name:
Date:
Period:
Be fo re and After Vo ca b ula r y Gr id 4 an “O utside t he Wo rd” St rate g y
The Livin g Wor ld : Ea t o r be Ea ten
Word List
What I think the words
mean
Revised definition
a producer
a consumer
a herbivore
a carnivore
an omnivore
ecology
adaptation
a food chain
a food web
a habitat
a decomposer
a population
a community
an ecosystem
an organism
4
This voabulary tool can be found at: www.tki.org.nz/r/esol/esolonline/strategies_e.php
Be fo re and After Vo ca b ula r y Gr id
Meas u re men t 5
Name :
Measurement Word
Dat e:
My definition Befor e
My definition Aft er
Pe riod :
Example of word in a sentence
composite
the area
the volume
the perimeter
a unit
the surface area
a metre
a centimetre
a prefix
the capacity
squared
cubed
5
This vocabulary tool can be found at English for Speakers of Other Languages website at: www.tki.org.nz/r/esol/esolonline/strategies_e.php
Name:
Date:
Period:
Be fo re and After Vo ca b ula r y Gr id
Word List
What I think the words
mean
Revised definition
BIOPOEM an “Outside the Word” Strategy
A biopoem has often been used to describe the writer, someone the writer knows or a fictional
character. Here the same format is used to describe a vocabulary word or concept. Students are given
the format below (see the attached blackline master) and they follow the format to complete the
poem.
Biopoem Format
(First name—concept or vocabulary word)
(3 describing characteristics)
Brother, Son, Sister, or Daughter, cousin of (relative of)
Lover of (3 things)
Who feels (3 things)
Who needs (3 things)
Who gives (3 things)
Who fears (3 things)
Who would like to see (3 things)
Resident of
(Last name or synonym)
Example 1:
Square6
4 straight sides, 90 degree angles, 2 diagonals
Brother of Rhombus and Parallelogram
Lover of circles, regularity, and square roots
Who feels proper, balanced, and symmetrical
Who needs straight lines, equality, and corners
Who fears being squashed, curved lines, and inequality
Who gives boxes, crossword puzzle places, and calculator buttons
Who would like to see what it would be like to be 3-dimensional
Resident of Quadrilateral Land
4-sided figure
Example 2:
Random7
Haphazard, hit-and-miss, fitful
Cousin of Unpredictable and Spasmodic
Lover of spontaneous, intermittent, and scattered
Who feels disordered, disconnected, and fragmented
Who needs variety, winding trails, and chance encounters
Who gives surprises, headaches, and nonsensical answers
Who fears organization, rhythm, and cubbyholes
Who would like to see Pollack's paintings, NY pedestrians, and confetti parades
Resident of Mad Hatter Village
Plan-less
6
(adapted from Guiding Reading and Writing in the Content Areas: Practical Strategies by M. Carrol Tama and Anita
McClain, Kendall/Hunt 2001)
7
By Karen Antikajian
Name
Date
Period
BIOPOEM
Follow the pattern on the left using the 11 steps to complete the biopoem.
1. (First name—concept or vocabulary word)
2. (3 describing characteristics)
3. Brother, Son, Sister, or Daughter, cousin of (relative of)
4. Lover of (3 things)
5. Who feels (3 things)
6. Who needs (3 things)
7. Who gives (3 things)
8. Who fears (3 things)
9. Who would like to see (3 things)
10. Resident of
11. (Last name or synonym)
BOOKS ABOUT W OR DS OR B OOKS USING W OR D PLAY S ORTED BY TITLE a “Teach er Too l”
Compiled by Karen Antikajian
TITLE
AUTHOR
ILLUSTRATOR
PUBLISHER
DATE
ISBN
And the Dish Ran Away with the Spoon
Stevens and Stevens Crummel
Stevens, Janet
Harcourt
2001
0152022988
Bad Boys (Bad Boys Get Cookie)
Palatini, Margie
Cole, Henry
Harper Collins
2003
006000102X
Bad Dog
Laden, Nina
Laden, Nina
Walker and Co
2000
0802787479
Batter Up Wombat
Lester, Helen
Munsinger, Lynn
Houghton Mifflin
2006
9780618737847
Bullfrog Pops!
Walton, Rick
McAllister, Chris
Gibbs Smith
2005
9781586858407
CDB
Steig, William
Steig, William
Simon & Schuster
2000
0689831609
CDC
Steig, William
Steig, William
Square Fish
2008
0312380127
Circus of Words
Lederer, Richard
Morice, Dave
Independent Pub Gp
2001
1556523807
Cook-a-Doodle-Doo!
Stevens and Stevens Crummel
Stevens, Janet
Harcourt
1980
0152056580
Cryptomania!
Fine, Hope
Doner, Kim
Tricycle Press
2004
1582460620
Dog Breath
Pilkey, Dav
Pilkey, Dav
Scholastic
1994
0590474669
Dog Food
Freymann, Saxton
Freymann, Saxton
Scholastic
2002
0439110165
Dogzilla
Pilkey, Dav
Pilkey, Dav
Harcourt
1993
0152239459
Earthquack
Palatini, Margie
Moser, Barry
Simon & Schuster
2002
0689842805
Help Me, Mr. Mutt!
Stevens and Stevens Crummel
Stevens, Janet
Harcourt
2008
9780152046286
It Looks a Lot Like Reindeer
Cleary, Brian P.
Dupre, Rick
Lerner Publications
1996
0822521172
Kat Kong
Pilkey, Dav
Pilkey, Dav
Harcourt
2003
0152049509
Lester Fizz, Bubble-Gum Artist
Spiro, Ruth
Wickstrom, Thor
Dutton
2008
9780525478614
Math Curse
Scieszka, Jon
Smith, Lane
Viking
1995
0670861944
Miss Alaineus
Frasier, Debra
Frasier, Debra
Harcourt
2000
0152021639
Mom and Dad are Palindromes
Shulman, Mark
McCauley, Adam
Chronicle
2006
0811843289
Ned Loses His Head
Slater, David Michael
Brooks, S. G.
ABDO Publishing
2008
9781602700016
Once There Was A Bull-Frog
Walton, Rick
Hally, Greg
Gibbs Smith
2005
9781586858629
Plexers (More Plexers)
Hammond, Dave
Hammond, Dave
Dale Seymour
1983
0866511105
Punished!
Lubar, David
(short chapter)
Darby Creek Pub.
2007
1581960638
Rhyme & PUNishment
Cleary, Brian P.
Sandy, J. P.
Millbrook Press
2006
1575058499
Roberto The Insect Architect
Laden, Nina
Laden, Nina
Chronicle Books
2000
0811824659
Science Verse
Scieszka, Jon
Smith, Lane
Viking
2004
0670910570
Seen Art?
Scieszka, Jon
Smith, Lane
Viking/MOMA
2005
0670059862
Souperchicken
Auch, Mary Jane
Auch, Herm and M.J.
Holiday House
2003
9780823417042
Three Silly Billies, The
Palatini, Margie
Moser, Barry
Simon & Schuster
2005
0689858620
Walking the Bridge of Your Nose
Rosen, Michael
Cheese, Chloe
Kingfisher
1995
1856975967
Web Files, The
Palatini, Margie
Egielski, Richard
Hyperion
2001
078680419X
Weighty Word Book, The
Levitt, Burger and Guralnick
Stevens, Janet
Court Wayne Press
2000
1570983135
Why the Banana Split
Walton, Rick
Holder, Jimmy
Gibbs Smith
1998
0879058536
BOOKS ABOUT WORDS OR BOOKS USING WORD PLAY S ORT ED BY AUTHOR a “Tea cher T ool”
Compiled by Karen Antikajian
Souperchicken
Auch, Mary Jane
Auch, Herm and M.J.
Holiday House
2003
9780823417042
It Looks a Lot Like Reindeer
Cleary, Brian P.
Dupre, Rick
Lerner Publications
1996
0822521172
Rhyme & PUNishment
Cleary, Brian P.
Sandy, J. P.
2006
1575058499
Cryptomania!
Fine, Hope
Doner, Kim
Tricycle Press
2004
1582460620
Miss Alaineus
Frasier, Debra
Frasier, Debra
Harcourt
2000
0152021639
Dog Food
Freymann, Saxton
Freymann, Saxton
Scholastic
2002
0439110165
Plexers (More Plexers)
Hammond, Dave
Hammond, Dave
Dale Seymour
1983
0866511105
Bad Dog
Laden, Nina
Laden, Nina
Walker and Co
2000
0802787479
Roberto The Insect Architect
Laden, Nina
Laden, Nina
Chronicle Books
2000
0811824659
Circus of Words
Lederer, Richard
Morice, Dave
Independent Pub Gp
2001
1556523807
Batter Up Wombat
Lester, Helen
Munsinger, Lynn
Houghton Mifflin
2006
9780618737847
Weighty Word Book, The
Levitt, Burger and Guralnick
Stevens, Janet
Court Wayne Press
2000
1570983135
Punished!
Lubar, David
(short chapter)
Darby Creek Pub.
2007
1581960638
Bad Boys (Bad Boys Get Cookie)
Palatini, Margie
Cole, Henry
Harper Collins
2003
006000102X
Earthquack
Palatini, Margie
Moser, Barry
Simon & Schuster
2002
0689842805
Three Silly Billies, The
Palatini, Margie
Moser, Barry
Simon & Schuster
2005
0689858620
Web Files, The
Palatini, Margie
Egielski, Richard
Hyperion
2001
078680419X
Dog Breath
Pilkey, Dav
Pilkey, Dav
Scholastic
1994
0590474669
Dogzilla
Pilkey, Dav
Pilkey, Dav
Harcourt
1993
0152239459
Kat Kong
Pilkey, Dav
Pilkey, Dav
Harcourt
2003
0152049509
Walking the Bridge of Your Nose
Rosen, Michael
Cheese, Chloe
Kingfisher
1995
1856975967
Math Curse
Scieszka, Jon
Smith, Lane
Viking
1995
0670861944
Science Verse
Scieszka, Jon
Smith, Lane
Viking
2004
0670910570
Seen Art?
Scieszka, Jon
Smith, Lane
Viking/MOMA
2005
0670059862
Mom and Dad are Palindromes
Shulman, Mark
McCauley, Adam
Chronicle
2006
0811843289
Ned Loses His Head
Slater, David Michael
Brooks, S. G.
ABDO Publishing
2008
9781602700016
Lester Fizz, Bubble-Gum Artist
Spiro, Ruth
Wickstrom, Thor
Dutton
2008
9780525478614
CDB
Steig, William
Steig, William
Simon & Schuster
2000
0689831609
CDC
Steig, William
Steig, William
Square Fish
2008
0312380127
And the Dish Ran Away with the Spoon
Stevens and Stevens Crummel
Stevens, Janet
Harcourt
2001
0152022988
Cook-a-Doodle-Doo!
Stevens and Stevens Crummel
Stevens, Janet
Harcourt
1980
0152056580
Help Me, Mr. Mutt!
Stevens and Stevens Crummel
Stevens, Janet
Harcourt
2008
9780152046286
Bullfrog Pops!
Walton, Rick
McAllister, Chris
Gibbs Smith
2005
9781586858407
Once There Was A Bull-Frog
Walton, Rick
Hally, Greg
Gibbs Smith
2005
9781586858629
Why the Banana Split
Walton, Rick
Holder, Jimmy
Gibbs Smith
1998
0879058536
Millbrook Press
CLARIFYING CUE CAR D 8 an “In side & Outside the Wo rd” Strategy
Use the template below to make bookmarks for students to use when reading. Have them
simply refer to the steps in the chart to help them determine the meaning of unknown words.
Whe n yo u read a w ord you do n ’t
un ders tan d, try thes e st rate gies :
MINE Y OU R ME MO R Y
Have you ever seen the word before? Can
you remember what it means?
Whe n yo u read a w ord you do n ’t
un ders tan d, try thes e st rate gies :
MINE Y OU R ME MO R Y
Have you ever seen the word before? Can
you remember what it means?
STU DY T HE S TR UCT UR E
Do you know the root or base word? Does
the word have a prefix or suffix that you
know? Try to use clues in the word to
figure out the meaning.
STU DY T HE S TR UCT UR E
Do you know the root or base word?
Does the word have a prefix or suffix that
you know? Try to use clues in the word
to figure out the meaning.
CON SI DE R TH E C ONT EX T
Look at the information in the sentence
And the whole paragraph. Can you figure
out the word?
CON SI DE R TH E C ONT EX T
Look at the information in the sentence
And the whole paragraph. Can you figure
out the word?
SU BSTITUT E A S Y NON Y M
When you think that you know what the
word means, try putting a similar word in
the sentence. Does it make sense?
SU BSTITUT E A S Y NON Y M
When you think that you know what the
word means, try putting a similar word in
the sentence. Does it make sense?
If those strategies don’t work:
If those strategies don’t work:
ASK AN E XPE RT
Does someone in your group know what
the word means? Can you figure it out
together?
ASK AN E XPE RT
Does someone in your group know what
the word means? Can you figure it out
together?
PL ACE A P OST -IT
If you can’t figure out the meaning of the
word, put a Post-It by the word, and check
with the teacher or look it up in the
dictionary.
PL ACE A P OST -IT
If you can’t figure out the meaning of the
word, put a Post-It by the word, and
check with the teacher or look it up in the
dictionary.
And if you speak Spanish, try this:
And if you speak Spanish, try this:
C AT CH A C OG N ATE
Does the word look or sound like a word in
Spanish? Try the Spanish word’s meaning
to see if it makes sense.
C AT CH A C OG N ATE
Does the word look or sound like a word
in Spanish? Try the Spanish word’s
meaning to see if it makes sense.
8
From Getting into Words: Vocabulary Instruction that Strengthens Comprehension by Shira Lubliner, published by
Paul Brookes Publishing, 2004. This is definitely a book worth buying.
CLUE W EB 9 an “Outside the Word” Strat egy
Name
Date
Directions: Think about the word and give as much information as you can in the boxes below. On the back of this paper, draw
something that will help you remember the word and let others know what it means.
.
The Word Is
When does it happen?
What’s another word
for it?
9
What does it do?
What does it look, smell,
sound, taste, and/or
feel like?
When does it happen?
What is the opposite
of it?
Source: The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction by Michael F. Graves, Teachers College Press, IRA, NCTE. 2006. p. 96
COGNAT E S QUAR ES 10 an “Outsid e the Wo rd” Strategy
Write the following English/Spanish cognates on the sides of the squares. You can place them
anywhere just so you have cognates on opposite sides of adjoining squares. You can put any of
the words on the outside lines. Try to use each cognate at least two times.
Co g nates : a d mire , ad m ira r , fam ily, fa m ilia , pat ien ce , pa cie n cia, ph ot og ra ph ,
fot o gr aph ía ,har m on io us , a rm o nios o, ga rde ner , jar dine ro .
Now cut the puzzle squares apart and put the pieces in a baggie. Later take the pieces out and
try to solve it yourself or give it to a partner to solve. Be prepared! It isn’t as easy as you think!
(A finished example is below.)
10
Source: Word Play: Building Vocabulary Across Texts and Disciplines Grades 6-12 by Sandra R. Whitaker,
Heinemann 2008 Adapted by Karen Antikajian
COGNAT E S QUAR ES
Write the following English/Spanish cognates on the sides of the squares. You can place them
anywhere just so you have cognates on opposite sides of adjoining squares. You can put any of
the words on the outside lines. Try to use each cognate at least two times.
Co g nates :
Now cut the puzzle squares apart and put the pieces in a baggie. Later take the pieces out and
try to solve it yourself or give it to a partner to solve. Be prepared! It isn’t as easy as you think!
(A finished example is below.)
CREATE NEW W OR DS FR OM A S INGLE R OOT W OR D 11
an “Inside the Wo rd” Strategy
1. Students select a root word and definition to use. The word “work” is used below in the
example.
2. Students add several prefixes or suffixes to the word.
3. Once as many words as possible have been formed, students write a definition for each
word.
4. Have students then use a regular or Internet dictionary to verify whether all of the words
they have created are real words and eliminate those that are not.
Word-definition
Work—to perform a task
“New” Words
with Affixes
with prefixes
• rework
• inwork
• unwork
with suffixes
• workable
• workness
• worker
Meaning
Real or Not Real*
to perform a task again
real
to perform inside of
something
to not perform a task
not real
a task that is able to be done
a task to be performed
a person that performs a task
real
not real
real
not real
* based on the dictionary
11
This strategy was created by David Lund from Southern Utah University and can be found in Block: C. C. & J.
Mangieri eds. (2007). The Vocabulary-Enriched Classroom.
Name:
Date:
Period:
Create New Word s from a S ingle Root Word
1. Select one root word and create new words below.
2. After you confirm with the dictionary, cross out any words that are not real.
Word-definition
“New” Words
with Affixes
Meaning
Real or Not Real*
* based on the dictionary
3. Select another root word and create new words here.
4. Again, confirm with the dictionary and then cross out any words that are not real.
Word-definition
* based on the dictionary
“New” Words
with Affixes
Meaning
Real or Not Real*
DUMP AN D CL UMP 12 an “Outside the Word ” Strat egy
This is a tool I learned from Spence Rogers, Jim Ludington, and Shari Graham, in their book
Motivation and Learning. The purpose o f Du mp and C lu m p is t o provide a step by step
process for organizing thinking and facilitating learning of new and difficult material. This is a
great strategy to use when the students are faced with learning new and difficult information.
It provides students with a process for organizing their prior knowledge and making projections.
Depending on the subject matter, this strategy could utilize up to a full class period.
Procedure One:
 Group students into small groups of 2-3
 "Dump"- Have students develop a list of words, items, or new information related to the
topic of study.
 "Clump"- Using the "dump" word list, students should then group words on the list into
categories and assign labels.
 Have students write a descriptive summary sentence for each category of words in their
list.
 Upon completion, these should be posted around the room or shared in some manner with
the entire class.
Procedure Two:
 Have students work individually to fill the dumpster with all of the background knowledge
each has on the topic to be studied.
 Then have students walk around the room and “Give One, Get One.” Give One, Get One is a
simple strategy where one student gives one idea to another student and the second
student gives an idea to the first student. They each give one idea, and get one idea.
 After folks have filled in the dumpster, then students can work in teams of three or four to
cluster like items together from everyone’s dumpsters into related groups. After clustering,
each team records the clustered items in a group in the dumpster and labels that group on
the line at the top of each square in the clumpster.
 To facilitate this process, have one student take one item from his dumpster and share it
with the group, and ask if anyone has a phrase or word that relates to his statement. If
agreement is reached that these items in fact, do go together, then record them in one of
the clumpster and add a label to that group at the top.
