Quiz 9 Review­ DNA, Protein Synthesis, and The Cell Cycle Use the following review sheet to help you prepare for the quiz on Tuesday, April 1st. In addition to this review sheet, you should look over your notes and the sources posted in the “Protein Synthesis” and “Cell Cycle” sections of my website. DNA structure and function: What is the primary function of DNA? To store genetic information and provide instructions for cell functions. DNA takes the shape of a double helix . nucleotides are the monomers of DNA. Label the diagram to the left with the following words: Hydrogen bonds Sugar­phosphate backbone Base Nucleotide During DNA replication A pairs with __T___ and C pairs with __G___. Protein Synthesis: Why are proteins so important to the cell? Proteins carry out nearly all cellular processes. What is the monomer of protein? amino acids What happens during transcription? What happens during translation? transcription­ DNA unzips→ mRNA message is made→ mRNA goes to cytoplasm translation­ mRNA binds to ribosome→ ribosome reads in codons (3 nucleotides) → ribosome pairs tRNA with codon → tRNA brings amino acid to ribosome→ amino acid chain pops off and folds into protein. Transcribe and translate the DNA sequence below into an amino acid chain. Use your codon wheel to determine the amino acid. Match each statement with the blanks in the image to the right. a. tRNA brings amino acids to the ribosome. b. DNA unwinds c. RNA polymerase binds to DNA and begins making a copy in the form of mRNA. d. An amino acid chain forms. This will eventually pop off and fold into a protein. e. mRNA leaves the nucleus and goes to the cytoplasm. f. a ribosome attaches to mRNA and beings translating the message by reading in triplets called codons. The Cell Cycle: Label the diagram with: anaphase centrioles chromatin cytokinesis interphase metaphase prophase spindle fibers telophase DNA replication takes place during ___S phase___. A cell spends a majority of it’s life in ___Interphase (G1, S, & G2)______. What is the purpose of mitosis? Cell division for growth and development, repair of damaged cells, and to maintain the surface­area to volume ration. What is the purpose of cytokinesis? To split the cell into two genetically identical cells. How is mitosis different from meiosis? YOU WILL NOT BE EXPECTED TO KNOW MEIOSIS FOR THIS QUIZ.