General Chemistry

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General Chemistry
Principles & Modern Applications
9th Edition
Petrucci/Harwood/Herring/Madura
Chapter 9
The Periodic Table and Some Atomic
Properties
Dr. Travis D. Fridgen
Memorial University of Newfoundland
© 2007 Pearson Education
Which group has the elements
listed in order of increasing
atomic radius?
1. Al, P, Cl, Ar
2. Rb, Sr, Ca, Mg
3. N, P, S, Se
4. Ne, Ar, Cl, Br
5. H, He, Ne, Ar
Which group has the elements
listed in order of increasing
atomic radius?
1. Al, P, Cl, Ar
2. Rb, Sr, Ca, Mg
3. N, P, S, Se
4. Ne, Ar, Cl, Br
5. H, He, Ne, Ar
Which group in the periodic
table is the element with the
following ionization energies
most likely be found.
1st IE = 786 kJ mol-1
2nd IE = 1577 kJ mol-1
3rd IE = 3232 kJ mol-1
4th IE = 4355 kJ mol-1
5th IE = 16091 kJ mol-1
6th IE = 19784 kJ mol-1
1. Gr. 2
2. Gr. 13
3. Gr. 14
4. Gr. 16
5. Gr. 18
Which group in the periodic
table is the element with the
following ionization energies
most likely be found.
1st IE = 786 kJ mol-1
2nd IE = 1577 kJ mol-1
3rd IE = 3232 kJ mol-1
4th IE = 4355 kJ mol-1
5th IE = 16091 kJ mol-1
6th IE = 19784 kJ mol-1
1. Gr. 2
2. Gr. 13
3. Gr. 14
4. Gr. 16
5. Gr. 18
The most preferential oxidation state for tin and the ion’s electron configuration
is,
1. I, [Kr]5s25p14d10
2. II, [Kr]5p24d10
3. II, [Kr]5s24d10
4. -IV, [Kr]5s25p64d10
5. -I, [Kr]5s25p34d10
The most preferential oxidation state for tin and the ion’s electron configuration
is,
1. I, [Kr]5s25p14d10
2. II, [Kr]5p24d10
3. II, [Kr]5s24d10
4. -IV, [Kr]5s25p64d10
5. -I, [Kr]5s25p34d10
The most preferential oxidation state for gold and the ion’s electron configuration
is,
1. I, [Xe]6s25d8
2.
3.
4.
5.
II, [Xe]5d9
I, [Xe]5d10
-I, [Xe]6s25d10
-I, [Xe]5d106p3
The most preferential oxidation state for gold and the ion’s electron configuration
is,
1. I, [Xe]6s25d8
2.
II, [Xe]5d9
3.
4.
5.
I, [Xe]5d10
-I, [Xe]6s25d10
-I, [Xe]5d106p3
Which of the following has the
smallest radius?
1. Li+
2. Li
3. O24. Be2+
5. Ne
Which of the following has the
smallest radius?
1. Li+
2. Li
3. O24. Be2+
5. Ne
Which of the following lists has the
species increasing in radius?
1. Kr, Ar, Cl-, S22. Li+, Be2+, B3+
3. I-, Br-, Cl-, F4. F-, O2-, N3-, P35. Cl-, S2-, P3-, Al3+
Which of the following lists has the
species increasing in radius?
1. Kr, Ar, Cl-, S22. Li+, Be2+, B3+
3. I-, Br-, Cl-, F4. F-, O2-, N3-, P35. Cl-, S2-, P3-, Al3+
Which of the following
species is most likely to
accept another electron?
1. Ar
2. O
3. O4. N
5. C
Which of the following
species is most likely to
accept another electron?
1. Ar
2. O
3. O4. N
5. C
Below is an example of a charge exchange reaction between atomic oxygen
and the krypton cation. These reactions are possible if they are exothermic.
The ionization energies of Kr and O are 1350 and 1312 kJ mol-1, respectively.
Is the charge exchange reaction shown below exothermic or endothermic?
Kr+
+
O+
O
+
1. Exothermic
2. Endothermic
3. Not enough information given
Kr
Below is an example of a charge exchange reaction between atomic oxygen
and the krypton cation. These reactions are possible if they are exothermic.
The ionization energies of Kr and O are 1350 and 1312 kJ mol-1, respectively.
Is the charge exchange reaction shown below exothermic or endothermic?
Kr+
+
O+
O
+
1. Exothermic
2. Endothermic
3. Not enough information given
Kr
1. Al is a smaller atom than Mg.
2. s electrons penetrate closer to the nucleus and
therefore shield p electrons more effectively.
3. the electrons in Mg are farther from the nucleus
than in Al.
4. Al is a larger atom than Mg since its electrons
are less tightly held to the nucleus.
