Beyond the logo. Brand management for cities

Beyond the logo: Brand management for cities
Gregory Ashworth, Mihalis Kavaratzis. Journal of Brand Management.
London: Jul/Aug 2009. Vol. 16, Iss. 8; pg. 520, 12 pgs
Abstract (Summary)
A city's brand is increasingly considered an important asset for urban
development and an effective tool for cities to distinguish themselves and
improve their positioning. The introduction of corporate-level marketing
concepts and, especially, corporate branding has significantly contributed
towards the development of a city branding theory. In practice, however, there
is an evident confusion of a wide branding strategy with one of its components,
namely the design of a new logo and slogan or, at best, the development of a
promotional campaign. This paper first describes the rise of city branding and
the reasons of its popularity and, after a short review of the basic elements of
corporate branding, it goes on to identify essential similarities between these
two forms of branding. It finally detects the need to adapt any branding tools to
the needs of cities and addresses the necessity of a comprehensive city brand
management framework. [PUBLICATION ABSTRACT]
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© Palgrave Macmillan 2009
City branding has in recent years become a prevailing activity within city
management. Cities all over the world use several conduits to promote
themselves to relevant audiences such as investors, visitors and residents and
in their efforts they commonly include striking logos and captivating slogans that
feature in welcoming websites and advertising campaigns in national and
international media. At the same time, a substantial debate over the usefulness
and proper application of city branding has accumulated among academics,
consultants and government officials. Various issues have been raised in this
debate and the suggestions for the implementation of branding campaigns
within cities are often countered by critical voices. This paper examines the
phenomenon of city branding attempting to clarify some of the issues involved.
To that end, two related literatures need to be brought together, namely the
steadily growing literature on place branding and the extensive literature on
corporate brands.
Slogans such as 'Das Neue Berlin', 'Basel beats differently' or 'Edinburgh:
Inspiring Capital' are increasingly commonplace. Amsterdam has recently
launched a branding campaign centring around the slogan 'I amsterdam';
Athens successfully hosted the Olympic Games of 2004 and is now anxiously
anticipating their positive effects inviting you to 'surprise yourself in Athens
Attica'; London has become 'Totally London' and will also host the Olympic
Games of 2012, expecting the same results. The examples of cities attempting
to brand themselves could fill many pages. The popularity of place branding but
also the necessity for a wide discussion on the topic is demonstrated in the
special issues devoted to it ( Journal of Brand Management , 2002) and the
launching of a specialised journal in 2004 ( Place Branding --Palgrave
Publishers). Place branding is defined as 'the practice of applying brand
strategy and other marketing techniques and disciplines to the economic,
political and cultural development of cities, regions and countries'
( This raises questions about what
actually is being done in practice and whether it is possible to apply strategies
developed for commercial products to places or whether a new type of branding
is required. Branding is only one of many possible instruments for managing
and developing places and its effectiveness needs, therefore, to be evaluated in
that context. Although '...the practice of place branding has far outpaced the
extent to which it has been written about in the public realm', 1 recently there
has been a considerable increase in publications that raise and attempt to
answer these and other similar questions.
The commentary on the theoretical value and practical implementation of place
branding has followed distinct routes in the literature, apparently depending on
the background and research interests of particular commentators. 2 Apart from
those contributions that attempt to deal with the subject as a whole, 3, 4 a major
trend, especially among marketing academics and consultants has been the
discussion on national branding, 5, 6, 7 usually in connection to the use of the
country of origin in product branding. 8 A second trend, mostly outside the
marketing discipline, has been the discussion on the effects that the evident
popularity and widespread use of cultural and entertainment branding have on
cities and their physical and social character. 9, 10 A major stream of publications
has dealt with the issue of destination branding: treating places as brands for
their benefits to tourism development. 11 This field has probably been the more
developed in terms of suggesting concrete and practical measures for
managing destinations as brands. Arguably a large part of the theoretical
development in this field comes from Hankinson. 12, 13 Starting from his belief
that 'as yet no general theoretical framework exists to underpin the development
of place brands apart from classical, product-based branding theory', 14 he
provides a refined framework for understanding cities as brands, focusing on
cities as tourism destinations. Another emerging view is the attempt to examine
the possible adaptation of the concept of corporate branding and specific
methodologies developed in this field in place branding. 15, 16, 17, 18, 19 The
arguments for implementation of branding within cities are routed in the
assumption that, in essence, people 'understand' cities in the same way as
brands. It is in people's minds that the city takes form through the processing of
perceptions and images about the city. This process is the same as that
followed in the formation of images of other entities like products or
corporations, which have long been managed as brands. Extending this
assumption, comes the argument that the best way to attempt to influence
peoples' perceptions and images about cities must be similar to the way that
businesses have been successfully attempting the same for their products,
namely branding. The above assumptions are, of course, subject to scrutiny as
is found in the academic literature on place and city branding.
