higher standards Reservoir Fluid Analysis a proven road map Weatherford Laboratories’ full-service fluid analysis combines the industry’s latest state-of-the-art laboratory characterization tools with sophisticated numerical characterization in the form of equation of state (EOS) modeling. Our staff of highly qualified analytical experts works with each client to custom-design a fluid analysis protocol that meets the specific development planning and production optimization goals of a particular asset. While the details of each analysis protocol are specific to a particular field, each follows the same general road map to reservoir understanding and are designed to: In-depth Fluid Analysis for the Life of the Field From discovery to abandonment, reservoir fluid characterization plays a critical role in optimizing each stage of a well’s life cycle. While accurate fluid characterization guides the design and optimization of down hole production strategies and the operation of surface facilities, inaccurate analysis creates a high degree of uncertainty regarding in-place-volume estimates and recovery predictions. As a result, the asset’s true value and the operator’s profit potential may go unrealized. Weatherford Laboratories’ comprehensive reservoir fluid analysis techniques establish the physical and chemical properties of field fluids that help form the foundation for efficient field development planning. Understanding critical features such as hydrocarbon type, fluid volumes, flow characteristics, and the pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) behavior of the reserves in place is crucial for: • Estimating the recovery potential of reserves • Understanding what type of hydrocarbons will be produced • Identifying the presence of any undesirable compounds in the crude that may inhibit production or impact the asset’s infrastructure • Determining allocations of production components • Accurately planning and sizing production and processing facilities • Obtain representative fluid samples at surface and, if applicable, bottom hole • Ensure reliable recombination parameters, such as representative gas/oil hydrocarbon ratio (GOR) or gas/ liquid ratio (GLR), and/or target saturation pressures (bubble point or dew point) at reservoir pressure and temperature are met • Ensure accurate pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) measurements at both reservoir and separator conditions • Implement QA/QC procedures to ensure data quality • Develop mathematical models to capture fluid properties as a function of pressure, temperature and composition Time and again, this road map has proven itself as a robust and comprehensive path to understanding the character of the produced hydrocarbons over time and to the development of a field operations plan to optimize production. sampling expertise Efficient sampling methods for all stages of a well’s life. Any successful reservoir fluid analysis campaign hinges on the ability to collect Weatherford Laboratories always ensures that wells are properly conditioned prior to sampling. Following the well sufficient volumes of high-quality, representative fluid samples. In addition to conditioning, but prior to sampling, a measurement of bottom hole pressure and temperature should be made in samples for PVT analysis, adequate volumes must be collected for plant and order to correlate laboratory data with reservoir data. process analyses, geochemical analysis for fluid-source identification and crude assay for refinery processes. Weatherford Laboratories’ sampling protocols focus Sample Transfers on obtaining clean and representative fluid samples from both down hole and Whether in the field or in the laboratory, down hole samples from either formation test tools or other wireline samplers surface. The field operation’s layout and the operator’s analysis goals are carefully are fully restored and stabilized at reservoir conditions prior to sub-sampling or transfer into a piston sample cylinder reviewed to select the appropriate sampling method and tools, as well as sound for laboratory use. sampling, sample-transfer and quality control procedures. Surface/Separator Sampling Weatherford Laboratories collects samples throughout the life of a well, as the fluids analysis at different stages guides important decisions that optimize production and development planning. • • • • Samples collected during exploration and appraisal are useful for: Optimizing facilities design Tuning reservoir simulation models Appraising the number and the types of wells (vertical vs. horizontal, production vs. injection, etc.) Down Hole Sampling • Samples collected during field development provide insight into: • • • • • • • • Reservoir simulation confirmation studies Developmental well counts Allocations During production and eventual abandonment, samples help guide: Infill programs Facility upgrades Enhanced oil recovery programs Allocations Fluid samples collected from the bottom of the wellbore are as close as possible to reservoir conditions, but run the risk of potential mud contamination. Bottom hole samples are required for wells exhibiting solids drop out like wax/paraffins or asphaltenes. For cased-hole wells, Weatherford Laboratories employs state-of-the-art down hole sampling tools to get accurate fluid samples with minimum contamination risk. The sampling tool is first lowered into the cased wellbore. Fluids are then allowed to flow into the tool, and are finally carried to the surface in a safe and secure manner. Sampling at surface conditions allows for exact control of sample taking, without placing any restrictions on sample volumes. The best place to obtain surface