Introduction EE 4FJ4/6FJ4 Fall 2015 (Prof. Natalia K. Nikolova

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Introduction
EE 4FJ4/6FJ4 Fall 2015 (Prof. Natalia K. Nikolova)
INTRODUCTION TO MICROWAVE ENGINEERING
Room: ITB-A220 ext. 27141
E-mail: [email protected]
Lecture Main Topics
Introduction: Overview of RF Systems
Transmission Lines, Smith Chart
Impedance Matching
RF Connectors, Cables and Adapters
Microwave Networks, Scattering Parameters
Vector Network Analyzer, Calibration
Power Dividers and Directional Couplers
Waveguide Technology
Filters (time allowing)
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 1
Texts
Recommended text
• Lecture notes available for download from Avenue to Learn AND
http://www.ece.mcmaster.ca/faculty/nikolova/4FJ4_6FJ4.htm
• Compilation of excerpts from optional texts – available for
purchase at the bookstore
Optional texts
1. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd or 4th ed., Wiley,
2005/2012.
2. M. Steer, Microwave and RF Design, Scitech, 2010.
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 2
Material on Reserve
in Thode
1. M. Steer, Microwave and RF Design, Scitech, 2010.
2. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 3rd ed., Wiley, 2005.
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 3
Grading
4FJ4 (B.Eng.)
50 %
Final exam
Midterm exam 20 %
10 %
Assignments
15 %
Laboratory
5%
Practice
• failure on the final exam means failure of the course
• you will be able to view your marked exam paper (come to
my office during office hours)
• marking scheme flexible only if final-exam grade ≥ 89 %
• deferred exams may be oral depending on the number of the
examined students
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 4
Exams, cont.
Exams are closed-book. HOWEVER
1 sheet, 2 pages (Letter size) of your own writing is allowed at
midterm and final exams
Cheating results in 0 grade and academic dishonesty charges
Duration
midterm: 2 hours
final: 3 hours
• midterm schedule: October 28 (Wednesday) from 6:30 pm to
8:30 pm in BSB-120
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 5
Requests to Remark Final Exam
Associate Dean Office rules on re-marking exam papers
If the student wishes an exam to be re-marked, she/he needs to:
- be aware that the grade could go either up or down;
- go to the Associate Dean of Engineering's office (JHE-A214);
- complete an "Examination Re-Read" form;
- take it to the Registrar's Office;
- pay $50;
- return to the Associate Dean's office with the receipt;
- Associate Dean's office then sends the request to ECE Dept.,
which has a couple of weeks to re-grade and respond;
- if the grade increases by 3% or more, the $50 fee is refunded to
the student.
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 6
Laboratory
Objective: Complements and expands lecture material
Duration: Five 3-hour sessions
Location: ITB-155
Worth: 15% of your course mark
Session Topics
1. The Gunn Oscillator (LabVolt)
2. PIN Diode (LabVolt)
3. Microwave Detection with a Crystal Detector (LabVolt)
4. Introduction to Scattering Parameters and Vector Network
Analyzers (VNAs): Measurements of 1-Port Devices
5. Measurements of Multi-port Devices with a VNA
• Lab Manuals and Instructions on course webpage in folder
Laboratories
• Download and read Module Instructions in advance!
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 7
Laboratory Timetable
Every other week from 2:30 pm to 5:30 pm in ITB/155
L01 Mo (starts Mon Sep. 14)
L02 Mo (starts Mon Sep. 21)
L03 Tu (starts Tue Sep. 15)
L04 Tu (starts Tue Sep. 22)
L05 We (starts Wed Sep. 16)
L06 We (starts Wed Sep. 23)
L07 Th (starts Thu Sep. 17)
L08 Th (starts Thu Sep. 24)
L09 Fr (starts Fri Sep. 18)
L10 Fr (starts Fri Sep. 25)
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 8
Assignments
• Objectives:
(i) Familiarity with professional design software
(ii) Familiarity with regulations related to RF/microwave radiation
safety (1 assignment)
• Free access for McMaster students: AWR Microwave Office
• Register and download software from
https://awrcorp.com/register/customer.aspx?univ
• 10 weekly assignments: 1st assignment due Mon Sep. 21 at 12 pm
• submission through Avenue To Learn
• instructions and time table available on course webpage in folder
Assignments
• worth 10% of your course mark
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 9
Assignment Timetable
Assignment Title
Submission Deadline
#1
Radio Systems
Sep. 21 Mon, 12 PM
#2
Maxwell’s Equations
Sep. 28 Mon, 12 PM
#3
#4
TEM Waves and Polarization
Canada Safety Code 6
Oct. 5, Mon, 12 PM
Oct. 19, Mon, 12 PM
#5
Reflection and Transmission
Oct. 26, Mon, 12 PM
#6
Quasi-TEM Transmission Lines (Microstrip Line)
Nov. 2, Mon, 12 PM
#7
Voltage and Current Waves in Quasi-TEM Transmission Lines Nov. 9, Mon, 12 PM