Practice shows that city administrators are ready to adopt branding as a
development strategy for their city. They eagerly (and sometimes uncritically)
accept the suggestions of consultants that city branding is the only way of
surviving in a fiercely competitive environment. Perhaps tempted by the
supposed novelty of such methods, their apparent contrast with past practices,
and also perhaps fearing that they will indeed be left behind the competition that
is engaged in branding, cities readily adopt branding techniques. An evident
problem, though, with city branding implementation is that, all too often cities
adopt only a part of the branding process, namely the development of a catchy
slogan and/or the design of a new logo to be attached in promotional material.
City marketing in general in its organised and more refined form is a relatively
recent activity and it seems to suffer from the-not unfamiliar-delusion that
marketing equals promotion. Most city marketing efforts start and finish with
promotional activities and most city branding efforts start and finish with the
visual elements of logos and slogans. Cases of cities that undertake a thorough
and more careful implementation of the city marketing process as a whole are
rather exceptions to the rule. 20 Therefore, this paper will demonstrate
something that is well known to marketing academics, namely that branding
needs to be thought of as a complete and continuous process interlinked with
all other marketing efforts.
There has been, recently, a growing body of work that points to the inability of
earlier positioning tools to cope with the substantially changed environment that
organisations now face. One response to this inability has been the suggestions
of relationship marketing, which considers as the key element of marketing the
building of relationships with relevant stakeholders and, especially, customers,
the relationships with which are viewed as opportunities that need to be
managed 21 in order to increase customer retention. 22 Of particular relevance to
place branding in this vain is the conceptualisation of the brand as something
that consumers can have a relationship with. 23 Indeed, place marketing in
general can be thought of as a form of relation between local authorities and
local or wider audiences. In fact, '... it may be as much about communication
between citizens as clients and public authorities as service providers as about
attracting exogenous investment, employment or customers. A place is sending
messages to itself. The purpose is the fostering of a civic consciousness and
self-confidence. This is both an end in itself and a necessary precondition for
external marketing'. 24 This is a concept that changes the whole attitude towards
marketing activities and provides a clearer focus for the whole place branding
process. A different response to the above stated inability of earlier positioning
tools has recognised 'the need to deepen the marketing view of the brand to
encompass organizational attributes and to shift focus from the integrity of the
product brand to the organisation and people behind the brand.' 25 Currently,
brands are considered valuable assets of a company and there is general
agreement in the marketing literature that the brand embodies a whole set of
physical and socio-psychological attributes and beliefs. 26 The notion of
corporate branding is a development of traditional product branding,
necessitated and, at the same time, enriched, by the rise of other corporatelevel concepts, such as corporate image, corporate identity and corporate
communications. As Balmer and Gray 27 describe 'in the early 1990s several
branding and communication consultants mentioned and then went on to
assess what was then called the "company brand". The later half of the 1990s
witnessed a gradual crescendo of writing on the more encompassing and more
strategic-sounding "corporate brand", which has since then seized the
imagination of scholars and managers alike and its rise has been inexorable.' 28
Establishing successful corporate brand management practices relies on the
identification of two factors 29 : first, the mix of variables that comprise the
corporate brand and, secondly, the development of a brand management
system for understanding the process of direction and control. A notion strongly
linked with those terms is corporate identity, which is central to an appreciation
of the concept of corporate brands. 30 Corporate identity is a holistic concept
that 'articulates the corporate ethos, aims and values and presents a sense of
individuality that can help to differentiate the organisation within its competitive
environment'. 31 A strong identity is very important for transmitting a consistent
internal and external image among stakeholders, creating a valuable asset. 32 A
particular problem with the study of corporate identity is the ambiguity regarding
the elements that constitute such an identity. 33 To address this problem, Balmer
undertook an investigation of the literature about the elements comprising the
'corporate identity mix' and he went on to design a new corporate identity mix,
which consists of the following components: strategy (management vision,
corporate strategy, product/services as well as corporate performance,
corporate brand covenant, corporate ownership); structure (relationships
between parent company and subsidiaries, relations with alliance or franchise
partners); communication (total corporate communication, which encompasses
primary, secondary and tertiary communication) and culture (the soft and
subjective elements consisting of the mix of sub-cultures present within, but not
always emanating from the organisation).
