Chapter3 Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior caused

A relatively permanent change in behavior caused by experience.
Incidental learning: casual, unintentional acquisition of knowledge
Behavioral Learning Theories
assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events.
Classical conditioning
A stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially
does not elicit a response on its own.
Marketing Applications of Repetition
 Repetition increases the strength, prevent the decay.
 Stimulus generalization react to similar stimuli in the same way they
responded to the original stimulus.
 Stimulus discrimination brand name urge comsumers not to buy ‘cheap
imitations’, consumers learn to differentiate a brand from its
Marketing applications of stimulus generalization
• Family branding
• Product line extensions
• Licensing
• Look-alike packaging
Instrumental Conditioning
The individual learns to perform behaviors that produce positive outcomes
and to avoid those that yield negative outcomes.
Instrumental conditions occurs in one of these ways:
• Positive reinforcement
• Negative reinforcement
• Punishment
• Extinction
Marketing applications of Instrumental Conditioning principles
Frequency marketing: rewards regular purchases prize, get better as they
spend more
Cognitive Learning Theories
 Consumers is a complex-problem solvers
 People will actively use information from the world around them to
master their environment.
Observational Learning
 Learn when watch actions so it will be available when we need.
The memory process
Memory Systems