12
Rogers, S., Ludington, J., & Graham, S. (1999). Motivation and learning. Evergreen, CO: Peak Learning Systems
Evergreen, CO: Peak Learning Systems
DUMP AN D CL UMP
Name:
Date:
Period
Directions: Brainstorm words related to your topic. Place these words in the Dumpster. Then,
work as a group to pull your words out of the dumpster and clump them into categories in the
big boxes in the clumster. Finally, assign your category labels and write a summary sentence
(on the back) describing each category.
The Dum pste r
The Clu mpst er
FLIP A CHIP an “Inside the Wo rd” Strat egy
Lee Mountain13, Professor at the University of Houston, developed this vocabulary tool to assist
students in expanding their vocabulary while teaching syllables, comprehension of meaningful
affixes, and the use of context in composition.
You will need a collection of white chips. Mountain used poker chips but any chips will work.
See figure one for how to label the chips.
Mountain introduces the flip-a-chip by saying, “Let me
show you how you can start with four syllables, and flip
four words. Watch.” She held up the first chip. On
the front she had printed “PRO” and on the back “RE.”
Then she held up the second chip on which she had
printed “DUCE” and “VOKE.” She told students that no
mater how you flip these syllables, you will get a word.
She then let them try it.
Figure 1: Flip-a-Chip
Chip 1
Chip 2
Front
pro
duce
Back
re
voke
After students formed the four words, they discussed their meanings and the meanings of the
roots. Mountain then gave them this short cloze-type paragraph:
Ms. Jones was angry. She said, “My students
They
one excuse after another. I want to
so I’ll
the privileges of any pupil who is late.”
me when they are tardy.
the number of tardies,
Students were then asked to fill in the blanks using the words that they had flipped.
Following the initial introduction of the flip-a-chip tool, Mountain let students make up a pair of
flip-a-chip chips plus cloze passage to share with other students. First she gave partners a zip
lock bag in which she had enclosed two chips and a sheet of paper on which to record the
student-created short cloze paragraph. She shared a number of affixes with students and let
them use a dictionary to create their combinations. 14 For lower performing students she
provided scaffolds such as chose a verb for your first chip and use “ING” and “ED” on your
second chip. After students had created their chips and passages, they swapped them with
other student teams.
Here is another example. Students wrote “start” and “end” on one chip and “ing” and “ed” on
the other. The passage they wrote was:
The mystery story started on page 1 and ended on page 148. Just as I was starting to
read it, my brother spoiled it for me by telling me the surprise ending.
Flip-a-Chip to Build Vocabulary by Lee Mountain (2002) in the Journal of Adolescent Literacy on pages 62-68.
International Reading Association.
14
Teachers please note: When students use the dictionary to look for affixes they sometimes select word parts that
are not affixes. To be sure that the affix is an affix, have students remove the affix from the root word to see if the
root makes sense. You may use the chart on the next page as well to generate a list of affixes to use.
13
FLIP A C HIP EX AM PL ES
prefix
+
word part
prefix
im
re
port
ply
de
re
sub
re
vert
mit
mis
re
take
name
ex
in
clude
hale
con
re
form
strain
uni
re
form
cycle
trans
re
form
port
mit
plant
centi
milli
pede
meter
con
de
duct
ceit
form
fine
pre
re
serve
fer
side
heat
pro
dis
scribe
tract
pose
pel
pro
re
+
word part
word part +
suffix
cline
fer
generate
plete
pression
amuse
settle
ing
ment
slow
soft
neat
calm
ly
ness
er
est
care
help
thought
cheer
fear
ful
less
talk
work
bake
show
jump
paint
play
scream
wonder
plant
stroll
shout
careen
whisper
climb
walk
clamor
act
kick
print
frown
ing
ed
s
voke
test
ceed
claim
duce
ject
tri
bi
cycle
annual
ceps
lateral
lingual
sect
dis
re
appear
cover
ceive
prove
pute
organize
solve
arrange
tort
tract
FRAYER FOUR SQUARE CONCEPT BOX15 an “Outside the Word” Strategy
This graphic organizer was designed by Dorothy Frayer and her colleagues at the University of
Wisconsin to help students thoroughly understand of new words. It is a word categorization
activity. Using the Frayer model, students analyze a word’s essential and nonessential
attributes and refine their understanding by choosing examples and non-examples of the
concept.
The Frayer Model is an adaptation of the concept map. The framework of the Frayer Model
includes: the concept word, the definition, characteristics of the concept word, examples of the
concept word, and non-examples of the concept word. It is important to include both examples
and non-examples, so students are able to identify what the concept word is and what the
concept word is not.
How to Use It:
1. Assign the word or concept being studied.
2. Explain all of the attributes of the Frayer Model to be completed.
3. Using an easy word or concept, complete the model with the class.
4. Have students work in pairs and complete the assigned word or concept.
5. Once the diagram is complete, have students share their work with other students.
Students may make charts or posters using colorful markers and display them for others to
see. If a concept has been assigned, students could continue to add to the charts during the
unit.
Write the definition here in your own words.
Write examples here.
15
Write some characteristics of the word here.
Write the word or
concept here.
Write non-examples here.
Frayer, D. A., A.W.D. Frederick, and H. J. Klausmeier (1969). A schema for testing the level of concept mastery
(Working Paper No: 16). Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin Research and Development Center for Cognitive Learning.
Frayer Model Examples
Definition
A mathematical shape that
is a closed plane figure
bounded by 3 or more line
segments.
Characteristics
• closed
• plane figure
• more than 2 straight
sides
• 2-dimensional
• made of line segments
Polygon
Teaching Reading in the
Content Areas by Rachel
Billmeyer and Mary Lee
Barton, Aurora, Colorado: Midcontinent Educational
Laboratory, 1998.
Definition (in own words)
Something that goes
around and around again
and again in the same
order.
Examples
• pentagon
• hexagon
• square
• trapezoid
• rhombus
Non-examples
• circle
• cone
• arrow
• cylinder
Characteristics
• happen in the same
order
• happen again and again
• you can predict what
will happen next
Cycle
Examples (from own life)
• Plants start from seeds,
grow, drop seeds, and
die.
• My bike wheel goes
around and around in
the same way to go
forward.
Non-examples (from own
life)
• A snowstorm comes at
different times.
• A swing goes back and
forth.
• A jump rope varies.
Source: Karen Antikajian
Frayer Model Examples
De fin ition
A way of figuring
something out or solving a
problem
Cha ra cte ristics
It has a plan or steps to
follow
Strategy
Exam ples
Organizing my books either
alphabetically by author or
grouping by topic
Non -exa mp les
Putting assorted photos in
a box without sorting or
labeling them.
Source: Karen Antikajian
De fin ition
To find evidence that
information is true.
Cha ra cte ristics
To find reliable sources for
information.
Verify
Exam ples
Eating blueberries for
breakfast because
numerous medical studies
have proven their healthful
properties.
Non -exa mp les
Voting for a ballot
measure because my
friend told me I should.
Source: Karen Antikajian
Name
Write the definition here in your own words.
Date
Period
Write some characteristics of the word here.
Write the word or
concept below.
Write examples here.
Write non-examples here.
GOOD PROFESSIONAL RESOURCES ON TEACHING VOCABULARY
a “Teacher Tool”
Allen, J. (2007). Inside Words: Tools for Teaching Academic Vocabulary. Portland, Maine:
Stenhouse Publishers.
Allen, J. (1999). Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12. Portland, Maine:
Stenhouse Publishers.
Akhavan, N. (2007). Accelerated Vocabulary Instruction. New York: Scholastic.
Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui (Eds.), Vocabulary instruction: Research to practice (pp. 218–237).
New York: The Guilford Press.
Beck, I., M. G. McKeown, & L. Kucan. (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary
Instruction. New York: Guilford Press.
Beck, I., M. G. McKeown, & L. Kucan. (2008). Creating Robust Vocabulary: Frequently Asked
Questions and Extended Examples. New York: The Guilford Press.
Bromley, K. (2002). Stretching students’ vocabulary, grades 3–8. New York: Scholastic.
Cunningham, P.M., & Allington, R.L. (2007). Classrooms that work: They can all read and write.
Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Fisher, D. & N. Frey (2009). Learning Words Inside and Out, Grades 1-6: Vocabulary Instruction
That Boosts Achievement in All Subject Areas. Portsmouth, New Hampshire: Heinemann.
Fry, E.F., & Kress, J.E. (2006). The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists (5th ed.). San Francisco:
Jossey-Bass.
Fry, E. F. (2004). The Vocabulary Teacher's Book of Lists. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Graves, M.F. (2006). The vocabulary book: Learning & instruction. New York: Teachers College
Press.
Graves, M.F. (2008). Teaching Individual Words: One Size Does Not Fit All . New York: Teachers
College Press and the International Reading Association.
Farstrup, A.E. & S.J. Samuels (Eds.) (2008). What Research Has to Say About Reading
Instruction (3rd ed). Newark, DE: International Reading Association.
Lubliner, S. & J. A. Scott (2008). Nourishing Vocabulary: Balancing Words and Learning.
Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press
Lubliner, S. & L. Smetana. (2005). Getting Into Words: Vocabulary Instruction that Strengthens
Comprehension, Baltimore, Maryland: Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Marzano, R. J. (2004). Building Background Knowledge for Academic Achievement. Alexandria,
Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Marzano, R. J. & D. J. Pickering. (2005) Building Academic Vocabulary: Teacher's Manual.
Alexandria, Virginia: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Nagy, W.E. (1988). Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Comprehension. Newark, DE: International
Reading Association.
Nilsen, A.P., & Nilsen, D.L.F. (2004). Vocabulary K–8: A Source-based Approach. Boston:
Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Newton, E., N. D. Padak, & T. V. Rasinski (2007). Evidence-Based Instruction in Reading: A
Professional Development Guide to Vocabulary. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Allyn & Bacon.
Paynter, D. E., E. Bodrova, J. K. Doty, & N. K. Duke (2005). For the Love of Words: Vocabulary
Instruction that Works, Grades K-6. San Francisco: Jossey Bass.
Stahl, S.A. (1999). Vocabulary development. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books.
Tompkins G. E. & C. Blanchfield (Eds.) (2004). Teaching vocabulary: 50 creative strategies,
grades K–12. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Whitaker, S. (2008). Word Play: Building Vocabulary Across Texts and Disciplines, 6-12.
Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.
GUESS A ND A DJUST an “Inside and Outside the Wo rd” Strategy
This quick and easy activity from Jeff Zwier’s book Building Reading Comprehension Habits in
Grades 6-12: a Toolkit of Classroom Activities,16 serves three important purposes: (1) building
background knowledge for reading; (2) using word parts to predict word meaning, and (3)
figuring out words using context related to the title and author’s purpose.
1. The teacher identifies 3 to 5 new words critical to understanding the text.
2. The teacher identifies 6-10 clue words. Clue words are words from the text that provide
“hints” to assist the reader in figuring out the meanings of the new words.
3. Make a transparency of the attached graphic organizer.
4. Give each student a copy of the graphic organizer.
5. Work together to begin filling out the graphic organizer.
6. Write the title of the text to be studied at the top.
7. Write the new words in the “New Words” column.
8. Write any clue words that are important to the text in the oval at the lower left of the
graphic. Have about 6-10 clue words.
9. Then have students guess the meanings of the new words using the text’s title and their
knowledge of word parts and record their guesses in the middle column.
10.Have students do a quick write in the triangle that predicts the text content.
11.Read aloud the first part of the text while students follow along in their own books.
Stop often to allow students to look at any new words in context and to mentally adjust
their original guesses. Model the process for students of comparing the guessed
meaning with the text.
12.Model recording an adjusted meaning in the last column.
13.Direct students to finish reading the text on their own or in pairs and complete the
adjusted meanings column.
14.At the bottom of the graphic organizer have students write a final three-sentence
summary of the text, incorporating in some of the new words.
Zwiers, J. 2004. Building Reading Comprehension Habits in Grades 6-12: a Toolkit of Classroom Activities. Newark, Deleware:
International Reading Association.
16
Name
Date
Period
GUESS AND ADJUST
New Words
Title:
Guessed Meanings
Adjusted Meanings
R
E
A
D
Clue Words
Summary:
Text
Prediction
HETER ON YM W OR D PAR T PRAC TICE 17
an “Outsid e the Word ” St rategy
This word part practice is designed to help students read and understand heteronyms. What
are heteronyms? Heteronyms are two or more words that are spelled the same, but differ in
meaning and often in pronunciation, for example, “bow” (a ribbon) and “bow” (of a ship). 18
Using the attached blackline master, have students list the words pairs or threes in the left
hand column along with the part of speech of that word. In the middle column students record
the definitions of each. In column three students record each word as word parts and adding
the accent as appropriate. This will entail some instruction on the part of the teacher on
syllabication and on the conventions of pronunciation. What follows is list of several
heteronyms from which students might work.
Meaning One
affect (influence)
august (majestic)
axes (plural of ax)
bass (low male voice)
bow (weapon for shooting)
buffet (strike)
close (shut)
commune (talk intimately)
compact (agreement)
console (cabinet)
contract (withdraw)
content (satisfied)
converse( opposite)
desert (dry barren region)
do (act; perform)
does (plural of doe)
dove ((pigeon)
entrance (delight, charm)
excise ((tax)
incense (make very angry)
intern (force to stay)
intimate (very familiar)
invalid* (disabled person)
job (work)
lead (show the way)
live (exist)
minute (sixty seconds)
object (a thing)
peaked (looking ill)
Polish (from Poland)
Meaning Two
Meaning Three
affect (pretend)
August (month)
axes (plural of axis)
bass (kind of fish)
bow (bend in greeting or respect)
bow ((forward part of ship)
buffet (cabinet for dishes/linens)
buffet (self service meal)
close (near)
commune (group living together)
compact (firmly packed together)
compact (makeup case)
console (ease grief)
contract (written agreement)
content (all things inside)
converse (talk)
desert (go away from)
do (1st tone on the musical scale)
does (present tense of to do)
dove (did a dive)
entrance (going in)
excise (remove)
incense (stick with sweet smell when burned)
intern (doctor in training)
intimate (suggest)
invalid (not valid)
Job (patient man in Bible)
lead (metallic element)
live (having life)
minute (very small)
object (to protest)
peaked (having a point)
polish (shine)
Source: 2008 NCTE Session with Sandra Whitaker, author of Word Play. Adapted by Karen Antikajian
Encarta® World English Dictionary © 1999 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved. Developed for Microsoft by
Bloomsbury Publishing Plc.
17
18
Meaning One
present (not absent)
primer (first book)
produce (vegetables)
record (music disk)
recount (count again)
refuse (say no)
row (line)
sewer (one who sews)
slaver (salivate)
slough (swamp)
sow (scatter seeds)
subject (topic)
tarry (delay)
tear* (drop from eye)
wind (air in motion)
wound (hurt)
Meaning Two
Meaning Three
present (to introduce formally)
present (gift)
primer (something used to prepare another)
produce (make something)
record (write down)
recount (tell in detail)
refuse (garbage)
row (use oars to move a boat)
row (noisy fight)
sewer (underground pipe for wastes)
slaver (dealer in slaves)
slough (shed old skin)
sow (female pig)
subject (put under)
tarry (covered with tar)
tear (pull apart)
wind (turn)
would (wrapped around)
HETERONYM WORD PART PRACTICE
Name:
Date:
WORDS
Period:
DEFINITIONS
WORD PARTS
reject (verb)
To refuse to accept something or throw it
away.
re + ject'
reject (noun)
Something that does not meet a standard of
quality or is being discarded (thrown away).
re' _ ject
subject (verb)
To cause somebody to go through
something unpleasant or bring them under
the power of another person or group
sub + ject'
subject (noun)
A matter being discussed or examined or a
course of study. A person undergoing
treatment or who is focus of activity or
under the rule of an authority
sub' + ject
Note: For practice, cut the columns apart on the dotted lines and fold back so that only one or
two columns are visible. Students should be able to remember what should be in the invisible
column(s).
HETERONYM WORD PART PRACTICE
Name:
Date:
WORDS
DEFINITIONS
Period:
WORD PARTS
Note: For practice, cut the columns apart on the dotted lines and fold back so that only one or
two columns are visible. Students should be able to remember what should be in the invisible
column(s).
HOMONYM ILL USTR ATI ONS a “Word Play” Strategy
Homonyms
Homograph
Homophone
What is a homonym? The term homonym can include both
homophones (words that sound the same but have different
meanings and usually different spellings) and homographs
(words that are spelled the same but have different
meanings and different origins. Some homographs are also
heteronyms (words that are spelled the same but have
different pronunciations. They are marked below with an
asterisk. 19
Assign students the task of illustrating a set of homonyms Give each student a piece of paper
and have them fold it in half, illustrating each word’s meaning side by side.
Below is a possible list of homonyms that can be used.
Ho mo n yms
Ho mo ph o nes
air (oxygen)
bare (nude)
cause (origin)
dye (color)
eyelet (small hole)
freeze (cold)
gilt (golden)
hoarse (husky voice)
in (opposite of out)
jam (fruit jelly)
knit (weave with yarn)
loan (something borrowed)
mail (letter, postcard)
muscle (flesh)
none (not any)
one (number)
peace (tranquility)
reign (royal authority)
shoot (use gun)
toad (frog)
vein (blood vessel)
heir (successor)
bear (animal)
caws (crow calls)
die (expire)
islet (small island)
frees (to free)
guilt (not innocent)
horse (animal)
inn (hotel)
jamb (window part)
nit (louse egg)
lone (single)
male (masculine)
mussel (shellfish)
nun (religious sister)
won (triumphed)
piece (part)
rain (precipitation)
chute (trough)
towed (pulled)
vain (conceited)
waist (middle)
yoke (harness)
waste (trash)
yolk (egg center)
19
Ho mo g rap hs
august* (majestic)
bass* (low male voice)
close* (shut)
desert* (dry barren region)
entrance* (delight, charm)
fair (beautiful, lovely)
grave (place of burial)
hawk (peddle goods)
invalid* (disabled person)
jig (dance)
kind (friendly, helpful)
light (not heavy)
lock (fasten door)
mold (form, shape)
nap (rug fuzz)
object* (a thing)
palm (inside of hand)
record* (music disk)
school (place for learning)
tear* (drop from eye)
vault (a storehouse for
valuables)
wake (trial behind ship)
yard (enclosed space)
August (month)
bass (kind of fish)
close (near)
desert (go away from)
entrance (going in)
fair (just, honest)
grave (serious)
hawk (bird of prey)
invalid (not valid)
jig (fishing lure)
kind (same class)
light (not dark)
lock (curl of hair)
mold (fungus)
nap (short sleep)
object (to protest)
palm (kind of tree)
record (write down)
school (group of fish)
tear (pull apart)
vault (jump over)
wake (stop sleeping)
yard (36 inches)
Fry, E. B. and J. E. Kress (2006). The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists (fifth edition). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Teacher.