A valuable distinction is between the elements that constitute an identity and the
mix of elements that require orchestration when managing such an identity. In
addition to the elements forming the identity, management needs to take into
account the environment, reputations and stakeholders. 35 According to Balmer
and Greyser, 'Although prevailing corporate thinking considers identity to be a
monolithic phenomenon, this premise is narrow and inadequate... (A)n
organisation has multiple identities, which "can co-exist comfortably within the
organisation even if they are slightly different"'. 36 Balmer and Greyser 37
suggest that management needs to have understanding across those multiple
identities and they provide a framework (AC 2 ID Test), which includes five types
of identity. These are: Actual identity (the current attributes of the corporation);
communication); Conceived identity (perceptions of the company held by
relevant stakeholders); Ideal identity (the optimum positioning of the
organisation in its market in a given time-frame) and Desired identity (the vision
of cor-porate leaders for the organisation). Organisations must manage their
multiple identities to avoid potentially harmful misalignments. 38 Furthermore,
corporate brand management needs to take into account and is inextricably
linked to the management of identity. 39
'A corporate brand is the visual, verbal and behavioural expression of an
organisation's unique business model'. 40 The brand is expressed through the
company's mission, core values, beliefs, communication, culture and overall
design. 41 It is argued 42 that at the core of a corporate brand is an explicit
covenant (other commentators use the term promise) between an organisation
and its key stakeholder groups. The importance of the corporate covenant is
such that it may be viewed as a distinct identity type, which in turn means that
corporate brand management requires alignment of the brand covenant with the
five other identity types, mentioned above. Corporate branding draws on the
traditions of product branding, in that it shares the same objective of creating
differentiation and preference. 43 This activity is, however, rendered more
complex by managers conducting these practices at the level of the
organisation rather than the individual product or service, and by the
requirement to manage interactions with multiple stakeholder audiences. 44 'The
entity in corporate branding has a higher level of intangibility, complexity and
social responsibility, making it much more difficult to build a coherent brand'. 45
There is an agreement in the relevant literature on the need for corporate
branding to be multidisciplinary, combining elements of strategy, corporate
communications and culture, a view further refined by Hatz and Schultz, 46 who
point to the interplay of three variables--vision, culture and image--as a context
for corporate branding. Finally, Kapferer 47 claims that we have now entered a
new age of brand identity, which can be viewed as comprising six variables
namely, physique, personality, culture, relationship, reflection and self-image.
Brands in general and corporate brands specifically are seen as the base for
the long-term success of firms and organisations. In contemporary marketing,
branding is central, as it integrates all the strategic elements into one success
formula. 48 The whole marketing programme--objectives, strategies and tactics-is derived from brand positioning. 49
It is widely accepted that cities cannot be thought of simply as products. City
brands may be fundamentally different from product brands, but this does not
mean that they cannot be treated as corporate brands. In fact, there are many
similarities between corporate branding and city marketing that can be seen if
one compares the characteristics of corporate brands as summarised by
Balmer and Gray 50 with the city marketing literature. Examples of these
characteristics are that both corporate brands and city brands have
multidisciplinary roots, 51 both address multiple groups of stakeholders, 52, 53
both have a high level of intangibility and complexity, 54 both need to take into
account social responsibility, 55 both deal with multiple identities, 56 both need a
long-term development. 57 In this sense, corporate branding seems to offer
valuable suggestions for implementing branding within cities, something that
has occurred to several commentators, 58, 59, 60 who point at the metaphor of
place as a corporate brand. 61 Trueman et al. 16 conclude that 'city branding can
draw parallels from the corporate branding literature in terms of relationship
building, communications, personality and identity, supported by strategy,
creativity and resources' and they go on to provide a useful comparison of the
similarities and differences between corporate marketing and city brands.