1600
Ionization energy / kJ mol-1
In general the ionization energy increases going
across a period. However, as seen to the right,
the ionization energy of Al is considerably smaller
than that of Mg. The best explanation for this is
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Period 3 Elements
1. Al is a smaller atom than Mg.
2. s electrons penetrate closer to the nucleus and
therefore shield p electrons more effectively.
3. the electrons in Mg are farther from the nucleus
than in Al.
4. Al is a larger atom than Mg since its electrons
are less tightly held to the nucleus.
1600
Ionization energy / kJ mol-1
In general the ionization energy increases going
across a period. However, as seen to the right,
the ionization energy of Al is considerably smaller
than that of Mg. The best explanation for this is
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Period 3 Elements
1. The charge on the nucleus
increases so the electrons are
more attracted to the nucleus.
Ionization Energy / kJ mol
Generally, the ionization energies
increase going across a period as
shown to the right. The best
explanation is
-1
2500
2000
1500
P2
P3
P4
1000
500
0
H HeLiBe B C N O F NeNaMgAl Si P S Cl Ar K CaSc Ti V CrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
Elements of the first four Periods
2. The atoms’ radii increase as you go across the periodic table.
3. The atoms’ radii decrease as you go across the periodic table.
4. Electrons in the same shell do not shield each other completely so the
effective nuclear charge is felt by each additional electron is greater.
1. The charge on the nucleus
increases so the electrons are
more attracted to the nucleus.
Ionization Energy / kJ mol
Generally, the ionization energies
increase going across a period as
shown to the right. The best
explanation is
-1
2500
2000
1500
P2
P3
P4
1000
500
0
H HeLiBe B C N O F NeNaMgAl Si P S Cl Ar K CaSc Ti V CrMnFeCoNiCuZnGaGeAsSeBrKr
Elements of the first four Periods
2. The atoms’ radii increase as you go across the periodic table.
3. The atoms’ radii decrease as you go across the periodic table.
4. Electrons in the same shell do not shield each other completely so the
effective nuclear charge is felt by each additional electron is greater.
1. As you go down the periodic table metallic
character of the elements increases.
2. Atomic radius decreases as you go down
the periodic table.
-1
2800
Ionization energy / kJ mol
The ionization energy decreases as you go
down any group in the periodic table as shown
for the rare gases and chalcogens to the right.
The best explanation for this trend is…
Rare gases
Chalcogens
2400
2000
1600
1200
800
400
He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn O S Se Te Po
3. The electrons in the outer shell are further from the
nucleus and are effectively shielded by the core electrons.
Elements
4. The charge on the nucleus increases so the electrons are more
attracted to the nucleus.
1. As you go down the periodic table metallic
character of the elements increases.
2. Atomic radius decreases as you go down
the periodic table.
-1
2800
Ionization energy / kJ mol
The ionization energy decreases as you go
down any group in the periodic table as shown
for the rare gases and chalcogens to the right.
The best explanation for this trend is
Rare gases
Chalcogens
2400
2000
1600
1200
800
400
He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn O S Se Te Po
3. The electrons in the outer shell are further from the
nucleus and are effectively shielded by the core electrons.
Elements
4. The charge on the nucleus increases so the electrons are more
attracted to the nucleus.
Which of the following atoms would you expect to be diamagnetic?
18
20
30
35
Ar
Ca
Zn
Br
39.948
40.078
65.39
79.904
1. Ar, Ca and Zn only
4. Ar only
2. Ar and Br only
5. All are diamagnetic
3. Zn and Ca only
Which of the following atoms would you expect to be diamagnetic?
18
20
30
35
Ar
Ca
Zn
Br
39.948
40.078
65.39
79.904
1. Ar, Ca and Zn only
4. Ar only
2. Ar and Br only
5. All are diamagnetic
3. Zn and Ca only
Which of the following species would you expect to be most paramagnetic?
1. Mn
2. Mn2+
25
Mn
54.9381
3. Fe3+
4. Both Mn2+ and Fe3+ are the same
and more paramagnetic than Mn
26
Fe
55.847
5. All have the same paramagnetism.
Which of the following species would you expect to be most paramagnetic?
1. Mn
2. Mn2+
25
Mn
54.9381
3. Fe3+
4. Both Mn2+ and Fe3+ are the same
and more paramagnetic than Mn
26
Fe
55.847
5. All have the same paramagnetism.
Which of the following reactions
would you expect to be the most
vigorous?
1. 2Li + F2
→ 2LiF
2. Mg + Cl 2 → MgCl 2
3. Rb + Ne
→ RbNe
4. 2Cs + F2
→ 2CsF
5. Ba + S
→ BaS
Which of the following reactions
would you expect to be the most
vigorous?
1. 2Li + F2
→ 2LiF
2. Mg + Cl 2 → MgCl 2
3. Rb + Ne
→ RbNe
4. 2Cs + F2
→
5. Ba + S
2CsF
→ BaS
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