HOMONYM ILLUSTRATIONS SAMPLES
HOW DO W OR D-LEA RNING TAS KS DIFF ER? 20 a “T ea cher Too l”
According to Michael Graves, it is important to realize that all word-learning tasks are not the
same. They differ depending on such matters as the conceptual difficult of the words, how
much students already know about the words, how well you want them to learn the words, and
what you want them to be able to do with the words afterwards. There are seven tasks
students face to learning words, some of which are quite different from others and require
quite different sorts of instruction.
1. L EARNI N G A B ASIC O R AL V O CABULARY
Many children come to school with substantial oral vocabularies while other children come
with meager oral vocabularies. For such children, building a basic oral vocabulary of the
most frequent English words is of utmost importance.
2. L EARNI N G T O R EA D K N O WN W ORDS
Learning to read known words, words that are already in their oral vocabularies, is the major
vocabulary-learning task of beginning readers.
3. L EARNI N G N EW W OR DS R EPR ES ENT IN G K N O WN C O N CEPTS
A third word-learning task students face is learning to read words that are in neither their
oral nor their reading vocabularies but for which they have an available concept.
4. L EARNI N G N EW W OR DS R EPR ES ENT IN G N EW C O NC EPTS
Another word-learning task students face, and a very demanding one, is learning to read
words that are in neither their oral nor their reading vocabularies and for which they do not
have an available concept.
5. L EARNI N G N EW M EA NI N GS F OR K N OW N W OR DS
Still another word-learning task is learning new meanings for words that students already
know with one meaning. Many words have multiple meanings, and thus students frequently
encounter words that look familiar but are used with a meaning different from the one they
know. Teaching these words occupies a special place in content areas because words often
have different and important meanings that are critical to comprehension in particular
content areas.
6. C LARIFYI NG A ND E NRI CHIN G THE M EA NI NGS OF K N OW N W OR DS
The meanings students originally attach to words are often imprecise and only become fully
specified over time; thus, another word-learning task is that of clarifying and enriching the
meanings of already-known words.
7. M OVI NG W ORDS I NTO S TUD ENTS ’ E XPRESSI VE V OC ABULARI ES
Still another word-learning task is that of moving words from students’ receptive
vocabularies to their productive vocabularies, that is moving words from students’ listening
and reading vocabularies to their speaking and writing vocabularies. Assisting students in
actively using the words they know will make them better and more precise communicators.
S UM MI NG U P
Each of these factors is important to consider as a teacher plans vocabulary instruction.
Knowing what kind of word-learning task is involved and the depth of knowledge we want
students to achieve will shape the tools and strategies we use.
20
From Teaching Individual Words: One Size Does Not Fit All by Michael F. Graves and published in 2008 jointly by
Teachers College Press and the International Reading Association.
IDIOM IN QUIR Y G AME 21 a “W ord P lay” Strategy
Pla yers : 2-4 or 2 Teams
Mate r ials: Set of Idiom Picture Cards (see examples below), Lists or books of idioms, Timer
(optional)
Dire ct io ns for Pre pa rat io n:
1. Discuss idioms and share examples
2. Hand out lists or books of idioms
3. Students work individually or in pairs to create idiom picture cards. The front of the card has
two pictures which when combined create a clue to the idiom (see examples below). The
back of the card lists the idiom, the meaning, and a sentence using the idiom.
Dire ct io ns for t he Ga me :
Groups of 2-4:
1. Youngest player starts. Play moves to the left.
2. First player draws an idiom picture card and displays the picture side of the card.
3. Player on left states the correct idiom, its meaning and a sentence using it (the meanings
and sentences do not have to be exactly what is on the back of the card). If successful, the
player gets the card.
4. If unsuccessful, the next player gets a turn. If successful, this player scores a point, gets the
card and draws a new card. Play continues in the same manner.
5. When timer sounds or when agreed upon time is up play continues until all players have had
the same number of turns. Then players count their cards. Winner is player with the most
cards.
6. In the case of a tie, the first player to think of an idiom that was not used in the game is
declared the winner. Option: Both are declared winners.
Team Play:
1. One student or the teacher acts as the arbitrator.
2. Teams choose a member to draw and display cards (Presenter) and another member to
report the team’s answer (Reporter).
3. Roll dice, draw straws, or other method to determine which team starts.
4. First team draws and displays a card.
5. Second team consults to determine answer (idiom, its meaning and a sentence using it –
same as above). Reporter gives answer.
6. Arbitrator decides if answer is stated correctly. There may be more than one version. If
needed lists and books may be consulted. Team may dispute the arbitrator’s decision and
prove answer is correct by finding idioms and meanings on a list or in a book.
7. If team answers correctly, team gets to keep the card.
8. Play continues until cards are used up or time is up. Each team must have had the same
number of turns.
21
Game created by Karen Antikajian adapted from Brassell, Danny and James Flood, (2004), Vocabulary Strategies
Every Teacher Needs to Know “Strategy Idioms,” p. 26
Dire ct io ns for I dio m P ictu re Ca rds :
1. Front of card: Student draws pictures in the outside boxes to illustrate two parts of the
idiom. A plus sign goes in the middle. When the pictures are combined in order, they should
give a clue to the correct idiom.
2. Back of card: Student writes the idiom, the meaning of the idiom, and a sentence using the
idiom.
Exam ples fo r Id io m Pict ur e C ard s:
+
Idiom : He’s driving me up a wall
Mea nin g : Something is really annoying me.
Sen ten ce : My friend kept pestering me with questions until it was driving me up
a wall!
+
Idiom : Don’t count your chickens before they hatch.
Mea nin g : Don’t plan on something before it actually happens.
Sen ten ce : I told my friend that I was going to win the award but she said, “Don’t
count your chickens before they hatch.”
I HAVE . . . W HO HAS? 22 a “Word Play ” strategy
I Hav e... Who Has ? uses listening and reading to reinforce the semantic cueing system and
word meanings. This strategy was developed by Kristin Troeger to help her fourth grade
students when she noticed many of them having trouble remembering difficult science
vocabulary. The strategy is used with the whole class and is especially good for
verbal/linguistic, interpersonal bodily/kinesthetic, and existential learning.
These are the steps involved in playing I Have... Who Has?
1. Select vocabulary words that have been introduced in class and need to be reviewed. You
need enough words so that you have one word for each student in your class.
2. On 3 x 5” cards, write a vocabulary word on one side and the definition of a different word
on the other side.
3. Pass out one card to each student and have all students read both sides silently before the
game begins.
4. Ask one student to read his/her word, saying “I have (reads the vocabulary word).”
5. He then turns the card over, and asks “Who has (reads the definition)?”
6. The student who has the word that matches the definition says “I have (reads the
vocabulary word)” then, he/she turns the card over, and asks “Who has (reads the
definition)?”
The game continues until everyone has had a turn and all word cards are matched with the
right definition.
Kristin’s students love this game so much, they beg to play it every week. Over time, she has
let them choose the words and make the cards themselves, requiring them to use textbooks,
glossaries, and dictionaries to make sure definitions were correct. She checks the cards before
the game starts. “I Have . . . Who Has . . .?” can also be played in smaller groups by giving each
student several cards.
Exam ple:
Student 1: I have “seismic waves.” Who has “the exact location on the Earth’s surface directly
above the focus of an earthquake or underground nuclear explosion?”
Student 2: I have “epicenter.” Who has “an instrument that measures how much ground moves
in an earthquake?”
Student 3: I have “ seismograph.” Who has . . .
See sample words on the next page.
22
Adapted from: Bromley, Karen. (2002) Stretching Students’ Vocabulary: Best Practices for Building the Rich
Vocabulary Students Need to Achieve in Reading, Writing, and the Content Areas. New York: Scholastic. Pg. 46.
algorithm
an operation used to calculate the number
of times one number is contained in
another
sharing and grouping a number into equal
parts
back of card
front of card
a logical step-by-step procedure for
solving a mathematical problem in a finite
number of steps, often involving
repetition of the same basic operation
division
a way of setting out a step-by-step
mathematical procedure
a method used to find an answer
front of card
back of card
INTERVI EW A W OR D 23 an “Outsid e the Wo rd” strategy
Inter v iew a Wo rd is a strategy that is especially good for verbal/linguistic, interpersonal,
naturalistic, and existential learning. Interview a Word requires students to “become” a word
and answer a series of questions asked by an interviewer. This strategy builds semantic and
pragmatic knowledge of words.
First, select key words important to understanding a story or concept. Then divide the class
into teams and give each team a word and a list of questions about the word. Have students
“become” the word and answer the questions. The interviewer, either you or a student, asks
team members each question, and they respond with the answers they’ve prepared, while the
rest of the class listens to the “interview.” Then the class tries to guess the word.
Christin Messina’s fifth graders love “Interview a Word” because it’s a different way to learn.
She loves it because “students must take on the role of that word and see a word from various
perspectives.” First, Christin explains and models the strategy by sharing a completed
“Interview a Word” sheet for the term prose on an overhead transparency with her students.
Then she divides the class into groups of four and gives each group a word. From Section 6 of
Dear Mr. Henshaw by Beverly Cleary, about a boy who moves and goes to a new school, she
chose imitate, rejected, snoop, and disconnect, all words she thought students needed to
understand so they could relate to the main character, Leigh Botts.
Christin gives each group a blank interview sheet and 10 minutes to talk and answer the
questions before their interview. When she “interviews” each group, they read their responses
and the class tries to guess the word. When students have a hard time guessing the word,
Christin has them review the chapter to find it. This part of the strategy is an excellent way to
promote rereading, skimming, and scanning for specific information, and using a thesaurus or
dictionary.
Christin’s students enjoy “getting into” word meanings this way and so she has made the
strategy a regular weekly occurrence. She says her students love the challenge of exploring
words and their use through the interview format. They often add a dramatic voice to their
interviews and she encourages impromptu ad-libs because she discovered that, often, students
who aren’t being interviewed have appropriate and interesting associations to share.
23
The “Interview a Word” strategy is from Stretching Students’ Vocabulary by Karen Bromley published in 2002 by
Teaching Resources.
Name:
Date:
Period:
Interview a Word
What word are you interviewing?
Prose
1. Who are your relatives?
Stories, writing, speech
2. Would you ever hurt anyone? Who? Why?
Yes, harsh words can be spoken or written about another person.
3. Are you useful? What is your purpose?
Yes, I keep traditions alive through storytelling and by keeping written
stories.
4. What don’t you like? Why?
I don’t like people who use me to be cruel.
5. What do you love? Why?
I love to be spoken or written with correct grammar.
6. What are your dreams?
I dream of being only used to make people happy through good stories.
Name:
Date:
Period:
Interview a Word
What word are you interviewing?
Rejected
1. Who are your relatives?
My relatives are refused and snubbed.
2. Would you ever hurt anyone? Who? Why?
Yes, I would hurt someone who is talking to me because if I was talking to
me
and turn around, I would hurt their feelings.
3. Are you useful? What is your purpose?
Yes, I’m useful because if someone asked you to do drugs I would reject
them
and walk away.
4. What don’t you like? Why?
I don’t like things that are bad accepted from people, because I’m
forgotten
about.
5. What do you love? Why?
I love it when people reject other people for bad things because bad things
are bad.
6. What are your dreams?
My dreams are for people to reject people because of drugs every time.
Name:
Date:
Period:
Interview a Word
What word are you interviewing?
1. Who are your relatives?
2. Would you ever hurt anyone? Who? Why?
3. Are you useful? What is your purpose?
4. What don’t you like? Why?
5. What do you love? Why?
6. What are your dreams?
.
MORPHEME S QUARES 24 an “Inside the Word ” Strategy
The goal of Morpheme Squares is to create a puzzle with 9 square pieces. On each of the squares
students record 4 word parts (morphemes) on the edges from a list of morphemes the teacher provides.
Any edges that touch each other must form a real word. Remind students not to cut the squares apart
until they are certain adjoining edges form words. After a puzzle is created, students cut the puzzle
squares apart and put them in a baggie.
24
Source: Word Play: Building Vocabulary Across Texts and Disciplines Grades 6-12 by Sandra R. Whitaker,
Heinemann 2008. Adapted by Karen Antikajian
Morpheme Squares
Name
Date
Section:
The goal of Morpheme Squares is to create a puzzle with 9 square pieces. On each of the squares record
4 word parts (morphemes) on each edge. Any edges that touch each other must form a real word. Do
not cut the squares apart until you are certain adjoining edges from words. Try to use each morpheme
at least three times. The morphemes you can use are:
After you cut the puzzle squares apart, put the pieces in a baggie. Later take the pieces out and try to
solve it yourself or give it to a partner to solve. Be prepared! It isn’t as easy as you think!
MORPHEME TRIA NGLE 25 an “In sid e the Wo rd” Strategy
Morpheme Triangle, a strategy developed by Rod Winters, uses graphic representation and
discussion to highlight and extend such relationships for students. To begin, the teacher
targets a select word that is rich in high-utility morphemes from a short list of important
vocabulary from an upcoming selection. She then uses a graphic frame while engaging students
in discussion around the word. Although graphic organizers are not necessary for all classroom
discussions, they do serve useful purposes in their ability to create a written record of
discussions and in illustrating relationships between known and unknown vocabulary terms. In
the case of morpheme triangles, the visual graphic of a triangle provides three defined
workspaces for thinking: (1) the center of the triangle, (2) the outside of each corner, and (3)
the inside of each corner.
2a.
+ transfer
+ transplant
? trance
+ transit
+ translate
+ trans-Atlantic
3c. Present
to Past
3a. Across
1. trans — port — ed
2b.
+ port
+ portable
+ Portland
? Portugal
3b. To move
2c.
+ shouted
+ nodded
+ walked
+ kicked
? edit
+ sped
+ balanced
2b. continued
? sport
+ import
+ export
+ porter
1. Beginning at the center of the inverted triangle, the instructor breaks the target word into
associated morphemes, pronouncing each morpheme while visually splitting the morphemes
apart ( Box 1).
2. The instructor then begins consideration of each morpheme in the word, using respective
corners of the triangle to map a recurrent process of brainstorming, analysis, and
confirmation.
 Moving to the outside of the upper left corner, the instructor draws attention to the first
morpheme in the target word and invites students to brainstorm several previously
25
Drawn from “Interactive Frames for Vocabulary Growth and Word Consciousness” by Rod Winters (2009) in The
Reading Teacher, 62(8), pp. 685–690.
known words that also contain the target morpheme ( Box 2a). As students volunteer
known words, each word is received, acknowledged, and added to the emerging list on
the outside of the corner.
 When a list of five to six words has been accumulated, a discussion ensues about
possible links in meaning among the brainstormed words. A plus sign (+) is placed in
front of words when the group agrees that there appears to be a shared meaning link.
 The use of a question mark (?) rather than the plus sign indicates the possibility of an
“imposter” and a need for more follow-up to confirm or disconfirm a shared meaning
association (see the figure above).
3. Having noted possible exceptions for the shared meaning link of the brainstormed words,
the teacher guides students to hypothesize a working definition of the morpheme and record it in
the appropriate corner ( Box 3a). The teacher plays an active role if necessary in clarifying and
shaping the working definition and then records the product of the group’s work on the inside of the
corner.
4. In similar fashion, the discussion continues to move around each corner of the triangle as each
morpheme in the targeted word is considered. ( Box 2b followed by 3b, and then Box 2c and 3c).
If teachers so choose, the graphic frame can be altered to better meet instructional needs. For instance,
the triangle shape can be changed to a rectangle to segment a simple prefix from a base word (see
figure below).
+ unhappy
+ unloved
+ undone
? under
+ until
? uncle
not
to bend something over itself
un — fold
+ refold
+ folding
+ folded
+ foldable
? folder
Also, the triangle can be morphed into a four- or even five-sided shape for more advanced words (see
Figure 3).
+ retell
+ replay
+ reposition
? reptile
+ retool
to do again
to view seriously
+ spectacle
+ spectator
+ spectacular
+ special
? species
+ spectacles
dis — re — spect -- ful
+ disagree
? distance
+ discover
+ disallow
? dissing me
take or remove
to be full of
+ hateful
+ wrongful
+ wonderful
+ beautiful
? fulcrum
Name:
Date:
Section:
MORPHEME TRIANGLE
3a.
3c.
2a.
2c.
1.
3b.
2b.
Target Word Definition:
2b. continued
Name
Date
Period
MULTIPLE MEANING GRID 26 an “Outside the Word” Strategy
Write the word or phrase below.
Write one meaning below.
able to do something
Write another meaning below.
a round thing to hold something –
made of metal
(noun)
can
Write another meaning below.
Write another meaning below.
Sometimes people use this word to
say it is OK to do something.
to put food into a can or jar and
seal it
(verb)
Write example sentences in the box below.
1. "I can ride my bike," she said.
3. He put the worms into a can.
2. You can go to see the show.
4. Mother was canning tomatoes.
Draw pictures below to show at least two meanings of the word. Label the pictures.
26
Created by Karen Antikajian
Other meanings
Name
Date
Period
MULTIPLE MEANING GRID
1. Write one meaning below.
to have used your eyes and
noticed something
Write the word or phrase below.
Saw
2. Write another meaning below.
4. Write another meaning below.
Sometimes people use this
word to mean that they
understood something.
I saw a clown at the circus
He saw what she meant.
3. Write another meaning
below.
A tool for cutting wood or
metal (noun)
to cut the wood or metal (verb)
Write example sentences in the box below.
She got a saw to cut the branch.
He began to saw the board.
Draw pictures below to show at least two meanings of the word. Label the pictures.
Other meanings
Name
Date
Period
MULTIPLE MEANING GRID
Write one meaning below.
Write the word or phrase below.
Write another meaning below.
Write another meaning below.
Write another meaning below.
Write example sentences in the box below.
Draw pictures below to show at least two meanings of the word. Label the pictures.
Other meanings
NEW W OR D MEANINGS 27 an “Out sid e the W ord ” Strat egy
Materials:
• A list of key terms or vocabulary words from a lesson
• An overhead of the “New Word Meanings” Template
• A copy of the template for each student
Rationale:
To introduce students to new vocabulary they will encounter in the lesson.
Steps:
1. Teacher identifies 4 or 5 (essential and important) vocabulary words or terms from the
lesson.
2. Teacher directs students to write these words on the left side of their paper.
3. Teacher defines and explains the key terms and helps students list the critical attributes of
the word in the middle box.
