Contents

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Contents
Articles
E-book
1
Comparison of e-book formats
12
EPUB
25
Comparison of e-book readers
35
Amazon Kindle
52
Textbook
67
Open textbook
77
References
Article Sources and Contributors
84
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
86
Article Licenses
License
87
E-book
E-book
An electronic book (variously, e-book, ebook, digital book) is a
book-length publication in digital form, consisting of text, images, or
both, and produced on, published through, and readable on computers
or other electronic devices.[1] Sometimes the equivalent of a
conventional printed book, e-books can also be born digital. The
Oxford Dictionary of English defines the e-book as "an electronic
version of a printed book,"[2] but e-books can and do exist without any
printed equivalent. E-books are usually read on dedicated e-book
readers. Personal computers and some mobile phones can also be used
to read e-books.
History
The inventor and the title of the first e-book is not widely agreed upon.
Some notable candidates are listed here.
The first e-book may be the Index Thomisticus, a heavily-annotated
electronic index to the works of Thomas Aquinas, prepared by Roberto
Amazon Kindle 3, a sample e-book reader.
Busa beginning in the late 1940s. However, this is sometimes omitted,
perhaps because the digitized text was (at least initially) a means to developing an index and concordance, rather
than as a published edition in its own rights.
Alternatively, electronic books are considered by some to have started in the mid-1960s, with the NLS project
headed by Doug Engelbart at Stanford Research Institute (SRI), and the Hypertext Editing System and FRESS
projects headed by Andries van Dam at Brown University.[3] [4][5] The former ran on specialized hardware, while the
latter ran on IBM mainframes. FRESS documents were structure-oriented rather than line-oriented, and were
formatted dynamically for different users, display hardware, window sizes, and so on, as well as having automated
tables of contents, indexes, and so on. All these systems also provided extensive hyperlinking, graphics, and other
capabilities. Van Dam coined the term "electronic book".
FRESS was used for primary text reading, annotation, and online discussions in several courses, including English
Poetry and Biochemistry. Brown faculty made extensive use of FRESS; for example the philosopher Roderick
Chisholm used it to produce several of his books. For example, in the Preface to Person and Object he writes "The
book would not have been completed without the epoch-making File Retrieval and Editing System..."[6]
Brown's leadership in electronic book systems continued for many years, including navy-funded projects for
electronic repair manuals[7]; a large-scale distributed hypermedia system known as InterMedia[8]; a spinoff company
Electronic Book Technologies that built DynaText, the first SGML-based book-reader system; and the Scholarly
Technology Group's extensive work on the still-prevalent Open eBook standard.
Yet others believe that the inventor of the e-book is Michael S. Hart.[9][10][11] In 1971, Hart was given extensive
computer time by the operators of the Xerox Sigma V mainframe at the University of Illinois. Seeking a worthy use
of this resource, he created his first ebook by typing the United States Declaration of Independence into a computer.
Project Gutenberg was launched afterwards to create electronic copies of more books.[12]
One early e-book implementation was the desktop prototype for a proposed notebook computer, the Dynabook, in
the 1970s at PARC: a general-purpose portable personal computer capable of displaying books for reading.[13]
In 1992, Sony launched the Data Discman, an electronic book reader that could read e-books that were stored on
CDs. One of the electronic publications that could be played on the Data Discman was called The Library of the
1
E-book
Future.[14]
Early e-books were generally written for specialty areas and a limited audience, meant to be read only by small and
devoted interest groups. The scope of the subject matter of these e-books included technical manuals for hardware,
manufacturing techniques and other subjects. In the 1990s, the general availability of the Internet made transferring
electronic files much easier, including e-books.
E-book formats
Numerous e-book formats emerged and proliferated, some supported by major software companies such as Adobe
with its PDF format, and others supported by independent and open-source programmers. Multiple readers followed
multiple formats, most of them specializing in only one format, and thereby fragmenting the e-book market even
more. Due to exclusiveness and limited readerships of e-books, the fractured market of independent publishers and
specialty authors lacked consensus regarding a standard for packaging and selling e-books.
However, in the late 1990s a consortium was formed to develop the Open eBook format as a way for authors and
publishers to provide a single source document that could be handled by many book-reading software and hardware
platforms. Open eBook defined required subsets of XHTML and CSS; a set of multimedia formats (others could be
used, but there must also be a fallback in one of the required formats); and an XML schema for a "manifest", to list
the components of a given ebook, identify a table of contents, cover art, and so on. Google Books has converted
many public-domain works to this open format.