samples is from the separator, particularly for reservoir fluids close to or at the saturation pressure. Weatherford Laboratories has the tools and techniques to accurately collect separate gas and liquid samples from the separator, and then uses a QA/QC evaluation process on each sample which includes: • • • • Checking opening pressure Identifying potential solid-forming components for flow assurance purposes Checking water content of the oil Performing sample validation on separator samples. Surface sampling services are available both onshore and offshore, and sample transfers from non-certified sampling cylinders to DOT/IATA, TPED or TC rated cylinders are routinely performed. All Weatherford Laboratories sampling personnel are certified for offshore duty and working in H2S environments. The individual samples are then recombined in the laboratory. This is performed at reservoir pressure and temperature, while ensuring that reliable recombination parameters including representative gas/oil ratio (GOR) or gas/liquid ratio (GLR), target saturation pressures (bubble point or dew point) and composition are met. PVT analysis EOS modeling Key data unlocks reservoir fluid properties. Weatherford Laboratories’ PVT analysis techniques uncover a wealth of knowledge about the fluids in the reservoir, and guide Volatile Oil decisions on the best production scenarios for the long-term viability of the well. The key data obtained from PVT reports include Weatherford Laboratories’ fluid analysis techniques on near-critical, an understanding of fluid composition, density, viscosity, and compressibility; gas in solution; saturation pressure (bubble point volatile oil include: and dew point); and flow assurance properties, to name a few. Weatherford Laboratories has facilities to do comprehensive analysis on all reservoir types from very low API heavy oils, conventional oils, volatile oil, gas condensate and dry gas. Isolation labs are available for the safest handling of all H2S and acid gas systems. Detailed Compositional Analysis of Reservoir Fluid Constant Composition Expansion (CCE) with liquid volumes Differential Liberation (DL) with: • Densities and formation volume factors at each stage of depletion Black Oil Analysis Weatherford Laboratories’ black oil analysis techniques include: • Detailed Compositional Analysis of Reservoir Fluid • Constant Composition Expansion (CCE) • Differential Liberation (DL), with: • Pressurized viscosity, densities and formation volume factors at each stage of depletion • Oil properties and gas-phase properties at each stage of depletion • Separator tests • Viscosity of Reservoir fluid in both single-phase and 2-phase regions at Reservoir Temperature • • • • • • • Oil properties and gas-phase properties at each stage of depletion • Equation of state modeling Separator tests Constant-Volume Depletion (CVD) experiments Measurement of oil and gas-phase properties Modeling Fluid Behavior To be truly impactful on field operations, reservoir fluid analysis cannot stop at merely the data generation step in the lab. A complete fluid characterization must also include numerical characterization to understand what the data is telling you and to guide your production optimization and further development decisions. • Equation of state modeling To that end, Weatherford Laboratories develops equation of state (EOS) models that use the fluid properties obtained in the lab to Gas-Condensate accurately gauge how the reservoir fluids will respond to changes in pressure, temperature and composition. Our EOS models are Weatherford Laboratories’ gas-condensate analysis includes: • Constant-Volume Depletion (CVD) experiments, which are constantly updated with new field data—gas and oil compositional analysis, CCE, DL and CVD—and regressions are performed to performed to simulate reservoir depletion performance and compositional variation through the well’s life cycle improve the accuracy and detail of reservoir simulations. • Produced well-stream property analysis • Equation of state modeling Weatherford Laboratories is one of the few service providers that offer this level of EOS modeling, and we have worked with clients • Detailed Compositional Analysis of Reservoir Fluid • Constant Composition Expansion (CCE) with retrograde liquid volumes around the world to optimize their reservoir simulations for estimating reserves recovery. flow assurance Flow assurance—ensuring the successful and economical flow of hydrocarbons from the reservoir to the point of sale—is vital to Organic Composition successful long-term operations. Threats to flow assurance include a diverse set of components in the fluid, which under the right A produced fluid stream’s organic composition tells a great deal about the ability of the conditions of temperature and pressure may deposit on the internal walls of piping and process equipment to slow or ultimately hydrocarbon stream to flow at various temperatures and pressures. Analysis includes: stop flow. Weatherford Laboratories’ suite of reservoir fluid analysis techniques is designed to identify the various components of the reservoir fluid that threaten flow assurance. We work with our clients to understand the specific flow assurance problems they want to solve. From there, we tailor a customized flow assurance test protocol to address their challenges. This is dynamic testing protocol that constantly evolves as more information becomes available, and the testing continues to be honed until we are satisfied that the analysis will yield the best and most cost-effective flow assurance solution. Solids Deposition The deposition of solid particulates such as asphaltenes, wax/paraffins