4. Students meet in small groups to suggest a sentence and example or picture that will
represent the word. After discussing ideas, the class completes the remaining box with their
representation of the word.
27
Adapted from Dr. Anita Archer handout used in her Vocabulary Workshops. Dr. Archer can be contacted at:
[email protected]
Name:
Date:
Period:
NE W WOR D ME ANIN GS
New Vocabulary Word
Definition (Critical Attributes
Sentence/Examples/Pictures
NYM GYM a “Word Play ” Strategy
This tool was developed by Alana Morris28 and is used to help students understand the meaning
of and difference between antonyms, synonyms, homonyms, homographs, and homophones.
1. Make a transparency of the Nym Gym blackline on the next page.
2. Read any selection that illustrates antonyms, synonyms, and/or homonyms. Morris
suggests that you read the poem “English is a Pain (Pane?)” by Shirlee Curlee Bingham,
found in No More Homework! No More Test! Poems selected by Brain Lansky. An optional
activity is to show the episode of “I Love Lucy” titled “The Tutor.”
3. Explain to students that one reason the English language is so complex is because it has so
many words for the same idea and numerous opposites for the same word, English also
contains incredibly challenging words that look the same, sound the same, or both, but
actually meaning something completely different.
4. Ask students if they know or can guess what the suffix -nym means. Hint that it sounds
similar to what it actually means (-nym = name). Use every opportunity to make students
aware of affixes and how they affect the meaning of words.
5. The following definitions can be placed on a chart and displayed in the room.
Anto n ym —Names that are opposite (happy/sad; concrete/abstract)
S yn on ym —Names that are the same (tired/exhausted; tiny/infinitesimal)
Ho mo n yms —Names that are spelled and sound the same but mean something
different (walk, verb; and walk, noun)
Ho mo g rap h —Words that look the same but have different pronunciations and
meanings (wound, as injury; and wound, as in “coiled”)
Ho mo ph o ne —Words that sound alike but look different and have a different
meaning (read, reed)
6. Have students begin to brainstorm as many examples as possible. Start as individuals and
then have each pair up with someone else to expand their lists. Then have students join a
group of four (four square) to expand their list even further.
7. As a class, create a list of ten words for each word type on the chart.
8. Now share the blank Nym Gym for each group to complete. Have them start with a
common word in the first box and then list its antonym, synonym, homonym, homograph, or
homophone in the next box. Then move on to the next box and continue as below. Be sure
and label the change that you are making on the flap of the box. See below.
buy
far
homophone
synonym
by
distant
synonym
synonym
near
antonym
aloof
It is included in a book titled Vocabulary Unplugged published in 2005. It can be purchased from <http://www.discoverwriting.com/>.
28
NYM GYN WORKSHEET
ORIGIN AL R OOTS G ROW W OR DS 29 an “In sid e the Word ” Strat egy
Looking for an engaging and fun English vocabulary lesson? We won’t just give you one great
lesson. We’ll show you how to create powerful vocabulary lessons for English and for any other
subject.
Ch oo se a Lat in R oot to De scribe Y o ur S tude nts :
Students everywhere at every grade level in every country can be too talkat iv e. So be honest
and call them what they are: L OQ U ACI OU S !
Some may know what this means, others may not be sure. Many will agree that it applies to
someone they know.
Then let them in on another truth: that the word comes from a Latin root meaning to talk :
lo qu or , lo qu i, lo cut us
lo qu or = “I s pea k” lo qu i = “t o spe ak” l ocut us = “sp ok en ”
See below how many English derivatives come directly from this Latin root! Some use the stem
lo c-, others use the stem lo q-, but make no mistake—learning this Latin verb thoroughly will
improve your next English vocabulary lesson.
lo qua cio us (adj.): This describes most teens: Full of t alk! Who’s the most loquacious person
in the class?
lo qua cit y (n.): The abstract quality of being talkative.
elo qu ent (adj.): Having the power to speak forcefully, expressively, effectively. If you use
words well when you ta lk to get your point across, you are eloquent.
elo qu en ce (n.): The quality of being eloquent. Young people should strive to achieve
eloquence in speaking publicly (ta lking) whether to large audiences or small groups.
gra nd ilo que nt (n.): Take your eloquence to the next level of greatness, and it’s
grandiloquent! If you are grandiloquent you are perhaps a bit smug, pretentious, even pompous,
when you ta lk and you might consider toning down your huge new vocabulary.
gra nd ilo que n ce (n.): The quality of lofty expression when t alking– perhaps too lofty?
co llo qu y (n.): simply put, a conversation. The prefix col- is from the Latin cu m, meaning with.
So this word means to speak with, to speak together, to t alk. Recommended reading:
Cervantes’s short story, “The Colloquy of Dogs”. Hilarious and edifying.
29
This lesson was taken from http://www.vocabulary-lesson-plans.com/english-vocabulary-lesson.html
co llo qu ia l (adj.): It’s how you speak among friends. Colloquial speech is that conducted
informally between family, friends, neighbors and familiars. It is relaxed, conversational, easy,
and perhaps uses slang or regional dialect when ta lking.
co llo qu ia lis m (n.): a style of speaking, or a turn of phrase, using colloquial expression when
talking.
solilo qu y (n.): Our root word loq ui together with the Latin s o lus (alone), gives use this word
meaning a solo speech. The only actor speaking on the stage is said to deliver a soliloquy when
he ta lk s.
ob loq u y (n.): The Latin prefix o b- means against. So an ob lo qu y is a speech made against
someone else. It is harsh, abusive, and vilifying. This kind of ta lk is cruel.
lo cuto r y (n.): a room set aside for conversation, esp. in a monastery where monks are aloud
time for conversation and ta lk.
lo cution (n.): a word, a phrase, an utterance, spoken by a particular person or group.
elo cut io n (n.): style of speaking or reading aloud in public. Want to be an actor? You’ll need
superb elocution, including polished tone of voice and hand gestures when you ta lk.
elo cut io nis t (n.): One who speaks out in public or on stage, and is well-practiced in the art of
public speaking. Why not practice your elocution in drama club, in the school play, or in the
commons when you are ta lking??
cir cu m lo cutio n (n.): A t alking around, from the Latin cir cu m and our root lo cut us. You
might use circumlocution to avoid telling the truth or to kill some time to think of a better
answer. Or maybe using too many words is just your style?
allo cut ion (n.): a formal address, esp. by the pope to a secret council or tribunal. So when
the pope ta lk s to his tribunal its allocution.
allo cut e (v.): to make a formal address, or allocution.
res ipsa loq uit ur (legal Latin): The thing speaks for itself. When an injury is so obviously
caused by another’s negligence, the fact speaks for itself. Why not add a Latin phrase to your
English vocabulary lesson?
What ’s next ?
Use this Latin root and these derivatives to build your own superb English vocabulary lesson. If
you need help or a few ideas on how to proceed, check back often as we build these pages. Go
to: http://www.vocabulary-lesson-plans.com/english-vocabulary-lesson.html
P.A.V.E. P ROC EDUR E 30 an “Outside the Wo rd” Strategy
P.A.V.E. is designed to assist students in developing independent strategies for learning new
words. The acronym P.A.V.E. stands for the components of this strategy: Prediction,
Association, Verification, and Evaluation. In the PAVE Procedure, students predict a word’s
meaning using sentence context, verify its meaning by consulting the dictionary, evaluate the
word’s predicted meaning, and associate the word’s meaning to an image.
Materials:
• A section of text students will read
• An overhead of the PAVE Map
• A copy of the map for each student
Steps:
1. Locate the section in the text in which the word appears. Record the title and the page
number on the PAVE map.
2. Instruct students to write a sentence or the phrase in which the new word appears.
3. Record the target word.
4. Have students rewrite the word and predict the meaning.
5. Ask students to write an original sentence that demonstrates their understanding of the
word.
6. Tell students to check the meaning of the word in a dictionary and write the dictionary
definition.
7. Have students review their original sentence to make sure it demonstrates their
understanding of the word. Allow students to rewrite the sentence if necessary.
8. Encourage students to draw a picture to help remember the meaning of the word and
create a visual, associative link.
30
Adapted from Teaching Vocabulary Across the Content Areas: ASCD Action Tool by Camille Blachowicz and
Charlene Cobb, published by the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development in 2007. Bannon originally
developed this strategy. See Bannon, E. P, P. J. Fisher, L. Pozzi, and D. Wessel (1990). Effective definitions for word
learning. Journal of Reading (34).
Name:
Date:
Period:
P AVE M AP
1. Write the title of the text or section of the text in which the word appears below. Also
record the page numbers where the word appears.
2. Co ntext Se nte n ce : Write the sentence or phrase in which the word occurs and highlight
the vocabulary word.
3. Write the vocabulary word here.
4. Pre dict : Make a good guess about what the word might mean and write your predicted
definition below.
5. Ass o ciate : Write one complete sentence here using your predicted definition.
6. Ve rify: Verify the definition using a dictionary or glossary. Write the dictionary definition
here.
7. E va lua te: Look back at your sentence and rewrite that sentence or write another sentence
to better match the dictionary definition.
8. Ass o ciate Aga in : Draw an association or symbol for the word:
Name
Date
Period
PREFIX SUFFIX WEB 31 an “In sid e the Word ” Strat egy
Record a prefix or suffix in the middle oval and then record words using that prefix or suffix in
the outer circles.
transponder
transplant
transpire
transport
transpolar
transpose
transtransportation
transcribe
translate
transparent
transpose
transparancy
31
transpierce
From Quick Activities to Build a Very Voluminous Vocabulary. Scholastic Professional Books.
Name
Date
Period
PREFIX SUFFIX WEB
Record a prefix on suffix in the middle oval and then record words using that prefix or
suffix in the outer circles.
RECTANGL E, CIRCLE, AN D T RIA NGLE G AME
an “Inside the Wo rd” and “Word Play ” Strat egy
The object of this game is to get as many points as you can by combining the letters in the
rectangles, circles, and triangles. The letters in the rectangle equal ten (10) points, the circle
letters equal one (1) point, and the triangle letters equal five (5) points. First write down the
word and next to it write the points. For example, you can make the word “city” by combining
a circle and a triangle, and you’ll score six points. Three hundred (300) points are good and
three hundred and fifty points (350) are excellent.
1.
11.
2.
12.
3.
13.
4.
14.
5.
15.
6.
16.
7.
17.
8.
18.
9.
19.
10.
20.
VE
CON
LA
PRE
DI
ABLE
VO
IN
CLU
SION
SI
TION
CI
DENT
MO
BER
SO
DE
LOP
NI
MEM
VAL
RE
PU
UN
TY
FER
LATE
VE
LA
DI
VO
NI
SI
CI
MO
SO
FER
CLU
MEN
PU
SION
TION
DENT
BER
LOP
LATE
VAL
TY
ABLE
CON
PRE
IN
UN
DE
RE
REMOT E C ONTR OL REA DING 32 an “Out sid e the W ord” Strategy
This four- step strategy is designed to give students a four-step process for inferring the
meaning of an unknown word. It is formatted here as a bookmark that students can keep in the
text as they read to remember the steps until they become routine.
Remote Control Reading
Remote Control Reading
First:
Play and Question
• Read Carefully.
• Frequently ask yourself,
“Does this make sense?”
First:
Play and Question
• Read Carefully.
• Frequently ask yourself,
“Does this make sense?”
Next Try:
Slow Advance
• Notice when you don’t
know the meaning of a
word and slow down.
• Read that sentence at
least once more, looking
for clues.
Next Try:
Slow Advance
• Notice when you don’t
know the meaning of a
word and slow down.
• Read that sentence at
least once more, looking
for clues.
Then:
Stop and Rewind
• If necessary, go back
and reread the preceding
sentence, looking for
clues that help you
figure out what the word
might mean.
Then:
Stop and Rewind
• If necessary, go back
and reread the preceding
sentence, looking for
clues that help you
figure out what the word
might mean.
And finally:
Replay and Question
• When you figure out
what the word might
mean, substitute your
guess in for the difficult
word and see if it makes
sense.
• If it does, keep on
reading.
• If it doesn’t, stop and
rewind, and try again.
And finally:
Replay and Question
• When you figure out
what the word might
mean, substitute your
guess in for the difficult
word and see if it makes
sense.
• If it does, keep on
reading.
• If it doesn’t, stop and
rewind, and try again.
32
This bookmark was adapted from The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction by Michael F. Graves, Teachers
College Press, IRA, NCTE. 2006. p. 99.
SEARCHING F OR ETYM OLOGIES ON T HE IN TER NET 33
an “Inside the Wo rd” Strategy
This activity promotes the value of looking deeply into the word. Students create a chart with
four columns. See the two examples below using the words malaria and quarantine .
Wor d
Malaria
Wor d
Quarantine
Etym olo g y
(wh ere the w or d
co me s fr om )
Latin
Etym olo g y
(wh ere the w or d
co me s fr om )
From the French
qua ran te (=for t y).
Adding the suffix –aine
to French numbers gives
a degree of roughness to
the figure (like –ish in
English), so q ua ran taine
means a b out for t y.
Mea nin g
Mal = bad
and aria = air,
so “bad air”
Inter estin g fa ct o r st o r y
When the Romans ventured
into the swamps around
Rome, they often became ill.
Since the air smelled bad, the
Romans named the illness
malaria, being unaware that it
was actually caused by
protozoa injected into
humans during the bite of a
mosquitio.
Mea nin g
Inter estin g fa ct o r st o r y
Any forced
stoppage of
travel or
communication
on account of
malignant,
contagious
disease, on
land or by sea.
Originally when a ship arriving
in port was suspected of
being infected with a
malignant, contagious
disease, its cargo and crew
were obliged to forego all
contact with the shore for a
period of around forty days.
This term came to be known
as period of q uar ant in e.
http://www.fun-with-words.com/ contains interesting information on word origins as well as
fun and sometimes quirky facts about many English words.
33
This strategy was created by David Lund from Southern Utah University and can be found in Block: C. C. & J.
Mangieri eds. (2007). The Vocabulary-Enriched Classroom.
Name:
Date:
Period:
1. Do some research on the following words to complete the following chart. Be prepared to share some of your findings with
the class.
Wor d
Etym olo g y
(wh ere the w or d co mes
fr o m)
Mea nin g
Inter estin g fa ct o r st o r y
Name
Date
Period
SEMANTIC ORGANIZER 34 an “Outside the Word” Strategy
Title
Author
Write the new word or phrase here.
Write a sentence below in which the new word or phrase can be found.
Write a new original sentence using the word of phrase.
Write a definition for the word or phrase below.
List some synonyms for this
word or phrase here.
List some antonyms for this
word or phrase here.
34
Form developed by Karen Antikajian
Draw a picture that will help you remember the word.
SENS ORY WEB 35 an “Outside the Word” Strategy
Name
Date
Period:
Directions: Think about the word in the box. How could you explain it using your senses? Try to think of phrases that would
express how this word would look, smell, feel, taste, and sound. Example: happiness might look like a birthday cake with
chocolate frosting, sound like your mother’s proud voice, feel like a cool breeze on a hot day, smell like popcorn in a movie
theater, and taste like corn on the cob with butter and salt. See if you can write at least two examples for each sense.
Lo oks L ike
Sm ells Like
Tastes Like
35
Feels L ike
Record word here.
So un ds Like
Adapted from The Vocabulary Book: Learning and Instruction by Michael F. Graves, Teachers College Press, IRA, NCTE. 2006 (p. 122) by Karen Antikajian
SENSORY WEB
Name
Date
Period
Directions: Think about the word in the box. How could you explain it using your senses? Try to think of phrases that would
express how this word would look, smell, feel, taste, and sound. Example: happiness might look like a birthday cake with
chocolate frosting, sound like your mother’s proud voice, feel like a cool breeze on a hot day, smell like popcorn in a movie
theater, and taste like corn on the cob with butter and salt. See if you can write at least two examples for each sense.
Lo oks L ike
shattered glass on the pavement
a hurricane making landfall
Sm ells Like
Feels L ike
hot burning coals
a cold wind
a huge forest fire racing toward you
you’ve been in a fist fight
Angry
Tastes Like
dry sand
chili peppers
Record word here.
So un ds Like
fingernails on a blackboard
raccoons screeching in the dark
SLICE 36 an “Inside and Outsid e t he Word ” St rategy
Step One: Introduce SLICE to students.
1. Ask students what they do when they are reading and come to a word they don’t
understand. Gather some examples. Make the point that guessing at the meaning of words
is good and that good readers use “clues” to guess at word meanings. Tell them that they
will learn how to use a strategy for “educated” guessing, called SLICE.
2. Hand out copies of the SLICE strategy blackline to students and place a transparency on the
overhead projector. Read over the steps used in the SLICE strategy with students. Model
the strategy using a word such as “indivisible”. Do a ‘think aloud’ with them as you work
through the SLICE steps. What you might say is printed below in bold-face font.
• S = Sound it out.
Ask: Di d soun ding i t ou t giv e you any clues?
•
L = Look for word parts. Any clues?
State: “Divi d e” is a clue. “In ” is a p r efix meanin g ‘no t’ (as in ‘invisibl e’). “Abl e” means you
can do som ething .
Ask: Hav e you figur ed i t ou t y et? Can you us e y our kno wledg e of Spanish ?
•
I = Form an image (picture) of the word when you hear it.
Ask: Do any i mages com e to you r min d abou t th e wor d?
•
C = Use the context from the sentence (e.g., “one nation indivisible”).
Ask: Do the wo r ds b efor e and after this wo rd h elp you figur e out wha t indivi sible might
mean ?
•
E = Pull all of your evidence together to make a good guess at what this word might
mean.
State: “In divisibl e” m eans so mething tha t you c annot s epara te (su ch as ou r na tion).
Step Two: Guide Student Practice
1. Pass out a list of words and have students practice (individually or in pairs) using the SLICE
strategy. Circulate to make sure they are using the strategy correctly.
Ask: “ Wha t evi d enc e o r clu es di d you us e to m ake you r gu ess ?”
2. Review answers together.
Ask: “ Wha t clues o r evi d enc e led to that choic e? ” (If they say , “I ju st kn ew i t” , poin t ou t tha t
they ar e “using prio r knowledg e”) .
Activity C: SLICE While You Read
1. Hand out the SLICE chart. Instruct students to write down words on the chart that need
clarification as they read (independently), make a guess about their meaning using the SLICE
clues as described above, and say what evidence (or which clues) led them to their
predicted meaning.
2. The “evidence” column can be as simple as ‘similar to a Spanish word”, “sounds like….”, or
“context of sentence before”.
3. For students having difficulty, in the evidence column have students use this “fill in the
blank” sentence, “I think
may mean
because
.” to get at the evidence they used.