Hankinson, 62 after a review of both corporate branding and place branding
literatures provides five very useful guiding principles for destination brands
based on corporate branding theories. He argues that 'there are sufficient
similarities between these two types of brand to allow useful lessons to be
drawn' 63 and suggests that efficient destination branding depends upon (a) a
strong, visionary leadership, (b) a brand-oriented organisational culture, (c)
departmental coordination and process alignment, (d) consistent
communications across a wide range of stakeholders and (e) strong, compatible
partnerships. The argument for applying corporate branding tools on cities is
made also by Trueman et al. , 64 who applied the AC 2 ID Test of corporate
identity 65 in the city of Bradford, in order to identify gaps in the city's official
communication strategy, revealing conflicting messages between local
government policy and different stakeholder groups and highlighting gaps
between the vision of the city's leaders (desired or conceived identity), its official
publications (communicated identity) and the reality of living and working in the
city. This might be a useful tool to address a common charge against city
marketing, namely the problem of the gap between the city's image and its
reality, between the projected and the perceived identity of a city. The above
research found 'indications that it is possible to examine the city as a brand
using conventional methodologies for brand analysis provided that sufficient
weight is given to different stakeholders'. 66 Rainisto 67 also asserts that '
some extent... place brands resemble corporate umbrella brands' and that 'a
place's brand image needs both the tangible "service" characteristics and the
brand's personality, like corporate brands'. 68
It is certainly possible to adopt a branding philosophy for the management of
cities and to use tools and principles of corporate branding particularly. It is
necessary, however, to adapt such tools and models to the specific
characteristics and demands of cities. Cities are neither products nor
corporations in the traditional meaning of the terms and, therefore, a distinct
form of branding is needed.
A major element of this distinct form of branding would have to be the
development of a city branding framework that would incorporate the elements
that need to be aligned. There have been attempts towards that end which this
paper will examine. There is, however, an issue that needs to be clarified first,
which has to do with the relations between the city brand and the nation brand
and the possible ways to manage both.
Corporate branding in the commercial world is related to the notion of brand
architecture, which examines the relations of the corporate brand to the rest of
the brands of individual products/services or product-lines that the same
corporation is offering. Different business strategies may require different brand
architectures. 69 Often individual brands are managed as a part of or under the
'umbrella' corporate brand but in other cases some corporations choose to
manage each individual brand separately. There is perhaps a parallel of this in
the field of branding places. Places exist in geographical or place-scales
(country, region, city, commune) therefore it might be useful to examine place
branding taking place-scales under consideration. In other words, to examine a
brand architecture approach for managing all place brands that belong to the
same nation. It is worth examining this point in more detail. A suggestion is to
create one 'umbrella' nation brand and several sub-brands for each region and
city of the country. As has been shown, 70 however, nation brands and
region/city brands have different characteristics and are affected by different
factors that influence their evaluation. Countries have more stable and enduring
brand images, whereas cities are more dependent on the trends of the market,
and fulfil more self-expression needs compared to countries. 71 'An "umbrella"
[nation] brand may either become too heterogeneous (i.e. a non-brand), too
bland (i.e. appealing to no-one in particular) or too skewed (focusing on certain
activities at the expense of others)'. 72 That is arguably the case for any place
brand, whatever place-scale they refer to, as they all attempt to cover the needs
of different economic sectors and to address multiple audiences. 73 Nation
brands, however, have to address the additional tensions created by the
inevitable place-competition within the country itself. The solution of creating an
umbrella nation brand, under which city brands will be managed is, therefore
not supported here. This is not intended in the least to undermine the
significance of nation brands. Indeed a country's reputation (or the nation
brand) 'has a direct and measurable impact on just about every aspect of its
engagement with other countries and plays a critical role in its economic, social,
political and cultural progress'. 74 Therefore, a nation brand is certainly useful,
especially in terms of issues of public diplomacy and the support of the
country's exports--what is known as the country-of-origin effect. What is
questioned here is the effectiveness of managing the regional or city brands
under a general nation brand or as sub-brands of this nation brand. It is perhaps
better to maintain a clear distinction between the nation and city brands but this
is indeed an issue that demands more attention in the relevant literature.
With this distinction in mind, the proposed city-brand-management frameworks
will now be examined. A general framework of place branding is proposed by
Rainisto 75 concentrating on the marketing of places as business locations and
in particular the activities of inward investment agencies. The framework
consists of nine success factors of place marketing and branding practices.