and scale can quickly hinder production from a well, and require costly and time-consuming intervention methods to remedy. Weatherford Laboratories employs a suite of solids deposition screening tests to evaluate the potential • • • • API gravity Density Cloud and Pour point Cold restart rheology system Natural Gas Hydrates The formation of natural gas hydrates is a pervasive problem in deep and ultra-deep water fields, and can quickly plug off a pipeline or riser if left untreated. Weatherford Laboratories’ fluid analysis toolkit includes a suite of hydrate formation tests to identify hydrate formation potential and suggest proper mitigation methods. These include: • Hydrate stirred autoclave cells • Cold start rheology system • Cold stress deposition testing for these solids to form, and then suggest the appropriate mitigation strategy Reservoir Fluid to keep production flowing and avoid an intervention. Current capabilities include: A thorough understanding of the composition and phase behavior of reservoir fluids BS&W is an important parameter in managing the flow assurance program for any field. And as reservoir fluids from different sections Asphaltene screening of a reservoir (or from different wells) commingle, it is vitally important to understand the interaction between fluid streams and Asphaltene Onset Pressure (AOP)/ Asphaltene Deposition Envelope (ADE) any potential flow assurance risks to the production system. Weatherford Laboratories has the tools and analytical expertise to Wax Deposition and Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) analyze fluid streams at a fundamental level and their potential for scale, corrosion, asphaltene deposition or hydrate formation. Scaling/asphaltene tests using tube blocking techniques Analysis tools include: HP/HT solids onset (NIR or laser) system with HP microscope • • • • • • • Fluid/fluid compatibility testing • Scaling tendency software • Fluid rheology • Onset of solids formation • Onset of solids formation enhanced oil recovery storage We expect more from ourselves so you can expect more from us. Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) Storage and Tracking Services Weatherford Laboratories is the world leader in experience for complex gas injection, thermal operations and testing. Weatherford Laboratories provides secure and customizable storage solutions for all reservoir fluid samples. We operate custom Weatherford Laboratories operates the only commercial lab in the world with certified sour gas facilities. Our integrated on-site facilities for storage and management of pressurized reservoir fluids, separator products and atmospheric liquid samples. capabilities lead the way in defining and comparing the validity and value of the complete suite of EOR strategies. Precision analyses and “scalable” results help improve all your EOR requirements from steam flood performance while minimizing the corrosive impacts of H2S, to correct chemical selections and optimized gas injection schemes. These results yield better understanding of your reservoir as well as optimized production options. Weatherford Laboratories’ in-depth experience also encompasses a variety of plays in a range of reservoir types worldwide, allowing us to apply our science and technology to support your program from the pore-scale to field-scale. on-site in situ solutions so that hydrocarbon recovery and revenue are enhanced to the greatest extent possible. Features Benefits • Multi-contact Experiment Quantify IFT, viscosity, solubility associated K values, Bo & Rs result in accurate modeling of the vaporizing and/or condensing processes that occur in the actual reservoir • Constant IFT Core Flooding No mass transfers during the constant IFT core flood result in true residual oil recovery and none of the core stack is used for establishing a miscible bank • Acid Gas Testing for Applicability to EOR & Sequestration The isolation lab permits the testing of any (lab) volume at any pressure/temperature of acid gas for sequestration or EOR applications in a safe and effective manner. • Chemical Flooding depending on the sample requirements. The storage facilities are secure, with access restricted to authorized personnel only, and monitored continuously with security cameras and hydrocarbon sensors—an important requirement for the storage of sample gases and toxic reservoir gases. And to provide maximum safety for your samples and assurance that they are right where they are supposed to be, Weatherford Higher Weatherford Laboratories’ standards of interpretation and integration with field processes improve the flexibility of your Storage facilities are climate controlled to a range of a temperatures including ambient, air-conditioned, chilled/frozen and heated, Screening & optimization of chemical flood reservoir candidates Laboratories’ Sample Management Tracking System uses sophisticated data management tools, including bar coding options, to track movement of your materials. Sample inventories can also be made available via our secured client websites. weatherfordlabs.com ASIA PACIFIC Brisbane, Australia Telephone: +61.7.3482.9900 Email: [email protected] CANADA Calgary, Alberta Telephone: 403-736-3500 Email: [email protected] EUROPE/WEST AFRICA Stavanger, Norway Telephone: +188.8.131.52.00 Email: [email protected] LATIN AMERICA Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Telephone: +55.21.2654.8342 Email: [email protected] MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA Abu Dhabi, UAE Telephone: +971.2.6989079 Email: [email protected] UNITED STATES Houston, Texas Telephone: 832.237.4000 Email: [email protected] ©2014 Weatherford International Ltd.