State: “Fo r exa mpl e, I think tha t th e wor d “in di visible” may mean “no t able to s epara te”
becaus e I brok e th e wo rd in to par ts an d us ed p r efixes an d suffix es an d oth er wor ds aroun d this
wor d to mak e tha t guess.
4. The final column is optional, but sometimes it is helpful to associate an image with a word.
36
Bob Helm developed SLICE.
SLICE Word Attack
S ound out the word.
L ook for word parts (prefixes, suffixes,
and roots) that you recognize.
I llustrate (imagine or draw a picture of the
word meaning)
C ontext Clues (look for clues in the
sentence to guess the word’s meaning)
E ducated Guess: Based on context clues,
predict the meaning of the word. Try
your guess in the context of the
sentence or reading passage.
SLICE W OR D CHART
Wor d/ Ph rase
Pre dicte d Mea nin g
Evide nce
Illust ratio n
STOPLIGHT V OCAB ULARY 37 a “Teacher To ol”
Name:
Date:
Period:
Directions: List the vocabulary words in the first column. If you don't know the word at
all, color the top light RED. If you have heard the word but aren't quite sure what it
means, color the middle light YELLOW. If you know the word and can use it in a
sentence, color the bottom light GREEN. Write a sentence using each green light word.
Write your green light sentences below.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
37
Source: Getting Into Words: Vocabulary Instruction that Strengthens Comprehension by Shira Lubliner. Paul H.
Brookes, 2005. Adapted by Karen Antikajian
Synonym/Antonym Squares 38
an “Outsid e the Word ” and “W ord Play” Strategy
Write the following words on the sides of the squares. You can place them anywhere just so
you have synonyms or antonyms on opposite sides of adjoining squares. You can put any of the
words on the outside lines.
Words:
Now cut the puzzle apart and put the pieces in a baggie. Later take the pieces out and try to
solve it yourself or give it to a partner to solve.
38
Adapted by Karen Antikajian from Word Play by Sandra R. Whitaker.
SYN ONYM/ANT ONYM SQUA RES
Write the following words on the sides of the squares. You can place them anywhere just so you have
synonyms or antonyms on opposite sides of adjoining squares. You can put any of the words on the
outside lines.
Words:
Now cut the puzzle apart and put the pieces in a baggie. Later take the pieces out and try to solve it
yourself or give it to a partner to solve.
TAKE- ALONG W OR D W ALL 39 a “T each er Too l”
The Take-Along Word Wall is adapted from the work of Janet Allen. She notes that
often times, students don’t have access to the word wall vocabulary posted in the
classroom, especially when they move from classroom to classroom.
One way to compensate for this is to provide each student with a Take-Along Word
Wall blackline to keep in his binder. It is assumed that, at first, the teacher will coach
students as to the words to record on their word wall. These generally will be key
words related to the units of study in the classroom.
Eventually, the goal is for students to note and record words as they read that are
critical for understanding and for which they need clarification. These word walls can
then be used as study guides throughout the unit. They can also be used in whole
class or small group discussions to clarify and enrich word meanings.
39
Source: Inside Words: Tools for Teaching Academic Vocabulary 4-12 by Janet Allen, Stenhouse, 2007. Adapted
by Karen Antikajian
TAKE-ALONG WORD WALL
Name:
Date:
Period:
A-B
C-D
E-F
G–H
I–J
K-L
M–N
O–P
Q-R
S–T
U–V
W–X–Y-Z
TEACHING INDI VI DUAL W OR DS 40 a “T ea cher Too l”
What should a teacher incorporate into the instruction on individual words? The research on
vocabulary acquisition identifies a number of general principles on effective vocabulary
instruction to create rich and powerful vocabulary development of individual words.
To help teachers remember these key principles when teaching a word or phrase explicitly they
can work from the acronym TEACHER to remember key elements of effective instruction.
T
E
A
C
H
E
R
ime
Spend a significant amount of time on the words, involving
students in actively grappling with their meanings.
xposures
Provide students with multiple exposures to the words.
ctive, deep processing
Involve students in active and deep processing of the words.
ontext
Give students a meaning (definition plus example) of the words
being taught in some context and have them work with the
words in context.
ear and use
Give students the opportunity to hear and use the words and
their meanings through substantive discussions.
ven more exposures
You can never give students too many exposures to the new
words you are teaching.
eview
Review, rehearse, and remind students about the words in
various contexts over time.
Where developing a lesson or lessons on each individual word, one might ask the following
questions:
1. How critical is this word to understanding the key concepts in the text and therefore how
much time should I give to instruction on this word?
2. In what ways will I ensure that students have multiple exposures to this word/phrase?
3. What strategy/ies can I use to have students actively involved in deep processing of this
word’s meaning?
4. In what context will I introduce this vocabulary word and teach its meaning?
5. How will I structure the lesson/s to assure that students hear and use the words through
discussion?
6. What strategies will I use to provide systematic review, rehearsal, and reminders of this
word?
Taking the time to think through this process with those key concepts critical to lifting meaning
from the text will increase comprehension and academic growth.
40
Created by Betty Shoemaker.
TERM TR ANSF ORMA TION
an “Inside and Outside the Word” Strat egy
To p ro m ote wo rd pla y a nd mo tivat io n , hav e st ude nts invent new words that don’t
appear in the dictionary, but should. Here are some examples:
Gr ou chp otat o: David was a grouchpotato. He constantly complained but took no action.
Whine rtia: Having perfected the fine art of complaining about everything and solving nothing,
she could have run for Governor of the state of whinertia -- and won in a landslide.
Hoz on e: The place where one stocking in every laundry load disappears to.
Aqua dext ro us: Possessing the ability to turn the bathtub faucet on and off with your toes.
There are several websites on creating new words that the teacher may want to review. They
include numerous examples that can be shared with the class.
1. http://www.unwords.com/ is an online dictionary that lists hundreds of made up words.
2. http://www.wikihow.com/Create-a-Made-Up-Word provides the following steps for making
up words.
How to Create a Made Up Word
A Dublin theater proprietor named Richard Daly made a bet that he could create a nonsense word and within 48
hours that word would be on everyone's lips and they would have made up a meaning for it. He won that bet by
painting the word "quiz" all over town. While this may not be the true story, or even your intent when creating a
made-up word, making up words can be fun, and by following a few simple steps you can expand the ways you
do just that. Be careful, though. You might end up creating insquantulous muskaroons that are downright
sprunky.
Steps
•
Understand that English words are created in the following ways:
o Greek and Latin roots, prefixes, and suffixes. By taking a glance at the links below by Infoplease, you may
recognize some common word portions already.
o Technology, especially as it relates to computers and the Internet. Examples of these can be found at
Technology Dictionary.
o Other countries. For example, "restaurant" is a word that was picked up directly from the French. See if
you can find any at Foreignword.com.
o Basic need. Sniglets are a humorous example of this.
•
Try a portmanteau. This is two words mashed together to create one new word that has attributes of both
of the previous words. For example, Australian + Indonesian = Australesian, which could mean "someone
hailing from Australia and Indonesia."
•
Determine why you want to create a word. Is it for the same reason Sniglets were made, because there is an
object or use that simply needs a word? Or is it because you just have a few minutes to spare and you want
to make up a word, or a handful of them?
• Mix and match from the above until you find the word or words you want.
3. http://bertc.com/subfour/truth/sniglets.htm which is a page of sniglets (Sniglets,
according to the author, Bert Christensen, are words that don't appear in the dictionary, but
should.
4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sniglet is the wikipedia site on the history and development of
sniglets.
5. http://users.tinyonline.co.uk/gswithenbank/portmant.htm which is a site that contains
background on and examples portmanteau.
THINK TAC T OE an “Out sid e th e Word ” Strategy
Preparation: Create two or three Think Tac Toe boards on which you have recorded the
definitions of nine to 27 key concepts related to the unit you are teaching. You can also have
students create these Think Tac Toe boards. See the grade eight math example below. Gather
a set of 10 different colored poker chips (5 reds and 5 blues, for example) to use as markers
on the spaces on the play board. Also create an answer key—a small glossary on which the key
concepts and their definitions are recorded. Place the small glossary in an envelope. Then
place all pieces (one Think Tac Toe board, the poker chips and the envelope enclosing the
glossary) in a zip lock bag.
To Win Think Tac Toe: Place three chips of the same color in a row across, down, or at a
diagonal.
The Rules: In this game, students form a three-person team. During the game, two persons
compete while one student serves as the judge. Hand out a completed Think Tac Toe to each
team. Have students quickly identify which two will play first and who will be the judge. One
person picks a square, reads the definition in the square, and then provides the word that
matches the definition. The judge confirms the correctness of the response. If correct, the
student places his colored chip in that square. If incorrect the space is left blank. The next
opponent then plays by selecting another definition and placing his colored chip on that spot if
he is correct. Play continues until one person gets a Think Tac Toe.
When students have completed one Think Tac Toe board, they can trade another team for a
different board. The winner of the last game, now becomes the judge. Repeat the process
until all three team members have been able to play.
Teachers can store the Think Tac Toe boards from previous units and use them to review key
vocabulary throughout the year.
Grade Eight Math Example
coefficient:
The number placed
before a letter that
represents a variable in
algebra, for example,
the “3” of “3x” in the
equation “3x = 6”
The longest side of a
right triangle, opposite
the right angle
A solid figure with
ends that are identical
polygons and with
sides that are
parallelograms
A graphical diagram
with points plotted to
show a relationship
between two variables
A real number that can
be written as:
• a ratio of two
integers (fraction)
excluding zero as a
denominator
• a repeating or
terminating decimal
• an integer
A quantity having a
fixed value that does
not change or vary,
such as a number
A proved geometric
proposition stating
that the square of the
longest side
(hypotenuse) of a right
triangle is equal to the
sum of the squares of
the other two side
Total area of the
surface of a threedimensional object,
measured in square
units
The amount of turning
between two lines
meeting at a common
point:
the number placed before a letter that represents a variable in algebra, for
example, the “3” of “3x” in the equation “3x = 6”
angle:
the amount of turning between two lines meeting at a common point
constant :
a quantity having a fixed value that does not change or vary, such as a number
hypotenuse
the longest side of a right triangle, opposite the right angle
Pythagorean a proved geometric proposition stating that the square of the longest side
theorem
(hypotenuse) of a right triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of the other
two sides
rational
a real number that can be written as:
number:
• a ratio of two integers (fraction) excluding zero as a denominator
• a repeating or terminating decimal
• an integer
scatter plot:
a graphical diagram with points plotted to show a relationship between two
variables
prism:
a solid figure with ends that are identical polygons and with sides that are
parallelograms
surface area: total area of the surface of a three-dimensional object, measured in square units
Grade Ten Biology example
Used to describe a cell
or organism that has two
or more different
versions (alleles) of at
least one of its genes.
1. The genetic makeup of
an organism, as opposed
to its physical
characteristics
(phenotype)
2. A group of organisms
that share a similar
genetic makeup
The visible
characteristics of an
organism resulting from
the interaction between
its genetic makeup and
the environment
Allowing liquids, gases,
or magnetic fields to
pass through
One of two or more
alternative forms of a
gene, occupying the same
position (locus) on paired
chromo-somes and
controlling the same
inherited characteristic.
The involuntary
response of an
organism or one of its
parts toward or away
from a stimulus such as
heat or light.
A chemical compound
(nucleotide) occurring in
living organisms that
provides most of the
energy required by cells
during its conversion to
another nucleotide
(ADP).
A close association of
animals or plants of
different species that is
often, but not always, of
mutual benefit.
Sharing the same origin
but having a different
function, as do, for
example, the wing of a
bird and the fin of a fish
allele
ATP
genotype
heterozygous
homologous
permeable
phenotype
symbiosis
mutualism
tropism
One of two or more alternative forms of a gene, occupying the same position
(locus) on paired chromosomes and controlling the same inherited
characteristic. Also called allelomorph.
A chemical compound (nucleotide) occurring in living organisms that provides
most of the energy required by cells during its conversion to another
nucleotide (ADP). Full form adenosine triphosphate.
1. the genetic makeup of an organism, as opposed to its physical
characteristics (phenotype)
2. a group of organisms that share a similar genetic makeup
used to describe a cell or organism that has two or more different versions
(alleles) of at least one of its genes.
1. sharing a similar or related structure, position, function, or value
2. sharing the same origin but having a different function, as do, for example,
the wing of a bird and the fin of a fish
allowing liquids, gases, or magnetic fields to pass through
The visible characteristics of an organism resulting from the interaction
between its genetic makeup and the environment
A close association of animals or plants of different species that is often, but
not always, of mutual benefit.
The involuntary response of an organism or one of its parts toward or away
from a stimulus such as heat or light.
Think Tac Toe Template
3-D W OR DS 41 an “Outside the W ord” Strategy
3-D Wo rds (especially good for visual, auditory, kinesthetic and tactile learning) is a strategy
that builds vocabulary by requiring students to use the senses to attach meanings to words. You
can use it as a creative homework assignment to promote learning of technical vocabulary in
science or social studies. Here is how it works:
On Friday, each student selects a
word to learn. You can also provide
a list from which students can
choose their words.
As weekend homework, each
student creates a 3-D collage of his
or her word on an 8” x 11” piece of
heavy paper, with definition and
sample sentence. For example, one
student chose the word identical
and made his collage from sets of
real objects such as two LifeSavers
and two paper clips.
On Monday, students present their
collages to the class and post their
3-D Words on a word wall. During
the week, everyone records the
new words with definitions,
sentences, and drawings in their
vocabulary notebooks. You can also
have a few students share their
collages with the class over several
days.
41
From Stretching Students’ Vocabulary by Karen d’Angelo Bromley, Teaching Resources, 2002.
TOPIC V OCAB ULAR Y 42 an “Outsid e the Wo rd” Strategy
Name
Selection
Date
Period
Author
Directions: Think about a topic in the book or selection you have read. Write the topic in the
circle. Then think of some words related to this topic. First choose four of these words and
write one in each of the sections below. Next write a definition for this word that fits the way it
is used in the selection. Then find a passage in the selection that demonstrates how this word
is used and copy it on the lines below each word and definition or make up your own sentences
that use the word in the same way as it was used in the selection.
42
Source: NCTE August 2008 Classroom Notes Plus - Adapted by Karen Antikajian
VOCAB ULAR Y C UBES a “Word P lay” Strategy
Create a set of vocabulary cubes using the pattern on the following page. Run off pattern on
heavy paper. Cut out pattern and fold on dotted lines. Unfold and write a direction on each
side (see suggestions below). Fold the cube and glue on the beveled edges. Make a second or
third cube adding different directions on each.
Poss ible d ire ct ions to re co rd o n t he cu bes :
• Find a word that has a homophone. Tell the meaning of each one.
•
Find a word that has a homograph. Tell the meaning of each one.
•
Find one word with a prefix. Tell how the prefix changes the meaning of the word.
•
Find one word with a suffix. Tell how the prefix changes the meaning of the word.
•
Find a challenging word. Infer that word’s meaning using context clues.
•
Find a challenging word. Find two different meanings for that word.
•
Find 3 words with different suffixes. Tell the meaning of each suffix.
•
Find 3 words with different prefixes. Tell the meaning of each prefix.
•
Find 3 root words. Tell the meaning of each word
•
Pick a favorite word. Give a synonym for that word.
•
Pick a favorite word. Give an antonym for that word.
•
Find a word with both a prefix and a suffix.
•
Find a word with two suffixes.
•
Find a word with three syllables.
•
Find a word with four syllables.
•
Find a word with five or more syllables.
•
Find a word that has two meanings and tell what they are.
•
Find a word that has more than two meanings. Give at least three meanings.
Working with the Cubes:
Students work in pairs or small groups using one to two pages of a text that has been read
previously. Taking turns, the students roll the cube and follow the directions that are face up
on the cube.
1. If the player answers correctly, he or she gets a point.
2. If the player cannot answer correctly, no point is given.
3. If everyone agrees that the correct word or words are not in the text, the player gets
another turn.
4. Play continues until the agreed upon number of turns have been taken or time is up. If
time is up before everyone has had the same number of turns, those with extra turns
may not count them.
5. The player(s) with the highest total of points wins.
Variations: Teams play against each other. If one team cannot answer, the other team gets to
try. If they succeed, they get that point AND still get the next turn.
Name:
Date:
Period:
Vocabulary Exploration Chart43 An “Outside the Word” strategy
Word:
Know
1
2
3
4
Don’t Know
Definition/description:
drawing
Word:
related words
Know
1
2
3
4
Don’t Know
Definition/description:
drawing
43
Form created by Karen Antikajian
related words
VOCABULARY GRID an “Outside the Word” Strategy
The Vocabulary Grid is designed to help students develop not only the basic meaning of a word
but also the nuances of its meaning. It can take a more simple form or a more complex form.
The example on the below shows it’s use in a simple form. The teacher provides the vocabulary
word, which the student records in the oval shape. Then, as a class, the word is studied and a
student-friendly definition is provided and recorded in the rectangle below. Synonyms and
antonyms are identified and recorded in the small rectangles to the side. Then students come
up with examples of folks who do this or who are this word.
word
crabby
antonyms
synonyms
grouchy
cheerful
definition
pleasant
crab: to gripe or complain
grumpy
People who do this or are this
A person who does not feel well can sometimes be crabby.
A person who is upset can sometimes be crabby.
A more complex form of the vocabulary grid asks students to add a pronunciation guide, a
graphic representation and some reference to how it is spelled. The vocabulary grid on the
following page is an example of the use of the more complex grid. The grid should continue to
use student-friendly definitions, pronunciation keys and
VOCABULARY GRID
Name:
Date:
Section:
Title:
Author:
word
antonyms
synonyms
definition
People who do this or are this
VOCABULARY GRID—ADVANCED
Name:
Date:
Section:
Title:
Author:
pronunciation key
word
golly MA (it’s) free
odds and ends
gallimaufry
antonyms
synonyms
an organized collection
hodgepodge
definition
shelves of books in the library
A gallimaufry is a hodgepodge or jumble of
people or things.
a set of a b c cards in order on
a table
disorganized pile
graphic representation
situation/s where this occurs
spelling
1st syllable
gal
2nd syllable
li
3 syllable
mau
4th syllable
fry
rd
jumble of things
the junk drawer in our kitchen
my brother’s toy box
VOCABULARY GRID—ADVANCED
Name:
Date:
Section:
Title:
Author:
pronunciation key
word
AN - are - kissed
revolutionary
anarchist
antonyms
synonyms
loyalist
rebel
definition
a person who rebels against any authority,
established order, or ruling government or power
and/or a person who might use violent means to
overthrow a government
patriot
lawful person
radical
lawless person
graphic representation
situation/s where this occurs
spelling
1st syllable
an
After a dictator was overthrown, there was no government
and anarchists rioted.