#8
Impedance Transformation by a Transmission Line
Nov. 16, Mon,12 PM
#9
Impedance Matching by a Double-stub Tuner
Nov. 23, Mon,12 PM
#10 Scattering Parameters and Preparation for Practice Work
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
Nov. 30, Mon,12 PM
slide 10
Practice Work
• design a microwave device using AWR software (professional
microwave design software)
• fabricate the device
• measure the device
• submit Technical Report (6 pages max)
• start Nov. 16 (Mon)
• Tech. Report due on/before last day of classes (Dec. 8, 2015)
• worth 5% of your course mark
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
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The Subject – I
• deals with wireless technology in the frequency range from
about 300 MHz to about 300 GHz (IEEE: from 1 GHz)
• wavelengths in vacuum – from 1 m down to 1 mm
c
30
λ
=
≈
[cm]
 RF bands: from 300 MHz to 3 GHz
f
f[GHz]
 microwave bands: from 3 GHz to 30 GHz (cm wavelengths)
 millimeter-wave bands: from 30 GHz to 300 GHz
 why are cm-waves called microwaves? energy  μeV
E= h ⋅ f
⇒ E[eV] =
⇒ E[eV]
=
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
electron charge
h in kg/s
() × f[GHz] × 109
−1
19
−
1.602 × 10
6.6261 × 10−34
h Planck's constant
4.136127 × f[GHz] × 10−6
INTRODUCTION
slide 12
The Subject – II
• component size is comparable to the wavelength (distributedparameter networks) and circuit theory no longer applies
• component size however is not much larger than the wavelength –
optics does not apply either
• we need Maxwell’s equations without approximations
• microwave electronics has specific semi-conductor devices: PIN &
Schottky diodes (passive), IMPATT, BARITT & Gunn diodes
(oscillators)
• microwave electronics still uses various vacuum devices, especially
for high-power applications: magnetrons & klystrons (generators),
travelling-wave tubes (amplifiers)
• microwave engineering is electromagnetism in action
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 13
Applications of Microwaves – I
personal services
• cordless telephony
• cellular telephony and data (voice, PCS, 3G and 4G)
• wireless LANs (local area network), bluetooth
• personal satellite communications (telephony, internet)
• global navigation/positioning systems (GPS)
infrastructure/medical/science/military
• radars
• microwave relay links, repeaters
• satellite systems (TV, telephony, data, military)
• radio astronomy
• particle accelerators
• biomedical engineering (imaging, hyperthermia), MRI
• military: communications, surveillance, RCV & drones
• wireless power transfer
etc.
video
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 14
Frequency Spectrum Designations
Frequency band Wavelength
Designation
Services
3 to 30 kHz
100 to 10 km
Very Low Frequency (VLF) Navigation, sonar, submarine
30 to 300 kHz
10 to 1 km
Low Frequency (LF)
Radio beacons, navigation
300 to 3000 kHz 1000 to 100 m Medium Frequency (MF)
AM broadcast, maritime/coast-guard
radio
3 to 30 MHz
100-10 m
High Frequency (HF)
Telephone, telegraph, fax; amateur
radio, ship-to-coast and ship-toaircraft communication
30 to 300 MHz
10-1 m
Very High Frequency (VHF)TV, FM broadcast, air traffic control,
police, taxicab mobile radio
300 to 3000 MHz 100-10 cm
Ultrahigh Frequency (UHF) TV, satellite, radiosonde, radar,
bluetooth, PCS, wireless LAN
3 to 30 GHz
10-1 cm
Super High Frequency
(SHF)
30 to 300 GHz
10-1 mm
Extremely High Frequency Radar, experimental, security systems
(EHF)
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
Airborne & automotive radar,
microwave relay, satellite, mobile
communication, local wireless ntw
INTRODUCTION
slide 15
IEEE Microwave Band Designations IEEE
Frequency
500-1000 MHz
1-2 GHz
2-3 GHz
3-4 GHz
4-6 GHz
6-8 GHz
8-10 GHz
10-12.4 GHz
12.4-18 GHz
18-20 GHz
20-26.5 GHz
26.5-40 GHz
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
Old
VHF
L
S
S
C
C
X
X
Ku
K
K
Ka
INTRODUCTION
New
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
J
J
K
K
slide 16
Some Frequency Band Allocations: North America
international and national regulatory bodies allocate frequency
bands for commercial, government and personal use
FCC (USA): Federal Communications Commission
Industry Canada: Radiocommunications and
Broadcasting Regulatory Branch
AM broadcast
535 kHz to 1605 kHz
FM broadcast
88 MHz to 108 MHz
VHF TV (ch. 2 to 4)
54 MHz to 72 MHz
VHF TV (ch. 5 to 6)
76 MHz to 88 MHz
UHF TV (ch. 7 to 13)
174 MHz to 216 MHz
UHF TV (ch. 14 to 83)
470 MHz to 890 MHz
US cellular telephones
824 MHz to 849 MHz
869 MHz to 894 MHz
Europe GSM
880 MHz to 915 MHz
925 MHz to 960 MHz
GPS
1575.42 MHz / 1227.60 MHz
ElecEng 4FJ4 Nikolova
INTRODUCTION
slide 17
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