According to this framework, the core building stones of place marketing (and
most important success factors) are: Planning Group (the organ responsible to
plan and execute marketing practices), Vision and Strategic Analysis (the
insight of the place about its future position), Place Identity and Image (a unique
set of place brand associations, which the management wants to create or
maintain), Public-Private Partnerships and Leadership (the capability to conduct
complex processes and obtain the organising power). These are factors that a
place can actively influence and that represent the organising capacity of the
place. Another four success factors assist the above to meet the challenges in
the environment where place marketing practices are performed; these are
Political Unity (agreement about public affairs), Global Marketplace, Local
Development and Process Coincidences (remarkable occurrences of events
during the marketing process).
Anholt 76 describes a framework for evaluating city brands called the city brand
hexagon that is used to create the Anholt-GMI City Brands Index. It has been
developed as a means of evaluating the effectiveness of branding activities.
The hexagon consists of the following components: Presence (the city's
international status and standing--how familiar people are with the city), Place
(the physical aspects of the city--how beautiful and pleasant or otherwise the
city is), Potential (the opportunities the city has to offer, for instance in terms of
economic or educational activities), Pulse (the existence of a vibrant urban
lifestyle or lack thereof-how exciting people think the city is), People (the local
population in terms of openness and warmth; also safety issues) and
Prerequisites (the basic qualities of the city; the standards and price of
accommodation and public amenities).
Cai's 77 framework (which mainly considers tourism destinations) regards
branding as a recursive process that revolves around an axis formed by brand
element mix, brand identity and brand image building. Brand elements are
chosen to identify the place and to start the formation of brand associations that
reflect the attributes (the perceptual tangible and intangible features of the
place), affective (personal value and benefits attached to the attributes) and
attitudes (overall evaluation and motivation for action) components of an image.
The framework also includes the image projected by Destination Marketing
Organisations through these components and goes on to suggest that imagebuilding
communications and managing secondary associations. Marketing programmes
are designed to enhance the brand identity and marketing communications
select an optimal mix of media to support marketing programmes in enhancing
the identity. The secondary associations do not result from programmes or
communications and although normally beyond the control of the organisation,
they can be borrowed or leveraged. As contextual preconditions of branding,
four components are suggested, 78 namely the destination's size and
composition, its existing organic image, its existing induced image and the
positioning and target markets chosen.
Kavaratzis 79 suggests a framework which describes the way in which brand
communication takes place through the choice and appropriate treatment of
different variables, which have both functional as well as symbolic meaning. It is
suggested 80 that the communicated identity of a corporation includes three
types of official communication: Primary (the customer experience of products
and services), Secondary (advertising, PR, etc) and Tertiary (word of mouth).
Accordingly, this framework suggests that the city brand is communicated
through the same distinct types of communication. Tertiary communication does
not lend itself to extensive control by a city's authorities. The two types of
controlled communication are:
Primary Communication, that relates to the communicative effects of a city's
actions, when communication is not the main goal of these actions. It is divided
into four broad areas of intervention: Landscape Strategies (interventions
relevant to urban design, architecture or public spaces in the city); Infrastructure
Projects (projects developed to create, improve or give a distinctive character to
the various types of infrastructure, whether improving accessibility to the city or
sufficiency of various facilities like cultural centres, conference facilities, etc);
Organisational and Administrative Structure (the effectiveness of the city's
governing structure, emphasising community development networks and
citizens' participation in the decision making, along with the establishment of
Public-Private Partnerships); and finally, the City's Behaviour (the quality of
service provision, the type and scale of events organised in the city and such
issues as the city leaders' vision for the city, the financial incentives provided).
Secondary Communication, that is the formal, intentional communication, that
most commonly takes place through well-known marketing practices like
advertising, public relations, graphic design, the use of a logo, etc.