2nd syllable
ar
3rd syllable
chist-(ch for k)
Some anarchists protested in the streets to complain about
the work of the World Trade Organization.
4th syllable
VOCABULARY GRID—ADVANCED
Name:
Date:
Section:
Title:
Author:
pronunciation key
word
antonyms
synonyms
definition
graphic representation
spelling
1st syllable
2nd syllable
3rd syllable
4th syllable
situation/s where this occurs
VOCAB ULAR Y LESS ON PLANNI N G MATRIX 44 a “Teach er Too l”
This tool is designed to help teachers identify key words that need to be pre-taught in a lesson
or unit of instruction. Follow these steps.
1. Read the text students will be reading to identify key vocabulary in the text.
2. Once a word or phrase is identified, place it in one of the grid boxes below. For example,
a word central to understanding the selection is placed in the middle column. If the word
is taught adequately within the text, it is placed in the bottom row. However, if it is not
taught in the text then place it in the middle column second row as a word that needs to
be taught by the teacher.
3. After completing a scan of the text, and plotting words into the grid, concentrate your
instruction on words placed in the area marked in outlined in bold.
Importance
Cen tra l
Conceptually central to
Understanding the selection
OR
Degree of Textural Support
Usefu l
High general utility but not
necessarily crucial for
understanding the selection
Imp ort ant
Important for understanding
the gist but not central to the
selection
Pres up po sed :
The author assumes that the
reader knows this word; the
text provides no support.
Su pp orte d :
The context, or the structure
of the word itself, supplies
sufficient information about
the word’s meaning to get
you through the selection.
Tau ght :
The text explicitly teaches the
word and the concept it refers
to.
44
Adapted from: Nagy, W. E. (1988). Teaching Vocabulary to Improve Reading Comprehension.
National Council of Teachers of English.
Urbana, IL: s:
VOCAB ULAR Y T EACHING AN D L EARNIN G WEB SITES
a “T ea cher Too l”
1. http://intranet.sps.lane.edu/curriculum/vocabulary.html - these are websites already linked
to Springfield’s Website.
2. www.brainpop.com - movie clips on various subjects – a few are free but you need a
subscription to access the whole site. (for students)
3. http://people.bu.edu/jpettigr/Artilces_and_Presentations/Vocabulary.htm -- two dozen
tips for teachers on teaching vocabulary
4. www.readingrockets.org/article/9943 - vocabulary research and strategies (quotes Michael
Graves) with 2 model lessons – purchase CORE”s (Consortium on Reading Excellence)
vocabulary handbook. (for teachers)
5. www.eslflow.com/vocabularylessonplans.html - teaching ideas for ESL teachers – lessons,
worksheets, games (fear list printed)
6. www.literacymatters.org/content/readandwrite/vocab.htm - Information for teachers on:
a. General Information on Content Reading Vocabulary (articles from IRA journals and
others)
b. Lesson Plans on Content Reading Vocabulary – The best link seems to be one called
Just Read Now which has 14 strategies with downloadable sheets from Lenski,
Marzano, etc)
c. Tools for Teaching Vocabulary (only three listed – one to buy Visual Thesaurus, one
not found, one a dictionary in various languages to look up words on web pages)
7. www.eduplace.com/state/pdf/author/pik_temp.pdf - article: Teaching and Developing
Vocabulary by John Pikulski and Shane Templeton (who will be at ORA) (for teachers)
8. http://litsite.alaska.edu/workbooks/readingvocabulary.html (Four Vocabulary Strategies for
High School Students (easily adaptable to Upper Elem and MS) (printed)
a. Word Jar
b. Vocabulary Frames
c. KIM (Key idea, Information, Memory Clue)
d. Vocabulary Blocks
9. www.literacy.uconn.edu/compre.htm - Under the umbrella of Reading Comprehension this
site begins with vocabulary - a wealth of links to sites and articles on teaching vocabulary as
well as some for student use (such as one where students create their own words). There
are lists of homonyms and oxymora (not oxymorons).
10.www.tki.org.nz/r/esol/esolonline/strategies_e.php - ESOL Online has many teaching and
learning ideas and activities for Writing, Reading, Speaking/Listening, and Vocabulary. I have
added the Before/After Vocabulary Grid to our strategies.
11. jc-schools.net/tutorials/vocab/TN.html – Tennessee’s Academic Vocabulary. Has several
links to strategies, an example of student vocabulary notebook page, and lists of academic
vocabulary words arranged by grade level and further divided by subject areas. Based on
Marzano’s six step process.
WHAT’S THE COMMON WORD? 45 a “Word Play” Strategy
Name
Date:
Period:
“The fact that people and trees and elephants and cars all have trunks just proves that there are more
things than there are words.”
—Scot Morris
1. To a jeweler, a
is a round band.
To someone answering the phone, a
To a boxer, a
is an enclosure to fight in.
To an astronomer, a
is a circle of matter surrounding a heavenly body.
To a cleaning lady, a
is something in the bathtub.
To someone at a carnival, a
is tossed around a peg.
To a circus performer, a
is where you perform.
To a pirate, a
is worn in his ear.
To a security guard, a
The word is
holds keys.
.
2. To most of us, a
is something at the end of our arm.
To a ship’s captain, a
is a crew member.
To a card player, a
is a collection or round of cards.
To an entertainer, a
is a round of applause.
To a clock maker, a
is a pointer on a dial.
To a calligrapher, a
is a style of writing.
To a horse trainer, a
is a measurement of height.
To a friend, a
is something you ask for when you want help.
To a pianist, a fourThe word is
45
is an audible signal.
piece is a duet.
.
Adapted by Karen Antikajian from Get Thee to a Punnery: An Anthology of Intentional Assaults Upon the English
Language by Richard Lederer, Gibbs Smith, 2006.
3. To a florist, a
dragon is a kind of flower.
To a gardener, a
tells if a green bean is fresh.
To a photographer, a
is a quick picture.
To a dressmaker, a
is a kind of fastener.
To a cook, a
is a kind of cookie made with ginger.
To a turtle, a
is a means of defense.
To most of us, a
is something we do with our fingers.
The word is
.
4. To a carpenter, an
works with a hook.
To a dart player, an
is something you try to hit.
To a farmer, an
is part of a potato.
To a tailor, an
is at the end of a needle.
To a weatherman, an
is at the center of a storm.
To a florist, an
is at the center of a flower.
To a peacock, an
The word is
is the round spot on his feather.
.
5. To a musician, a
is a group of notes in succession.
To a climber, to
is to reach the top of a mountain.
To a grocer, a
is used to weigh produce.
To a hobbyist, a
model is a smaller version.
To a fish, a
is a body covering.
To a wrestler, a
helps him watch his weight.
To a mapmaker, a
shows the comparison of inches to miles.
The word is
.
Now try some of your own. You might use words like cross, run, tail, horn, or cord (chord).
Think of who might use it and how.
Which L anguages Are R elat ed? 46 A Quick L esson
in Comparative L ingu ist ics a “Teach er Too l”
Each column in the table below represents the numbers 1 to 10 in a different language. Read
the words and decide which languages you think belong to a common family. Then decide which
two languages are the most closely related.
A
one
two
three
four
five
six
seven
eight
nine
ten
B
unus
duo
tres
quattuor
quinque
sex
septem
octo
novem
decem
C
ichi
ni
san
shi
go
roku
nana
hachi
kyu
ju
D
heis
duo
treis
tettares
pente
heks
hepta
okto
ennea
deka
E
um
dois
tres
quatro
cinco
seis
sete
oito
nove
dez
F
ekas
dva
trayas
catvaras
panca
sat
sapta
asta
nava
dasa
The languages, from left to right, are A) English, B) Latin, C) Japanese, D) Classical Greek, E)
Portuguese, and F) Sanskrit. (Japanese, Greek, and Sanskrit have been transliterated — written
in the Roman alphabet.) You probably noticed some similarities among all of the languages
except Japanese. In fact, all except Japanese (column C) belong to the Indo-European family.
Latin (column B) and Portuguese (column E) are the most closely related; Portuguese is one of
the Romance languages that's derived from Latin.
Using the comparative method, linguists examine words from two or more languages,
concentrating on words that are likely to endure over time. Numbers, personal pronouns, basic
verbs such as t o be , and basic nouns such as m ilk are the beginning of any comparative
study. Linguists look for similarities - but they also look for regular differences. In the table, for
example, notice that the t in the English "two" and "ten" corresponds to d in the other IndoEuropean languages. It turns out that this change from d to t is part of a consonant sound
shift that distinguishes the Germanic languages, including English, from their Indo-European
relatives.
Here is another example of comparative analysis across languages. The word is hand.
English
hand
Danish
haand
German
hant
Russian
Polish
Serbo-Croatian
ruka
reka
ruka
Spanish
Italian
Rumanian
mano
mano
mine
46
Drawn Ruhlen, M. (2005). A Guide to the Languages of the World. Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press.
WOR D C UBE an “In sid e and Out sid e the W ord ” Strat egy
Directions: Complete your
Variation: Follow the
DEFINE:
word cube by filling in each
directions but leave the
Adapted
by Karen
. New York:
side
of the
cube Antikajian
using thefrom Nickelsen, LeAnn. (1998) Voluminous Vocabulary
top unglued
so Scholasti
it can be
following guidelines. Then,
opened. Draw a graphic
cut the cube out, fold along
representation of the word
the dotted lines, and glue
and put it inside the cube.
together.
ANALYZE:
:
CREATE:
ASSOCIATE:
APPLY:
AN AL YZE : List the part of
speech; the root word, or
any affixes.
APP L Y: What can YOU do
with this word? How can you
use it?
DEFI NE: Write a short
definition of the word.
CO M P AR E: what is it similar
to or different from?
COMPARE:
CRE ATE : Make up a
sentence using this word so
that others will understand
it.
ASS O CI ATE : How is this
word related to your life?
What does it make you think
of?
Adapted by Karen Antikajian from Nickelsen, LeAnn. (1998) Voluminous Vocabulary. New York: Scholastic
WOR D KN OWLEDGE ASS ESSM ENT CHART S—2 “T ea cher Too ls”
Here are two common methods that one might use to assess student’s background knowledge
on key vocabulary for a particular unit. They include the whole class chart method and the
individual student assessment using the blackline master on the following page.
METHOD ONE47
This method is an easy way to assess a class’ general knowledge of words that are in the text
and that you feel may be challenging for your students. List the words on a piece of chart
paper leaving room between them. Place this paper on an easel that faces the wall to ensure
students’ privacy. During a work time, students take turns going up to the chart to place a red,
yellow, or green dot next to each word to indicate a level of knowledge for that word. A red
dot indicates the word is completely unknown while a yellow dot indicates a fuzzy meaning and
might be understood in context. If a student places a green dot next to a word it indicates he
or she knows the word and could use it independently in speaking and writing. After students
have completed the chart, the teacher can quickly scan it to determine which words require the
most instruction. This is a quick way to assess word knowledge and the fact that it is
anonymous may give more accurate results.
Modification: Instead of using sticky dots, you can have the students use markers.
METHOD TWO48
Give students the blackline master on the following page listing the key vocabulary in the left
hand column that you have selected for the upcoming unit. Ask students to simply rate their
knowledge of each word.
Please note, if you are not sure about which words are the key words in this unit, please use
the Vocabulary Planning Matrix included in these materials to identify which words are most
crucial to teach.
47
48
Adapted from Nutritious Vocabulary by Shira Lubliner and Judith A. Scott, Corwin Press, 2008
Based on Blachowicz 1991 and Words, Words, Words: Teaching Vocabulary in Grades 4-12 by Janet Allen,
Stenhouse, 1999
Name
Date
Pe riod
ASSESS YOUR WORD KNOWLEDGE
Directions: Look at the words in the column on the left under WORD. Think about each one and
then place an X in the appropriate box. Be ready to explain or illustrate your responses.
Wor d
Don’t
Know
At All
Have
Seen or Heard
Can
Say
Can
Define
Can Use
In a Sentence
WOR D LA DDER a “Word Pla y” S trategy
Wor d L add er is a word game invented by Lewis Carroll, the author of books such as Alice's
Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. It was originally known as a
"dou b let" or "wo rd -lin ks".
The player is given a sta rt wo rd and an e nd wo rd. In order to win the game, the player must
change the s tart w or d into the e nd w or d progressively, creating an existing word at each
step. To do so, the player can do one of the following on each step: 1) add a letter; 2) remove
a letter; 3) change a letter; or 4) Use the same letters in different order.
peaks
speak
(different letter order)
peak
(remove a letter)
peat
(change a letter)
meat
(change a letter)
mat
(remove a letter)
ma n
(change a letter)
ma ne
(add a letter)
mine
(change a letter)
mine r
(add a letter)
min or
(change a letter)
ma no r
(change a letter)
ro ma n
(different letter order)
It is o.k to add hints to the
ladders to help students come
up with the desired changes. In
this example, the player is
given the start word pe aks
and the end word r om an.
Usually, the best and quickest
way to change one word into
another is to simplify the start
wo rd into a three-letter word
(there are many in the English
language), change that threeletter word into a word that
suits the needs of the player
and then build on it until the
end wo rd is achieved.
W OR D L ADDE R
Name
Date
Period
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
5.
5.
6.
6.
7.
7.
8.
8.
9.
9.
10.
10.
11.
11.
12.
12.
WOR D ORIGIN EXPLOR E: USE TH E DICTION ARY 49
an “Inside and Outside the Word” Strat egy
An ordinary dictionary can be a great place to start learning about the extraordinary history of
words. This information is packed between the two brackets [ ] right before the definition.
For example, look up the word wind o w . You'll find that it comes from the Middle English (ME)
wind ow e , which came from the Old Norse (ON) vinda u ga , which itself was formed from the
two Old Norse words vind r , which meant "wind," and a u ga , which meant "eye." So window
once meant "wind-eye," a poetic description appropriately suggesting a window's function of
letting in both air and light.
In the dictionary the earlier forms of a word are given in italics, and their definitions, when
different from the meaning of the modern English form, are given in ordinary (roman) type.
Here are some of the dictionary's most common abbreviations:
OE - Old E n glish, 7th to 12th centuries
ME - Middle English, 12th to 15th centuries
ON - ld N o rse
OHG - Old High German
MF - Middle French
L - Latin
Gk - G reek
Skt - Sans krit
The abbreviation fr stands fo r "from" and indicates that a word came from an earlier form. The
phrase a kin to is used before words that are related to the original entry, although they are
not its direct ancestors. The words mo re at direct you to another dictionary entry where
related words will be found.
Find the history of other words. Look up words you've been curious about, or browse through
the dictionary until a word catches your interest. Below are some words that have interesting
histories.
book | poet | handsome | see | money | husband | stop | physics | mathematical
Two great books on the history of some English words are: Word Histories and Mysteries: From
Abracadabra to Zeus (2004) and More Word Histories and Mysteries: From Aardvark to Zombie
(2006) by the Editors of The American Heritage Dictionaries and published by Houghton Mifflin
Harcourt.
49
This strategy was developed by Paul Weill.
WORD PUZZLES: WACKY WORDIES, 50 PUNDLES, & PLEXERS
a “Word Play” Strategy
The object of word puzzles like Wacky Wordies, Pundles, and Plexers, or is to figure out what
familiar phrase, saying, cliché, or name is represented by each arrangement of letters and/or
symbols. For example, in the puzzle below the arrangement of words in box 1a represents the
phrase“ sleeping on the job,” while the answer to 1b is “cornerstone.” (Answers on the next page)
50
Source: Fry, E.F., & Kress, J.E. (2000). The Reading Teacher’s Book of Lists (4th ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Answ ers to Wa ck y Wor die P uzz le
1a. Sleeping on the job
1b. Cornerstone
1c. High jinks
1d. Getting up before the crack of dawn
1e. “Roger, over and out”
1f. Narrow escape
5a. No U-Turn
5b. Weeping Willow
5c. Suspended animation
5d. “Pretty please with sugar on top”
5e. Receding hairline
5f. Elevator out of order
2a. Equal rights
2b. Little House on the Prairie
2c. Waving goodbye
2d. Condensed milk,
2e. Two-car garage
2f. Stand-up comic
6a. Double-decker bus,
6b. Middle-age spread
6c. “Tiptoe Through the Tulips”
6d. “Three Blind Mice”
6e. Raised eyebrows,
6f. Steal from the rich and give to the poor.
3a. Lucille Ball
3b. Partly cloudy
3c. “I before E except after C”
3d. Mixed greens
3e. Spiraling inflation
3f. Polka-dotted
7b. Top of the morning
7c. Light socket
7d. Tortilla Flat
7e. Safety in numbers
7f. Round of drinks on the house.
4a. Full-length mirror
4b. Man in the moon
4c. Clams on the half-shell
4d. “The check is in the mail”
4e. Count Dracula
4f. Open-and-shut case
Pu nd les a nd P lexe rs a re othe r na mes fo r th e sa me kind o f p uzz le .
HAHANDND
zzzzzz
WOR D SCAL ES 51 an “Outside the Word ” Strat egy
Name:
Date:
Period:
Brainstorm words to replace boring, simple words with vivid and rich words. First, write a
simple word in the word box below and brainstorm all of the words you can think of that could
replace that word.
Write the simple
word below.
Brainstorm others words that might replace the simple word.
Decide which words express more of what this word means and which words
express less. Rank the words and put them on the scale.
Really
A little
Write another simple word in the word box below and brainstorm all of the words you can think
of that could replace that word.
Write the simple
word below.
Brainstorm others words that might replace the simple word.
Decide which words express more of what this word means and which words
express less. Rank the words and put them on the scale.
Really
A little
51
Source: Getting Into Words: Vocabulary Instruction that Strengthens Comprehension by Shira Lubliner. Paul H.
Brookes, 2005. Adapted by Karen Antikajian
Name
Date:
Period:
WORD SORT: WHICH WORDS BELONG TOGETHER? 52
an “Outside the Word” strategy
Directions: The words below are from the selection you just read or are about to read.
See if you can decide which words belong together. Decide why they belong together
and make a name for the group or category. If one or two words don't fit, put a circle
around them and leave them out. Some categories may have more words than others.
Sort Words Below
52
Source: Guiding Reading and Writing in the Content Areas: Practical Strategies by M. Carrol Tama and Anita Bell McClain,
Kendall/Hunt, 2001, p 157. Adapted by Karen Antikajian
Name
Date:
Period:
WORD SORT
WHICH WORDS BELONG TOGETHER?
Directions: The words below are from the selection you just read or are about to read.