In 2010 e-books continued to gain in their own underground markets. Many e-book publishers began distributing
books that were in the public domain. At the same time, authors with books that were not accepted by publishers
offered their works online so they could be seen by others. Unofficial (and occasionally unauthorized) catalogs of
books became available over the web, and sites devoted to e-books began disseminating information about e-books
to the public.[15]
Libraries
U.S. Libraries began providing free e-books to the public in 1998 through their web sites and associated services,[16]
although the e-books were primarily scholarly, technical or professional in nature, and could not be downloaded. In
2003, libraries began offering free downloadable popular fiction and non-fiction e-books to the public, launching an
e-book lending model that worked much more successfully for public libraries.[17] The number of library e-book
distributors and lending models continued to increase over the next few years. In 2010, a Public Library Funding and
Technology Access Study[18] found that 66% of public libraries in the U.S. were offering e-books,[19] and a large
movement in the library industry began seriously examining the issues related to lending e-books, acknowledging a
tipping point of broad e-book usage.[20] However, some publishers and authors have not endorsed the concept of
electronic publishing, citing issues with demand, piracy and proprietary devices.[21] Demand-driven acquisition
(DDA) has been around for a few years in public libraries, which allows vendors to streamline the acquisition
process by offering to match a library’s selection profile to the vendor’s e-book titles.[22] The library’s catalog is then
populated with records for all the e-books that match the profile.[22] The decision to purchase the title is left to the
patrons, although the library can set purchasing conditions such as a maximum price and purchasing caps so that the
dedicated funds are spent according to the library’s budget.[22]
2
E-book
Dedicated hardware readers
There have been several generations of dedicated hardware e-book readers. The Rocket eBook[23] and several others
were introduced around 1998, but did not gain widespread acceptance.
As of 2009, new marketing models for e-books were being developed and a new generation of reading hardware was
produced. E-books (as opposed to ebook readers) have yet to achieve global distribution. In the United States, as of
September 2009, the Amazon Kindle model and Sony's PRS-500 were the dominant e-reading devices.[24] By March
2010, some reported that the Barnes & Noble Nook may be selling more units than the Kindle.[25].
On January 27, 2010 Apple Inc. launched a multi-function device called the iPad[26] and announced agreements with
five of the six largest publishers that would allow Apple to distribute e-books.[27] The iPad includes a built-in app for
e-books called iBooks and the iBooks Store.
In July 2010, online bookseller Amazon.com reported sales of ebooks for its proprietary Kindle outnumbered sales
of hardcover books for the first time ever during the second quarter of 2010, saying it sold 140 e-books for every 100
hardcover books, including hardcovers for which there was no digital edition.[28] By January 2011, ebook sales at
Amazon had surpassed its paperback sales.[29] In the overall U.S. market, paperback book sales are still much larger
than either hardcover or e-book; the American Publishing Association estimated e-books represented 8.5% of sales
as of mid-2010, up from 3% a year before.[30] In Canada, The Sentimentalists won the prestigious national Giller
Prize. Owing to the small scale of the novel's independent publisher, the book was initially not widely available in
printed form, but the ebook edition became the top-selling title for Kobo devices in 2010.[31]
A comparison of available e-book readers can be found at comparison of e-book readers.
Timeline
1946
• Roberto Busa begins planning the Index Thomisticus
~1963
• Doug Engelbart starts the NLS (and later Augment) projects
~1965
• Andries van Dam starts the HES (and later FRESS) projects, with assistance from Ted Nelson
1971
• Michael S. Hart creates an ebook by typing the US Declaration of Independence into a computer. He launches
Project Gutenberg to create electronic copies of more books.[12]
1985–1992
• Robert Stein starts Voyager Company Expanded Books and books on CD-ROM.
1990
• Eastgate Systems publishes the first hypertext fiction, Afternoon, a story, by Michael Joyce, available on floppy
disk.
• Electronic Book Technologies releases DynaText, the first SGML-based system for delivering large-scale books
such as aircraft technical manuals. Later tested on a US aircraft carrier as replacement for paper manuals,
allowing the ship to rest 6" higher in the water.
1992
• Sony launches the Data Discman electronic book reader.[32]
• Charles Stack's Book Stacks Unlimited begins selling new physical books online.
1992–1993
3
E-book
• F. Crugnola and I. Rigamonti design and create the first e-book reader, called Incipit, as a thesis project at the
Politecnico di Milano.[33]
1993
• Digital Book, Inc. offers digital books on floppy disk in Digital Book Format (DBF).