In another attempt, Hankinson 81 suggests a model of place brands based on
the conceptualisation that brands form a relationship with the consumer, which
can be the result of congruity with the consumer's self-image or the
development of a brand-consumer fit between the consumer's physical and
psychological needs and the functional attributes and symbolic values of the
brand. Of critical importance for this conceptualisation (and the features that
make it clearly relevant to place brands) are (a) the notion of the consumer as a
co-producer of the place-product, (b) the 'experiential' nature of placeconsumption and (c) 'marketing networks as vehicles for integrating all
stakeholders in a collaborative partnership of value enhancement'. 82 The
starting point is the core brand, which can be defined by the brand personality,
the brand positioning and the brand reality. The effectiveness of place branding
relies on the extension of the core brand through effective relationships with the
various stakeholders. These relationships are grouped in four categories: (a)
Primary Service Relationships (services at the core of the brand experience,
such as retailers, events and leisure or hotels); (b) Brand Infrastructure
Relationships (access services, brandscape/built environment, various
facilities); (c) Media Relationships (organic communications, marketing
communications) and (d) Consumer Relationships (residents and employees,
internal customers, managed relationships from the top). More recently 83 the
same author provided a new framework, which reveals the leading role of the
Destination Marketing Organisation, concentrating on ensuring consistent
communication, both collectively and individually with all stakeholders: partners,
visitors and residents. 84
A useful way to look at branding in general is to conceptualise it as managing
consumers' expectations. City branding in particular should be understood as a
process of generating expectations in actual and potential city users' minds and
ensuring that these expectations are met in the way people experience the city.
Creating or, at least, influencing expectations about the city takes place through
communication and promotional activities. More importantly, however, the
second part of attempting to meet the expectations demands the alignment and
consistency of all other marketing activities. This distinction is evident in all
frameworks described here but needs to be put across into the practice of city
branding, something that has so far not been achieved. All the frameworks
described above make their own contribution but, at the same time, have to
address their own limitations. The framework by Kavaratzis is clearly theoretical
and certainly demands an examination of its practical applicability and then a
re-evaluation of its components and clarification of any practical contribution.
The same can be argued for the Rainisto framework. The Anholt framework
clearly adopts a consultant's perspective and is suggested mostly as a tool with
which to investigate the effects of branding activities in the fields that are
included. It therefore needs first a reappraisal as to the theoretical values it is
based upon and, secondly, if it is to be used as a guide for managing a city's
brand, the ways and measures to ensure success in the fields included in the
framework need to be clarified. Both Hankinson's and Cai's models are limiting
their focus on cities as tourism destinations. They, therefore, need an expansion
to other fields that branding can be useful for cities, because cities cannot
function only as tourism destinations. It is clear that a lot more research is
necessary in order to arrive to a comprehensive framework of city branding.
A number of paradoxes have become evident. There is a growing academic
literature exploring the nature and meaning of branding when transferred from
conventional products to places: there is no widely accepted blueprint for
applying such ideas to places as an instrument of place management. Cities
throughout contemporary Europe have never been more engaged in place
branding of one sort or another: the goals, instruments and impacts remain
vaguely formulated and only partially understood. There is rapidly accumulating
body of case experience as cities launch and re-launch branding campaigns but
as yet no framework of comparison allowing lessons to be drawn. Each new
campaign remains unique to the place that initiates it and each reinvents and
rethinks the process from its fundamentals. The very competitiveness of the
arena within cities now operate discourages a free interchange of ideas or
experiences. The gaps between conceptualisation and practice and between
commercial corporate branding and place branding remain wide but, in the
interests of the effective use of a potentially powerful instrument of place
management, must be bridged.
Correspondence : Mihalis Kavaratzis, Urban and Regional Studies Institute,
University of Groningen, P.O. BOX 800, Groningen 9700 AV, The Netherlands.
Tel: +31 50 363 8289; E-mail: [email protected]
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23. Hankinson, ref 13 above.
24. Ashworth, G. J. (2001) 'The communication of the brand images of cities',
Paper presented at the Universidad Internacional Menendez Pelayo
Conference: The Construction and Communication of the Brand Images of
Cities, Valencia, Spain.
25. Knox, S. and Bickerton, D. (2003) 'The six conventions of corporate
branding', European Journal of Marketing , Vol. 37 , No. 7-8, pp. 998-1016.
26. Simoes, C. and Dibb, S. (2001) 'Rethinking the brand concept: New brand
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27. Balmer, J. M. T. and Gray, E. R. (2003) 'Corporate brands: What are they?
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28. Ibid ., p. 975.
29. Ibid .
30. Balmer, J. M. T. (2002) 'Of identities lost and found', International Studies of
Management and Organisation , Vol. 32 , No. 3, pp. 10-27.