See if you can decide which words belong together. Decide why they belong together
and make a name for the group or category. If one or two words don't fit, put a circle
around them and leave them out. Some categories may have more words than others.
forte
staccato
warm
soprano
legato
crescendo
sonorous
alto
slur
tenor
diminuendo
resonant
bass
pianissimo
shrill
sforzando
mezzo piano
sostenuto
maestoso
dissonant
Open Word Sort for Musical Terms
Name
Date:
Period:
WORD SORT
WHICH WORDS BELONG TOGETHER?
Directions: The words below are from the selection you just read or are about to read.
See if you can decide which words belong together. Decide why they belong together
and make a name for the group or category. If one or two words don't fit, put a circle
around them and leave them out. Some categories may have more words than others.
forte
staccato
warm
soprano
legato
crescendo
sonorous
alto
slur
tenor
diminuendo
resonant
bass
pianissimo
shrill
sforzando
mezzo piano
sostenuto
maestoso
dissonant
Closed Word Sort for Musical Terms
Articulati on
Pitch
Volume
Tone Quality
Name
Date
Period
WOR D T REE 53 an “Inside and Outsid e the W ord ” Strat egy
Use this word tree to explore all the uses of one word. First, in box 1 write a word from your
reading. Record its root word in the box at the base of the tree. Then record as many uses of
the root word in the tree around box 1. To come up with words to record, you can mine your
memory—think of all the words you know. Plus you can use a dictionary to locate other words
that can be constructed from the base word.
change one’s tune
change one’s tune
change hands
changeling
change one’s mind
changeful
unchanged
make change
changeover
1. exchange
changer
changeably
changeless
changeup
change – verb (to make different)
changed
changing
change – noun (variety)
change – noun (money)
Record the root word here.
change
53
A note to teachers: Word Tree works best with base words that take multiple forms. This tool was
developed by Karen Antikajian
Name
Date
Period
WOR D T REE
Use this word tree to explore all the forms of one word you can think of. First, in box one write
a word from your reading. Record the root or base word of the word in box 1 in the box at the
base of the tree. Then write other forms of the base word or expressions using the base word
in the crown around box 1. To come up with words to record you can mine your memory—
think of all the words you know. Plus you can use a dictionary to locate other words that can
be constructed from the base word.
1.
Record the root word here.
WOR DO 54 a “Wo rd Pla y” Strategy
Duplicate the WORDO game board sheets and cut the boards apart. Give a game board to each
student along with nine markers (dried pasta, paper clips, candy, etc.) Cut apart the WORDO
Master Cards and shuffle thoroughly or put into a container and shake them up. The monitor
will draw one card at a time and read the root, the meaning, and the example word.
Option: Make an overhead transparency of the Master Card List and project the page so players
can see it easily. As the roots, meanings, and example words are read, the monitor puts a check
in the box. This allows students to see how the word roots are spelled and look for similar
spellings on their game boards. An alternative is to have the game monitor (or an assistant)
write each word root on the board as it is drawn.
GAME RULES AND STRATEGIES
The rules for WORDO are similar to BINGO.
1. The game monitor draws a card and reads it aloud, including the root, definition, and
example. He or she then puts a check mark in the box on the overhead transparency (or
writes it on the board) and sets the card aside.
2. If players have a word on their board that is derived from the root on the card, they can
cover or circle the word.
3. If their board doesn’t have a word, players may make one based on the root, write this
word on a scrap of paper, and cover the MAKE A WORD space. This word must be
different from the sample word on the Master Card. Players may make up only one word
during the game, since there is only one MAKE A WORD space per game board.
4. The first player to cover three words in a row (across, down, diagonally) says, “Wordo.”
The game monitor checks the board for mistakes and either declares a winner or
continues game play (if a mistake is found). To verify answers the game monitor may
consult a dictionary.
5. Before playing another game students may trade cards with another student or use the
same card (after removing all markers).
6. If a word consists of two roots (photograph, biography) it may count for either but not
both.
VARIATIONS:
1. Cover All Game: Play a “cover all” game in which players must cover every square to win.
2. Star Game: Play a game in which players must cover four corners and the center.
3. As a class create a master list of roots from vocabulary words used in current curriculum
areas. Let students use these vocabulary words and/or others with the same roots to
create new game boards. Create master cards to be used in the game.
54
Adapted by Karen Antikajian from Egan, L. H., (2001) Vocabulary and Word Study Games. New York: Scholastic
pp. 35-39
WORDO MASTER CARDS FOR GRADE 6
aqua
“water”
EXA MPL E:
aquarium
act
ag
agi
“to do, move,
or go”
EXA MPL E:
active
duct
duc
duce
“lead”
gram
graph
“write, written,
drawn”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
conduct
paragraph
phon
“sound, voice”
rupt
“break, burst”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
phonograph
rupture
mit
mis
“to send, to
throw”
anni
annu
enni
“year”
arch
archi
“chief, first,
ruler”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
transmit
anniversary
monarchy
geo
“earth”
man
“hand”
nym
onym
“name, word”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
geography
manuscript
EXA MPL E:
synonym
scrib
script
“to write”
therm
“heat”
tox
“poison”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
thermometer
toxic
photo
“light”
port
“to carry”
scope
“to watch”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
photocopy
portable
telescope
form
“to shape”
bio
“life”
magn
“great”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
transform
biography
hydro
hydra
hydr
“water”
EXA MPL E:
describe
cycl
cyclo
“wheel,
circular”
meter
metr
“measure”
EXA MPL E:
EXA MPL E:
metric
bicycle
tract
tra
“to draw, pull”
EXA MPL E:
attract
EXA MPL E:
dehydrate
On the following pages are Wordo Game Board Sets 1 and 2.
EXA MPL E:
magnificent
WORDO GAME BOARDS -1
aqualung
deduce
interrupt
microscope
aqueduct
agent
a ty pe of
scuba g ea r
to com e to a
conclusion
to hal t th e
flow of a
sp eak er or
dis turb him
a d evi ce that
enlarg es an
image/ob j ec t
a pi p e o r
channel for
moving water
a p erson who
rep resen ts
someon e el se
antitoxin
abstract
prescribe
not r elating to
conc rete
objects
to r eco mm en d
a cou rse of
action
MAKE
A
WORD
autograph
an antibo dy
for a
par ticula r
toxin
MAKE
A
WORD
react
permit
geology
thermostat
manage
biology
to r espon d to
something
to allow or
give
per mission
the s tu dy of
the s truc tu re
of th e
Ear th/ plan et
a d evi ce to
regula te
tem p era tur e
to su c ceed in
doing
something
the s ci enc e
dealing wi th
forms of life
manicure
cyclone
scribble
disruptive
magnify
submit
tr ea tm en t fo r
the han ds and
nails
a larg e scal e
stor m wi th
rain an d wind s
to wri te
something
hastily
inter rup ting
normal
prog ress or
ord er
to caus e
something to
app ear la rger
to han d
something in
or sugg es t it
annual
telegraph
intermittent
a m ethod of
long dis tan ce
com munica tion
happ ening
from ti m e to
tim e
MAKE
A
WORD
photogenic
happ ening
once a y ear
MAKE
A
WORD
pseudonym
symphony
subtract
acronym
stethoscope
magnitude
not a p erson’ s
cor rec t na m e
– es pecially
author
a ma jor wor k
for an
orch es tra
to with d raw or
tak e a way
from a larg er
unit
a wor d for med
from initials of
sev eral wo r ds
a m edical
instrum en t fo r
listening
grea tn ess of
size, volu me
or ex ten t
geometry
bionic
matriarchy
uniform
euphonious
missile
math emati cs
dealing wi th
lines, angles,
etc .
replacing a
human par t
with an
elec troni c on e
social or d er wom en a re th e
head s of
families
same in
quality,
deg r ee, or
manner
having a
pleasan t soun d
an obj ec t
thro wn o r
launched
formula
transport
anonymous
to car ry
peo pl e o r
goods
name not
known o r gi ven
MAKE
A
WORD
report
a plan or
metho d of
doing
something
MAKE
A
WORD
hydrogen
unicycle
millimeter
photography
barometer
biennial
highly rea c tiv e
colorless gas
vehi cle wi th a
single wh eel
a unit on
thousand th of
a m eter
taking pi ctu r es
with a cam era
devic e measu r e
atmos ph eri c
pr essu r e
happ ening
ev er y two
yea rs
a signatu r e,
es pecially of a
famous person
looking good
in
photog raph s
to giv e
information
about
WORDO Game Boards - 2
centennial
produce
archaic
subscribe
import
architect
rela ting to a
perio d of a
hundr ed y ears
to mak e o r
cr ea te
something
belonging to a
much earli er
perio d
pro mis e to pa y
for so mething
when it o ccu rs
bring in fro m
another
country
a p erson who
designs
buildings
hydrant
MAKE
A
WORD
thermos
phonetic
periscope
object to hol d
liquid at a
constan t tem p
rep resen ting
the soun ds of
human s p eech
MAKE
A
WORD
devic e for
seeing things
that a re not in
a line
an up righ t pi pe
connected to a
water main
toxicology
abrupt
aquatic
cyclic
conform
admit
the s ci enc e of
the s tu dy of
poisons
sud den an d
unexp ected
connected wi th
water
occu rring or
rep eated in
cy cles
to b ehav e in
an ex p ec ted
way
acknowl edg e
that
something is
tru e
graph
magnanimous
meter
hydrophobia
tricycle
agitate
a diag ram to
indica te
rela tionshi ps
very g enerous,
kind and
forgiving
a pa ttern of
rhy th m in
vers e o r b ea ts
in musi c
an intens e
aver sion to o r
fear of wa ter
a th r eewheeled
vehi cle
to mak e
something
mov e
vigorously
biopsy
MAKE
A
WORD
emit
perennial
aquamarine
to s en d or giv e
out so m ething
constan tl y
recu rring or
lasting
MAKE
A
WORD
graphite
maneuver
kaleidoscope
cacophony
formal
photograph
a soft black o r
dark g ray for m
of carbon
a mov emen t
or a ction
requi ring s kill
a co mpl ex,
colorful,
shifting
pattern
an unpl easan t
combina tion of
loud soun ds
done in an
organized an d
pr ecise manner
a p rin t o r
slid e f rom film
hypothermia
reduce
emancipate
induce
support
tractable
dangerously
low bod y
tem p era tur e
to b ecom e o r
mak e
something
smaller
to f ree fro m
slavery or
bondage
to caus e o r
bring abou t –
persua d e o r
influenc e
to keep
uprigh t or in
plac e
easy to
control o r
persua d e –
easy to b en d
homonym
bankrupt
semiannual
judg ed unabl e
to pay personal
deb ts
happ ening
twi ce a y ear
MAKE
A
WORD
graphology
wor d s p elled
or sai d th e
same wa y as
another
MAKE
A
WORD
the s tu dy of
handw riting or
wri ting
sys tems
inscribe
thermal
intoxicated
homophone
perform
magnum opus
to wri te, p rin t,
or engra ve
wor ds o r
letter s
about,
involving, o r
pro ducing
heat
inten sel y
exci ted o r
over joy ed drun k with
alcohol
wor d
pronoun ced
that sa me as
another
wor d(s)
to car ry ou t an
action or ta sk
chief wor k,
mas ter piece
the removal of
a sam pl e of
human tissu e
a gr eenishblue color or
gem
WORDO Game Boards - Blackline
MAKE
A
WORD
MAKE
A
WORD
MAKE
A
WORD
MAKE
A
WORD
MAKE
A
WORD
MAKE
A
WORD
YOU MA Y B E AS KING : “WHICH WOR DS SHOUL D I TEACH? ”
a “T ea cher Too l”
Beck, McKeown, and Kucan55 suggest that teachers sort words to teach in three tiers based on
the utility of the words. The three tiers are:
Tier One:
Common words known by most students.
Tier Two:
Words that have high utility but are not already known by most students.
Tier Three:
Words that are so obscure or infrequent at a particular grade level that it
makes little sense to teach them at all.
They suggest that teachers concentrate on tier two words. Tier two words can be identified by
using the following questions designed to identify how important a word is to comprehending
the text:
1. What kind of co n cept ua l loa d does this word carry? Words have a high conceptual load
when the word is abstract and represents a concept that most children do not know or
understand and is critical to grasping learning the content to be taught.
2. How much ut ilit y does this word have? Words have high utility when they are likely to be
encountered again and again in grade level texts.
3. How freq ue ntly does this word occur in the text? When a word occurs frequently in the
text, in various forms, it is more likely the student will construct meaning about the
concept.
4. Can a student infer word meaning from the cont extu al s up po rt in the passage?
Contextual support refers to the extent to which the student can understand the word
based on the cues provided in the text. Text that is too simple or too complex is
inconsiderate to students as they develop vocabulary.
5. Does the structure of the word provide a high level of support for determining the meaning
of the word? Morp h olo gica l s upp o rt refers to the extent to which students can use
morphology (base word, roots, prefixes and suffixes) to determine the word’s meaning.
6. What is the percentage of u nk no wn w ords in this text? Identifying the percentage of
unknown words in the text helps the teacher know how much vocabulary instruction will
need to be provided. A text that has 15 percent or more of unknown words (dividing the
number of unknown words by the total number of words) would provide a high level of
frustration.
55
Beck, I. L. & M. G McKeown & L. Kucan (2002). Bringing Words to Life: Robust Vocabulary Instruction. New York:
The Guilford Press.
Antonym Domino es A Word P lay Too l
To make a set of antonym dominoes:
1. Get two sheets of 11 by 17 inch craft foam in one color. These foam sheets are about ¼
inch in thickness.
2. Print the blackline masters on the following pages on sheets of address labels (10 labels
per page).
3. Please note: The third page of the blackline repeats the top four dominoes (in rows one
and two) with an identical set of four dominoes in rows 3 and 4. Then the last row has
two identical dominoes that list the directions of the game. This third sheet is designed
to provide the dominoes that you need to make two sets. Print one copy of page one,
one copy of page two and one copy of page three. Then cut apart page three in such a
way that you can use half of the labels for this set of dominoes. You will have half of
page three left to use to make another set.
4. Peel the labels off the address label sheet and stick them on the foam backing leaving
about a quarter inch border around each.
cold
big
5. Cut each foam domino apart and place all pieces in a zip-lock bag for storage.
6. Follow these rules. They are printed on one domino.
•
•
•
•
•
•
Two players place all dominoes face down on the table.
Swirl them around to mix them up.
Each player takes 6 dominoe, turns them face up in front of himself. This is his working pile to
draw from.
Pick 1 domino from the pile. Place it on the table, face up.
Choose one person to start. That person looks at his dominoes to see if he has an antonym
for one word on the center domino. If so, he places his dominoe either horizontally or
vertically next to the center domino. If he has not match he draws a new domino and play
moves to the next person.
The winner is the first to get rid of all his dominoes.
cold
big
sweet
hot
little
happy
quiet
wet
sweet
bad
asleep
good
cold
loud
play
black
white
asleep
awake
wet
awake
play
near
work
far
young
loud
happy
sad
near
old
big
far
black
dry
hot
young
sour
white
old
sad
little
quiet
dry
good
work
sour
bad
sad
little
quiet
dry
good
work
sour
bad
• Two players place all dominoes face down on the table.
• Swirl them around to mix them up.
• Each player takes 6 dominoe, turns them face up in front of
• Two players place all dominoes face down on the table.
• Swirl them around to mix them up.
• Each player takes 6 dominoe, turns them face up in front of
• Pick 1 domino from the pile. Place it on the table, face up.
• Choose one person to start. That person looks at his dominoes
• Pick 1 domino from the pile. Place it on the table, face up.
• Choose one person to start. That person looks at his dominoes
•
•
himself. This is his working pile to draw from.
to see if he has an antonym for one word on the center domino.
If so, he places his dominoe either horizontally or vertically
next to the center domino. If he has not match he draws a new
domino and play moves to the next person.
The winner is the first to get rid of all his dominoes.
himself. This is his working pile to draw from.
to see if he has an antonym for one word on the center domino.
If so, he places his dominoe either horizontally or vertically
next to the center domino. If he has not match he draws a new
domino and play moves to the next person.
The winner is the first to get rid of all his dominoes.
•
BARRIER BOX G AME: a W ord P la y Strategy and Tea cher To ol
Use The Barrier Box Game to teach young students the meaning of key concept and high utility
school words. Two people play the game by giving instructions to the other about where to
place objects on a small table that is hidden from the other person by a barrier—in this case a
paper box lid.
Many students come to school with little familiarity and/or understanding of key English words
that will help shape their learning in the first months of school. For one barrier box set, you will
need to construct a set of materials including a barrier box, two tables, and two sets of small
objects stored in zip lock bags.
Bar rie r B o xe s:
Collect a paper box lid and cover it with contact paper if you
desire. You may also use the boxes that gardening stores
give out in which to place your small plants for home delivery.
Any cardboard box lid will work that is big enough to provide
a barrier between the student and the teacher or two
students and that can stand alone on its side.
Two T a bl es:
You can find/purchase two small tables that would be used as doll furniture
or you can construct them. They should be small enough to clearly fit on
either side of the barrier box. It works best if the table sits high enough so
that some objects can be placed under the table, to the side of the table,
and on top of the table. To make tables, cut pieces of Masonite or plywood
4 by 6 inch rectangles. Sandinto
them if needed. Cut four legs (about 3 ½ inches long) from a 3/8 inch
dowel. Attach to the table with wood glue and/or nails.
Two Set s o f S mal l O bj ects St o re d i n Ba ggi e s:
Collect two of a number of small objects that have various shapes and sizes, and colors. One good
source of these items is cheap party favors such a rings, balls, toy cars, etc. Another source of things
can be found around the classroom: erasers, pencils, small scissors, pens, blocks, small pieces of colored
paper, etc. You can also purchase small plastic fruits and vegetables. You should place about15
identical items in each of two Ziploc bags.
To U s e t he Ba rri e r B ox es:
Work from the list of words on the following page titled “Key Vocabulary to Teach Language-Deprived
Primary Students. The object of this game is to have the student listen to the directions (such as “Place
a red pencil under the table”) and correctly follow the directions. Recruit a parent or older student to
work with one young student at a time. Set the Barrier Box on a student desk. Seat the young student
on one side of the desk. Place the barrier box in the middle of the desk and place the little tables on the
desk on either side of the barrier. Have the parent or older student sit on the opposite side of the desk
so that the box lid becomes a barrier between one small table and the other. Then give the young
student a baggie of goodies that he/she will need in order to play the game. Tell him that you will be
giving him a set of directions that he is to follow. Provide directions to the student using specific words
on the following list such as “Place a green crayon on top of the table”). Using the objects in your
baggie place the correct object/s in the right location relative to the small table as the student places his
objects too. Remove the barrier box to check for accuracy and give feedback to the student on his
performance. Be sure to emphasize the concepts you are developing by including that word in your
feedback (Yes, you placed the yellow eraser on the table. Or, if the student needs correcting, you might
say: When I say place the eraser on the table, that would be placing it right here on the top of the table
like this.)