• Hugo Award for Best Novel nominee texts published on CD-ROM by Brad Templeton.
• Bibliobytes, a project of free digital books online in Internet.
1995
• Amazon starts to sell physical books on the Internet.
• Online poet Alexis Kirke discusses the need for wireless internet electronic paper readers in his article "The
Emuse".
1996
• Project Gutenberg reaches 1,000 titles. The target is 1,000,000.
1998
• Kim Blagg obtained the first ISBN issued to an ebook and began marketing multimedia-enhanced ebooks on CDs
through retailers including amazon.com, bn.com and borders.com. Shortly thereafter through her company
"Books OnScreen" she introduced the ebooks at the Book Expo America in Chicago, IL to an impressed, but
unconvinced bookseller audience.
• First ebook Readers: Rocket ebook and SoftBook.
• Cybook / Cybook Gen1 Sold and manufactured at first by Cytale (1998–2003) then by Bookeen.
• Websites selling ebooks in English, like eReader.com and eReads.com.
1999
• Baen Books opens up the Baen Free Library.
• Webscriptions (since renamed to Baen Ebooks) starts selling Baen titles as unencrypted eBooks.
2000
• Microsoft Reader with ClearType technology.
• Stephen King offers his book "Riding the Bullet" in digital file; it can only be read on a computer.
• Digital Book Index begins operation. DBI and the Online Books Page both organize electronic books from
disparate sites into single, searchable indexes, creating large virtual libraries of ebooks.
2001
• Todoebook.com, the first website selling ebooks in Spanish.
2002
• Random House and HarperCollins start to sell digital versions of their titles in English.
2004
• Sony Librie, first ebook using e-ink.
• Google announces plans to digitize the holdings of several major libraries,[34] as part of what would later be
called the Google Books Library Project.
2005
• Amazon buys Mobipocket.
• Google is sued for copyright infringement by the Authors Guild for scanning books still in copyright.[35]
2006
• Sony Reader with e-ink.
• LibreDigital launched BookBrowse as an online reader for publisher content.
4
E-book
5
• BooksOnBoard, one of the largest independent ebookstores, opens and sells ebooks and audiobooks in six
different formats.
2007
• Amazon launches Kindle in US.
• Bookeen launched Cybook Gen3 in Europe.
2008
• Adobe and Sony agreed to share their technologies (Reader and DRM).
• Sony sells the Sony Reader PRS-505 in UK and France.
• BooksOnBoard is first to sell ebooks for iPhones.
2009
•
•
•
•
•
Bookeen releases the Cybook Opus in the US and in Europe.
Sony releases the Reader Pocket Edition and Reader Touch Edition.
Amazon releases the Kindle 2.
Amazon releases the Kindle DX in the US.
Barnes & Noble releases the Nook in the US.
2010
• Amazon releases the Kindle DX International Edition worldwide.
• Bookeen reveals the Cybook Orizon at CES.[36]
• TurboSquid Magazine announces first magazine publication using Apple's iTunes LP format, however, this
project was cancelled before it reached the market.
• Apple releases the iPad with an e-book app called iBooks. Between its release in April 2010, to October, Apple
had sold 7 million iPads.
• Kobo Inc. releases its Kobo eReader to be sold at Indigo/Chapters in Canada and Borders in the United States.
• Amazon.com reported that its e-book sales outnumbered sales of hardcover books for the first time ever during
the second quarter of 2010.[28]
• Amazon releases the third generation kindle, available in 3G+Wi-Fi and Wi-Fi versions.
• Kobo Inc. releases an updated Kobo eReader which now includes Wi-Fi.
• Barnes & Noble releases the new NOOKcolor.
• Sony releases its second generation Daily Edition PRS-950.
• PocketBook expands its successful line of e-readers in the ever-growing market.
• Google launches Google eBooks
2011
• Barnes & Noble releases the new Nook - The Simple Touch Reader[37]
• Amazon.com announces in May that its e-book sales now exceed all of its printed book sales.[38]
• Bookeen launches its own e-books store : BookeenStore.com and starts to sell digital versions of titles in
French.[39]
• Nature Publishing publishes Principles of Biology, a customizable, modular textbook, with no corresponding
paper edition.
• The e-reader market grows up in Spain and companies like Telefonica, Fnac and Casa del Libro (the most
important Spanish bookshop) launches their e-readers with the Spanish brand bq readers.