31. van Riel, C. B. M. and Balmer, J. M. T. (1997) 'Corporate identity: The
concept, its measurement and management', European Journal of Marketing ,
Vol. 31 , No. 5-6, pp. 340-355.
32. Simoes and Dibb, ref. 26, above.
33. Balmer, ref. 30, above.
34. Ibid .
35. Ibid .
36. Balmer, J. M. T. and Greyser, S. A. (2002) 'Managing the multiple identities
of the corporation', California Management Review , Vol. 44 , No. 3, pp. 72-86.
37. Ibid .
38. Ibid .
39. Ibid .
40. Knox and Bickerton, ref. 25 above, p. 1013.
41. Simoes and Dibb, ref. 26 above.
42. Balmer, J. M. T. (2001) 'Corporate identity, corporate branding and
corporate marketing: Seeing through the fog', European Journal of Marketing ,
Vol. 35 , No. 3-4, pp. 248-291.
43. Knox and Bickerton, ref. 25 above.
44. Ibid .
45. Simoes and Dibb, ref. 26 above.
46. Hatz, M. J. and Schultz, M. (2001) 'Are the strategic stars aligned for your
corporate brand', Harvard Business Review , Vol. 79 , No. 2, pp. 128-134.
47. Kapferer, J. N. (1997) 'Strategic Brand Management', Kogan Page, London.
48. Aaker, D. A. (1996) 'Building Strong Brands', Free Press, New York.
49. Rainisto, ref. 19 above.
50. Balmer and Gray, ref. 27 above.
51. Ashworth, G. J. and Voogd, H. (1990) 'Selling the City: Marketing
Approaches in Public Sector Urban Planning', Belhaven Press, London.
52. Kotler, P., Asplund, C., Rein, I. and Heider, D. (1999) 'Marketing Places
Europe: Attracting Investments, Industries, Residents and Visitors to European
Cities, Communities, Regions and Nations', Pearson Education Ltd, London.
53. Ashworth 2001, ref 24, above.
54. Trueman et al. , ref. 16 above.
55. Ave, G. (1994) 'Urban planning and strategic urban marketing in Europe', in
Ave, G. and Corsico, F. (eds.) 'Marketing Urbano International Conference',
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56. Dematteis, G. (1994) 'Urban identity, city image and urban marketing', in
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57. Kavaratzis, ref. 17 above.
58. Trueman et al. , ref 16 above.
59. Hankinson, ref 15 above.
60. Kavaratzis, ref 17 above.
61. Anholt, ref 6 above.
62. Hankinson, ref 59 above.
63. Ibid ., p. 251.
64. Trueman et al. , ref. 18 above.
65. Balmer, ref. 30 above.
66. Trueman et al. , ref. 18 above, p. 328.
67. Rainisto, ref. 19 above, p. 50.
68. Ibid , p. 52.
69. Kerr, G. (2006) 'From destination brand to location brand', Journal of Brand
Management , Vol. 13 , No. 4/5, pp. 276-283.
70. Caldwell, N. and Freire, J. R. (2004) 'The differences between branding a
country, a region and a city: Applying the Brand Box model', Journal of Brand
Management , Vol. 12 , No. 1, pp. 50-61.
71. Ibid .
72. Therkelsen, A. and Halkier, H. (2004) 'Umbrella place branding: A study of
friendly exoticism and exotic friendliness in coordinated national tourism and
investment promotion', Discussion Paper 26/2004, SPIRIT, Aalborg University,
p. 1.
73. Eg Ashworth and Voogd, ref 51 above.
74. Anholt, ref. 5 above, p. 9.
75. Rainisto, ref. 19 above.
76. Anholt, S. (2006) 'The Anholt-GMI city brands index: How the world sees the
world's cities', Place Branding , Vol. 2 , No. 1, pp. 18-31.
77. Cai, L. A. (2002) 'Cooperative branding for rural destinations', Annals of
Tourism Research , Vol. 29 , No. 3, pp. 720-742.
78. Ibid .
79. Kavaratzis, ref. 17 above.
80. Balmer, ref. 30 above.
81. Hankinson, ref. 13, above.
82. Ibid ., p. 111.
83. Hankinson, ref. 59 above.
84. Ibid ., p. 251.
Subjects: Cities, Brands, Image, Marketing, Studies
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