Possible statements might include directions such as:
1. Put THREE things UNDER the table.
2. Set the small CHAIR at the CORNER of the table.
3. Leave the table EMPTY.
4. Find AT LEAST THREE ORANGE things and place them in the MIDDLE of the table.
5. Find the piece of paper with the word on it. UNDERLINE the word and place it TO THE SIDE
OF THE TABLE.
6. Find a piece of paper. WRITE your name on the paper with a YELLOW PENCIL. Place it in
AWAY FROM the table.
KEY VO C ABU L AR Y T O TE AC H
L AN GU AGE- DEP RI VE D PRI M AR Y ST U DEN TS 1
Spa ce
Co n cept s
top
through
away from
next to
inside
middle
farthest
around
over
between
nearest
corner
under
behind
in a row
center
side
below
right and/or
left
forward
above
separate/ed
in order
on
off
1
Qua nt it y/ Size
Co n cept s
some, not many
few
widest
most
whole
second
several
almost
half
empty
full
all
as many
not first, or last
medium-sized
zero
every
pair
equal
third
least
big
small
none
Time
Co n cept s
after
beginning
never
always
days of
week
M is cella neo us
different
other
alike/same
matches
skip
Co lo r
Wor ds
red
yellow
green
black
brown
blue
white
purple
orange
Sch oo l Wor ds
pencil
paper
crayon
point
touch
look
underline
write
say
color
blackboard
chalkboard or
whiteboard
chair
desk
recess
lunch
textbook or
book
teacher
principal
This list was created by combining a number of lists including the Boehm Basic Concept List, English Language
Learner Lists, and High Frequency Word Lists
Hink P inks 1 A W ord P lay Strategy
Hink pinks are riddles. The answers to the riddles are words that rhyme with each other and
contain the same number of syllables.
• A hink pink has two word answers with each word containing 1 syllable.
• A hinky pinky has two word answers with each word containing 2 syllables.
• A hinkity pinkity has two word answers with each word containing has 3 syllable.
Hink Pink:
An “unhappy father”
Answer:
sad dad
Hinky Pinky:
A sleepy puppy
Answer:
Groggy Doggy
Hinkity Pinkity:
The White House
Answer:
President's residence
Teachers know that "through riddles children gather and interpret data, make inferences, and
draw conclusions. When provided with the riddle's solution, they interpret this new
information, construct meanings to clarify and extend knowledge, and gain insight into the
essence of these brief puzzles as well as their own learning" For younger kids, guessing a
Hink Pink might be difficult. You may want to provide half of the Hink Pink for them.
Hink Pinks:
What is a hink pink for a chubby kitty?
What is a hink pink for an angry father?
What is a hink pink for a huge hog?
What do you call a crying father?
What is a hink pink for a squashed feline?
What is a hink pink for a pretty horse
What is a hink pink for a sham cobra?
What is a hink pink for a huge flying animal?
What is a hink pink for a canine in a cloud?
What is a hink pink for a dark bag?
What is a hink pink for a squashed flying animal?
What is a hink pink for a plywood cutlass?
What is a hink pink for a bad amusement?
What is a hink pink for a good shaft?
What is a hink pink for a K-9 that sleeps like firewood?
What is a hink pink for a salamander shoe?
What is a hink pink for a good orchestra?
What is a hink pink for a warm bed?
What is a hink pink for a sushi plate?
What is a hink pink for a stale loaf?
What is a hink pink for an orca prison?
What is a hink pink for an antelope drink?
What is a hink pink for a fast elevator?
Answers:
a fat cat
a mad dad
big pig
a sad dad
flat cat
fair mare
fake snake
fat bat
a dog in the fog
black sack
flat bat
board sword
lame game
fine mine
a dog that sleeps like a log
a newt boot
a grand band
a hot cot
a fish dish
dead bread
a whale jail
elk milk
a shift lift
1
There are several great website for numerous examples of hink pinks. Just type in hink pink in your search
window.
1
Hinky Pinkies:
What do you call a rabbit that tells jokes?
What is a cute young cat?
What is a Hinky Pinky for a small violin?
What is a hinky pinky for a hard molasses mocha?
What is a hinky pinky for a smelly finger?
What is a hinky pinky for an expensive frozen drink?
What is a hinky pinky for a happy Tinkerbell?
What is a hinky pinky for a weird ape?
What is a hinky pinky for a lawful bird?
What is a hinky pinky for a stomach full of jam?
What is a hinky pinky for a stretchy string?
What is a hinky pinky for a stomach full of good food?
What is a hinky pinky for friend who falls in the mud?
Answers:
funny bunny
pretty kitty
little fiddle
toffee coffee
a stinky pinky
a pricey icey
a merry fairy
a funky monkey
a legal eagle
a jelly belly
a bungee spongee
a yummy tummy
a muddy buddy
Combinations of Hink Pinks and Hinky Pinkies:
What is a hink pinky for a tall ape?
What is a hinky pink for a split up stallion?
Answers:
a long King Kong
a divorced horse
Hinkity Pinkities
What is a hinkity pinkity for a frozen two-wheeler?
What is a hinkity pinkity for faithfulness to a queen or king?
What is a hinkity pinkity for terrific rubber band?
What a hinkity pinkity for noodles that aren’t quite cooked?
What is a hinkity pinkity for a fruit from the capital of Cuba?
What is a hinkity pinkity for a disturbance during a church
service?
What is a hinkity pinkity for 2 drums conversing at a jazz
concert?
What is a hinkity pinkity for a pizza deliveryman who needs a
shave?
What is a hinkity pinkity for a place where the national leader
lives?
What is a hinkity pinkity for the history of spectacles?
What is a hinkity pinkity for stripping paint with snakes?
What is a hinkity pinkity for a fuzzy UPS man?
What is a hinkity pinkity for praising a source of energy?
What is a hinkity pinkity for ships crewed by apes?
Answers:
icicle bicycle
royalty loyalty
fantastic elastic
unready spaghetti
Havana banana
a devotion commotion
a percussion discussion
hairier carrier
the president’s residence
monocle chronicle
serpentine turpentine
a furrier courier
battery flattery
a gorilla flotilla
Help students make up their own hink pinks. There are rhyming dictionaries on the web that
may give students ideas about which rhyming words they could combine into great hink
pinks.
2
How Children Lea rn N ew W ord s 1 A T ea cher Too l
Ho w C h ildre n Lear n N ew Wo rds
In The Book of Learning and Forgetting, noted researcher, Frank Smith observes, “Since
birth, children have been learning new words at the rate of two thousand per year, without
conspicuous effort or organized instruction—and without any forgetting.” Smith reminds us,
“We can learn without effort if we are interested in what we are doing for in what someone
else is doing.”
The research on vocabulary growth is overwhelming and the advice from those identified
with more holistic teaching agree with those identified with more direct instruction. Children
acquire vocabulary by reading—and being read to.
 The single most important activity for building the knowledge required for eventual
success in reading is reading aloud to children. (Anderson, Hiebert, et al. 1985)
 Children who read for pleasure acquire a large vocabulary. They do this involuntarily
and with conscious effort. (Krashen 1993)
 Impressive experimental results show that second-language learners and native
English speakers who read more outside of school have better reading comprehension
and vocabulary skills. (McQuillan 1998)
 Most theorists agree that the bulk of vocabulary growth during a child’s lifetime
occurs indirectly through language exposure rather than through direct teaching.
(Cunningham & Stanovitch 1998)
 What is needed to produce vocabulary growth is not more vocabulary instruction but
more reading. (Nagy 1988)
 Good libraries—not basals, not test prep—raise test scores. Research shows a strong
correlation between school library quality, including number of books and number of
certified librarians, and reading test scores. (Krashen 1996; Lance 1994)
 Vocabulary expansion through reading is about ten times more efficient than
vocabulary instruction. (Nagy, Anderson, & Herman 1987)
 Vocabulary learning takes place when students are immersed in words. (Blachowicz &
Fisher 1996)
 The single most important thing a teacher can do to promote vocabulary growth is to
increase students’ volume of reading. (Nagy 1988)
 Read, read, read. (Burke 1999)
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From The Great Word Catalogue: FUNdamental Activities for Building Vocabulary by Susan Ohanian
KEY V OCAB ULARY T O T EACH L ANGUAGE- DEP RIVED
PRIMARY S TUDENTS 1 A TEACH ER TOOL
Children’s understanding of basic concepts is important for early school success. These are
usually taught outright to a child during his/her early (toddler) years, and learned by listening
to adults, following commands, and participating in reading activities. Understanding and using
basic concepts help children learn to read and understand what they’ve read or written. They
also help children become more effective communicators.
WHY ARE BASIC CONCEPTS IMPORTANT?
Upon entering kindergarten, children should understand numerous basic concepts that, in turn,
will help build pre-reading and early mathematics skills, strengthen a child’s vocabulary, and are
building blocks to early school and reading success.
WHAT CAN A TEACHER DO TO TEACH THESE CONCEPTS TO CHILDREN WHO COME TO SCHOOL WITHOUT A CLEAR
UNDERSTANDING OF THESE CONCEPTS?
Read aloud to your class! A lot of common childhood books and stories teach early developing
concepts. If the concepts are not stated directly within the text, the illustrations lend
themselves to teaching a variety of concepts. As the teacher, start by using an illustration and
saying, for example, “Where is the cat? It’s on the bed.” Then, allow the children to tell you
what is off the bed. As an extension activity, go around the room and find things that are on
something and things that are off something.
Play the game, “I Spy.” Use the early developing concepts in your clues. You could say, “I spy
something that is empty.” For more practice, encourage the children to use concepts when it is
their turn. This game is great to use one-on-one, as a group, or when you have a few minutes
before recess, etc.
Using barrier games, give directions to the children using basic concepts. Barrier games are
described in detail in this packet. For children who have difficulty understanding and using
basic concepts, using real objects works best. Start with a box of objects and have the child
follow directions with basic concepts. (“Put the spoon in the cup.”) As the child progresses,
allow him/her to tell you things to do using basic concepts. Remember, however, that a child
must have a firm grasp of the concepts receptively before using them expressively.
WHAT BASIC CONCEPTS SHOULD A CHILD KNOW?
Listed below is a sampling of concepts a child should know by the time they arrive at school to
begin kindergarten and first grade. The list below does not include all concepts; it just presents
a general list of concepts developing in the early childhood years.
We have classified the concepts here into four groups. These groups are spatial (location)
concepts, temporal (time) concepts, quantity (number and size) concepts, school-related
This list was created by combining a number of lists including the Boehm Basic Concept List, English Language
Learner Lists, and High Frequency Word Lists
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(descriptive) concepts and Courteous Communication Concepts. Research has shown that,
generally, children learn concepts, or the concept with more distinctive attributes first.
Spat ia l C o ncepts
Qua nt it y/ Size Co n cepts
Tem po ral/T ime C o ncepts
above, below
apart
around
all, none
all, several/many, some, few, none
always, sometimes, never
beginning, middle, end
almost
before, during, after
away from
as many as
days of week in order
behind, in front of
big, large, small, little
equal, not equal (unequal)
first, next, last
beside, near
between
every, each
Sc ho ol C o nc ept s
big, bigger, biggest
first, second, third
alike, same, different
empty, full
full, partly full, empty
large-, medium-, or small sized
black-, chalk- or whiteboard
book, paper
most, least
chair, desk
not first, or last
single, pair, set
look, say, point, touch, skip to
lunch, recess
whole, half
pencil, crayon, pen
wide, narrow
zero, one, two three, four, five
teacher, principal
write, underline, check
on, off
Co lo r C once pts
Co urte o us C o mm uni cati o n
over, under
black
please
right, center, left
blue
thank you, no thank you
separated
brown
excuse me, pardon me
side
color
you are welcome
small, smaller, smallest
green
through
orange
together
purple
top, middle, bottom
red
up, down
white
upside-down
yellow
closest, farthest
forward
in a row, in order
inside, outside
near, far
nearest
next to
on, in
Spider Leg Syn onyms Game 1 A Word Play Strategy
Purpose: Spider Leg Synonyms Game is a game that young students (first and second graders) can
play to explore the concept of synonyms. The object of the game is to work together to identify and
select pairs of synonyms and dress the spider’s legs.
You
•
•
•
•
will need:
A game board
A baggie containing a set of word cards (synonyms of basic concepts)
One die
12 poker chips
To set up the game:
1. Enlarge the game board on the next page to fit a piece of 11 by 17 tag board. If you desire, you
can place some colorful circle-shaped dots on the spider’s back. You can also laminate the board.
2. Fill a baggie with word cards (synonyms of basic concepts) cut from the blackline masters
following this page. There are eight sets of words. Choose any set appropriate to your students.
3. Add one die and 12 poker chips to the bag.
4. Have students form pairs or groups of three to play the game. Give each team a game board and
a baggie containing a set of word cards, the die, and the chips. The words are placed face down
around the game board.
5. Students may roll a die to determine who starts first. (The person who rolls the highest number
goes first.) After the winner of the roll of the dice plays, play moves to the left of that player.
6. The first player selects a word card, turns it over, and reads the word on it. He then places it on
the board in one of the number 1 boxes. He then draws another card, turns it over and reads it.
If it is a synonym of the word in the box, he places it on the game board in the other number 1
spot. Because he got a match, he takes a chip. If the word is not a synonym of the first word, he
simply places it face down in the same spot that he drew it from.
7. The next player draws a card, reads it, and places in one of the number 2 boxes. He then draws
another card, turns it over and reads it. If it is a synonym of the word in box one or two, he
places it in the appropriate place and takes a chip. If the word is not a synonym of either box 1 or
2, he places it face down in the same spot from which he drew it.
8. Play continues until all matches have been filled on the game board.
Students can earn bonus chips if they help others read words that are unfamiliar to them.
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Developed by Betty Shoemaker from an idea found in a packet of materials from the Florida Center for Reading
Research.
Spider Leg Synonyms Game Board
1.
1.
2.
2.
3.
3.
4.
4.
Synonym Word Cards
Set One:
Set Two:
big
large
alike
same
little
small
speak
talk
like
enjoy
under
below
happy
glad
above
on top of
next to
beside
never
not at all
Synonym Word Cards
Set Three:
Set Four:
cute
pretty
help
assist
hot
very warm
find
locate
cold
chilly
say
talk
afraid
fearful
still
quiet
look
see
eat
dine
Synonym Word Cards
Set Five:
Set Six:
boy
lad
right
correct
go
leave
make
construct
many
several
answer
reply
take
grab
near
close by
make
build
begin
start
Synonym Word Cards
Set Seven:
Set Eight:
car
auto
many
a lot of
walk
stroll
turn
twist
stop
halt
ask
question
keep
hold
give
hand over
end
finish
want
desire
Spin—O— Nyms 1 A Word Play Strategy
Print the spinner below on card stock. Cut it out. You may laminate it if you so choose. Open
up a small paper clip into the shape of an S. Attach one S-shaped end of the paper clip to one
end of the brass fastener and then poke the brass fastener into the black center dot on the
spinner wheel. Don’t tighten it up too tight or it won’t spin. Students can work in partners
and/or teams. Teams take turns spinning the paper clip and then providing as many synonyms
for the word on which the clip is pointing within 10 seconds. Teams earn one point for every
correct synonym.
bright
strong
angry
soft
sad
hot
happy
cold
quiet
brave
small
loud
funny
big
dark
1
pretty
This idea is adapted from Easy Word Games by Jo Furr, Scholastic Professional Books.
Sto plight Vo ca b ula r y 2
I don’t know this word.
I might know this word.
Name
I know this word.
Green Light Sentences: Write a sentence using the words you colored green.
Adapted from Stoplight Vocabulary in Getting into Words by Shira Lubliner (2005) Brookes Publishing.
Weighty Word Book 1 A W ord P la y Strategy and Tea cher To ol
A Weighty Word Book is one created by the class as a whole to keep track of “weighty”
words they encounter in shared reading and discussions. These words are taken from a
variety of sources: the class read-alouds, and may also include words that come up in
textbooks, in other printed media, or in discussions.
First, get a three ring binder in which to house your “weighty words.” Decorate the cover
the binder in any way you think will impress the class with its importance. Primary-aged
students, like jewels, ribbons, and other treasures gathered at the seashore. For older
students you might want to use items from a favorite book series (Harry Potter, etc.) or
some popular theme that the class identifies (such as the school mascot, etc.). Use a music
stand or such on which to place the class “Weighty Word Book” in a prominent place in the
classroom.
Print several copies of blank “Weighty Word” pages found on the following page. Three-hole
punch them and add them to the binder. As the class comes to various words in text or
discussion that it wants to learn, complete one blackline for that word and place it back in
the Weighty Word Book. For a week or two review the word frequently and use it in context
several times.
As you add words throughout the school year, you can revisit words and also rhapsodize
about the volume of new words the class is learning.
Weighty Wisdom Senten ces
You may also want to create a “Weighty Wisdom Sentence” section at the back of your
Weighty Word Book. This section is devoted to the collection of a series of quotations from
books that are exquisitely composed and carry succinct, humorous, and/or profound
meaning. Use the following blackline master for this purpose. Here are some examples of
Weighty Wisdom Sentences that you might like to use:
Katherine Patterson,
1980
E. B. White, 1952
Kate DiCamillo,
2003
George Seldon,
1960
Watty Piper 1930
Margaret Wise
Brown, 1942
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“To fear is one thing. To let fear grab you by the
tail and swing you around is another.”
“It is not often that someone comes along who is a
true friend and a good writer. Charlotte was both.”
“A rat is a rat is a rat. End of story. World without
end. Amen.”
“Talent is something rare and beautiful and precious,
and it must not be allowed to go to waste.”
“I think I can. I think I can. I think I can.”
“If you become a bird and fly away from me,” said
his mother, “I will be a tree that you come home
to.”
Jacob Have I Loved
Charlotte’s Web
The Tale of Despereaux
The Cricket in Times
Square
The Little Engine That
Could
The Runaway Bunny
This idea was developed by Betty Shoemaker but drawn from a workshop that Carolyn Feller Bauer presented in
Eugene, Oregon in the 1980s.
Our New "Weighty Word"
Our new word is:
.
This word is pronounced:
This word means:
We might use this word when:
Here is a picture or story we can use to help
us remember this word:
"Weighty Wisdom Senten ce"
Here is a sentence we discovered in our reading that we especially like:
This is why we like it and what it means to us:
Study collections