• Amazon launches the Kindle Fire.
2012
• Apple releases iBooks Author, software for creating iPad e-books to be directly published in its iBooks bookstore
or to be shared as PDF files.[40]
• Apple opens a textbook section in its iBooks bookstore.[41]
E-book
6
• The publishing companies Random House, Holtzbrinck and arvato get an e-book library called Skoobe on the
market.[42]
Formats
Writers and publishers have many formats to choose from when publishing e-books. Each format has advantages and
disadvantages. The most popular e-book readers[43][44] and their natively supported formats are shown below.
Reader
Native E-Book Formats
[45] AZW, PDF, TXT, non-DRM MOBI, PRC
Amazon Kindle, Kindle Fire (color), Kindle Touch, Kindle Touch 3G
[46]
Nook Simple Touch
, Nook Tablet
EPUB, PDF
[47]
EPUB, PDF
Apple iPad
Sony Reader PRS-350, PRS-650, PRS-950
[45]
[48][49]
Kobo eReader, Kobo Touch, Kobo Vox
EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, DOC, BBeB
EPUB, PDF, TXT, RTF, HTML
Comparison to printed books
Advantages
Over 2 million free books are available for download as of August 2009.[50] Mobile availability of e-books may be
provided for users with a mobile data connection, so that these e-books need not be stored on the device. An e-book
can be offered indefinitely, without ever going "out of print". In the space that a comparably sized print book takes
up, an e-reader can potentially contain thousands of e-books, limited only by its memory capacity. If space is at a
premium, such as in a backpack or at home, it can be an advantage that an e-book collection takes up little room and
weight.
E-book websites can include the ability to translate books into many different languages, making the works available
to speakers of languages not covered by printed translations. Depending on the device, an e-book may be readable in
low light or even total darkness. Many newer readers have the ability to display motion, enlarge or change fonts,[51]
use Text-to-speech software to read the text aloud for visually impaired, partially sighted, elderly, dyslectic or just
lazy people, search for key terms, find definitions, or allow highlighting bookmarking and annotation. Devices that
utilize E Ink can imitate the look and ease of readability of a printed work while consuming very little power,
allowing continuous reading for weeks at time.
While an e-book reader costs much more than one book, the electronic texts are at times cheaper. Moreover, a great
share of e-books are available online for free, minus the minimal costs of the electronics required. For example, all
fiction from before the year 1900 is in the public domain. Also, libraries lend more current e-book titles for limited
times, free samples are available of many publications, and there are other lending models being piloted as well.
E-books can be printed for less than the price of traditional new books using new on-demand book printers.
An e-book can be purchased/borrowed, downloaded, and used immediately, whereas when one buys or borrows a
book, one must go to a bookshop, a home library, or public library during limited hours, or wait for a delivery. The
production of e-books does not consume paper and ink. The necessary computer or e-reader uses less materials.[52]
Printed books use 3 times more raw materials and 78 times more water to produce.[53] Depending on possible digital
rights management, e-books can be backed up to recover them in the case of loss or damage and it may be possible
to recover a new copy without cost from the distributor. Compared to printed publishing, it is cheaper and easier for
authors to self-publish e-books. Also, the dispersal of a free e-book copy can stimulate the sales of the printed
version.[54]
E-book
Drawbacks
Ebook formats and file types continue to develop and change through time through advances and developments in
technology or the introduction of new proprietary formats. While printed books remain readable for many years,
e-books may need to be copied or converted to a new carrier or file type over time. Because of proprietary formats or
lack of file support, formatted e-books may be unusable on certain readers. PDF and epub are growing standards, but
are not universal.
Paper books can be bought and wrapped for a present and a library of books can provide visual appeal, while the
digital nature of e-books makes them non-visible and intangible. E-books cannot provide the physical feel of the
cover, paper, and binding of the original printed work. An author who publishes a book often puts more into the
work than simply the words on the pages. E-books may cause people "to do the grazing and quick reading that
screens enable, rather than be by themselves with the author's ideas".[55] They may use the e-books simply for
reference purposes rather than reading for pleasure and leisure.[56] Books with large pictures (such as children's
books) or diagrams are more inconvenient for viewing and reading.
A book will never turn off, can last for several decades or longer and would be unusable only if significantly
damaged. The shelf life of a printed book exceeds that of an e-book reader, as over time the reader's battery will
drain and require recharging. Due to faults in hardware or software, e-book readers may malfunction and data loss
can occur. As with any piece of technology, the reader must be protected from the elements (such as extreme cold,
heat, water, etc.), while print books are not susceptible to damage from electromagnetic pulses, surges, impacts, or
temperatures typically found in automobiles on a hot day.
The cost of an e-book reader far exceeds that of a single book, and e-books often cost the same as their print
versions. Due to the high cost of the initial investment in some form of e-reader, e-books are cost prohibitive to
much of the world's population. Furthermore, there is no used e-book market, so consumers will neither be able to
recoup some of their costs by selling an unwanted title they have finished, nor will they be able to buy used copies at
significant discounts, as they can now easily do with printed books. Because of the high-tech appeal of the e-reader,
they are a greater target for theft than an individual print book. Along with the theft of the physical device, any
e-books it contains also become stolen. E-books purchased from vendors like Amazon or Barnes & Noble.com are
stored "in the cloud" on servers and "digital lockers" and have the benefit of being easily retrieved if an e-reading
device is lost. Not all e-booksellers are cloud based; if an e-book is stolen, accidentally lost, or deleted, in the
absence of a backup it may have to be repurchased.
The display resolutions of reading devices are currently lower than those of printed materials and may cause
discomfort due to glare on the screen or difficulty holding the device. Due to digital rights management, customers
typically cannot resell or loan their e-books to other readers.[57] However, some Barnes & Noble e-books are
lendable for two weeks via their 'LendMe' technology.[58] Additionally, the potential for piracy of e-books may make
publishers and authors reluctant to distribute digitally.[59] E-book readers require various toxic substances to
produce, are non-biodegradable, and the disposal of their batteries in particular raises environmental concerns. As
technologies rapidly change and old devices become obsolete, there will be larger amounts of toxic wastes that are
not easily biodegradable like paper..
Reading devices for e-books in a reflowable format such as EPUB may display page numbers, but these numbers
change from device to device depending on factors such as the size of the display and the selected font size. This
makes them unsuitable for citation purposes. To remedy this problem, Amazon Kindle e-books contain what are
called "location numbers", that is, numbers in the margin of the electronic text that indicate where the corresponding
page begins in the printed version of the book.[60] However, if there is no standard hard copy in print, which may
increasingly be the case as the popularity of digital publishing grows, these "location numbers" will not exist. APA,
MLA and the Chicago Manual of Style have all tried to address the problem of accurate academic citation by
recommending that versions be identified; e.g., Kindle edition, Kindle DX version, or any other “source of
e-book".[61] The wide variety of versions, text and font sizes make this solution impractical. The only real solution
7
E-book
would be a standard format for all devices.
No Kobo Refunds: Paper books can usually be returned or exchanged (within a prescribed time period), however
Kobo e-Books cannot be returned. [62] Amazon Kindle eBooks do allow refunds within 7 days. [63]
The USA's Federal Aviation Administration requires the prohibition of e-book reader use on commercial airliners
during takeoff and landing.[64]
Digital rights management
Anti-circumvention techniques may be used to restrict what the user may do with an e-book. For instance, it may not
be possible to transfer ownership of an e-book to another person, though such a transaction is common with physical
books. Some devices can phone home to track readers and reading habits, restrict printing, or arbitrarily modify
reading material. This includes restricting the copying and distribution of works in the public domain through the use
of "click-wrap" licensing, effectively limiting the rights of the public to distribute, sell or use texts in the public
domain freely.
Most e-book publishers do not warn their customers about the possible implications of the digital rights management
tied to their products. Generally they claim that digital rights management is meant to prevent copying of the e-book.
However in many cases it is also possible that digital rights management will result in the complete denial of access
by the purchaser to the e-book.[65] With some formats of DRM, the e-book is tied to a specific computer or device.
In these cases the DRM will usually let the purchaser move the book a limited number of times after which they
cannot use it on any additional devices. If the purchaser upgrades or replaces their devices eventually they may lose
access to their purchase. Some forms of digital rights management depend on the existence of online services to
authenticate the purchasers. When the company that provides the service goes out of business or decides to stop
providing the service, the purchaser will no longer be able to access the e-book.
As with digital rights management in other media, e-books are more like rental or leasing than purchase. The
restricted book comes with a number of restrictions, and eventually access to the purchase can be removed by a
number of different parties involved. These include the publisher of the book, the provider of the DRM scheme, and
the publisher of the reader software. These are all things that are significantly different from the realm of experiences
anyone has had with a physical copy of the book.
Production
Some e-books are produced simultaneously with the production of a printed format, as described in electronic
publishing, though in many instances they may not be put on sale until later. Often, e-books are produced from
pre-existing hard-copy books, generally by document scanning, sometimes with the use of robotic book scanners,
having the technology to quickly scan books without damaging the original print edition. Scanning a book produces
a set of image files, which may additionally be converted into text format by an OCR program.[66] Occasionally, as
in some e-text projects, a book may be produced by re-entering the text from a keyboard.
As a newer development, sometimes only the electronic version of a book is produced by the publisher. It is even
possible to release an e-book chapter by chapter as each chapter is written. This is useful in fields such as
information technology where topics can change quickly in the months that it takes to write a typical book (See:
Realtime Publishers). It is also possible to convert an electronic book to a printed book by print on demand. However
these are exceptions as tradition dictates that a book be launched in the print format and later if the author wishes an
electronic version is produced.
As of 2010, there is no industry-wide e-book bestseller list, but various e-book vendors compile bestseller lists, such
as those by Amazon Kindle Bestsellers[67] and Fictionwise.[68] Two yearly awards for excellence in e-books are the
EPIC eBook Award[69] (formerly EPPIE) given by EPIC, and the Dream Realm Award[70] for science fiction,
fantasy and horror e-books. Both awards have been given since 2000.
8
E-book
9
e-Readers
e-book reader, also called an e-book device or e-reader, is a mobile electronic device that is designed primarily for
the purpose of reading digital e-books and periodicals. An e-book reader is similar in form to a limited purpose tablet
computer.
Market shares
Quantity market shares of e-book sales in US by Goldman Sachs at
2010
[71]
Sellers
Percent
Amazon
58.0%
Barnes & Noble
27.0%
Apple
9.0%
Others
6.0%
Market share of e-readers in Canada by Ipsos Reid at August
2011
[72]
Sellers
Percent
Kobo
36.0%
Amazon
25.0%
Sony
23.0%
Others
16.0%
Notes
[1] Gardiner, Eileen and Ronald G. Musto. “The Electronic Book.” In Suarez, Michael Felix, and H. R. Woudhuysen. The Oxford Companion to
the Book. (http:/ / www. worldcat. org/ oclc/ 370356568) Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010, p. 164.
[2] " e-book (http:/ / oxforddictionaries. com/ view/ entry/ m_en_us1242960)". Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010. Oxford Dictionaries. April 2010.
Oxford University Press. (accessed September 02, 2010).
[3] Steven J. DeRose and Andries van Dam. "Document Structure and Markup in the FRESS Hypertext System" in Markup Languages 1(1), pp.
7-32, 1999.
[4] Steven Carmody, Walter Gross, Theodor H. Nelson, David Rice, and Andries van Dam. "A Hypertext Editing System for the /360" in Faiman
and Nievergelt (eds.) Pertinent Concepts in Computer Graphics: Proceedings of the Second 17 University of Illinois Conference on Computer
Graphics, pp. 291-330, University of Illinois Press, 1969.
[5] [van dam & Rice 1970] Andries van Dam and David E. Rice. "Computers and Publishing: Writing, Editing and Printing" in Advances in
Computers 10, pp. 145-174, Academic Press, 1970.
[6] Roderick Chisholm, Person and Object, 1976
[7] "An experimental system for creating and presenting interactive graphical documents." ACM Transactions on Graphics (TOG) 1(1), Jan.
1982
[8] [Yankelovich et al. 1985] Nicole Yankelovich, Norman K. Meyrowitz, and Andries van Dam. "Reading and Writing the Electronic Book" in
IEEE Computer Magazine 18(10), pp. 15-30, October 1985.
[9] Michael S. Hart (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ wiki/ Michael_S. _Hart), Project Gutenberg,
[10] Flood, Alison (8 September 2011). "Michael Hart, inventor of the ebook, dies aged 64" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2011/ sep/
08/ michael-hart-inventor-ebook-dies). The Guardian (London). . Retrieved 8 September 2011.
[11] Grimes, William (8 September 2011). "Michael Hart, a Pioneer of E-Books, Dies at 64" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 09/ 09/
business/ michael-hart-a-pioneer-of-e-books-dies-at-64. html?pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved 8 September 2011.
E-book
[12] Alison Flood (2011-09-08). "Michael Hart, inventor of the ebook, dies aged 64" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ books/ 2011/ sep/ 08/
michael-hart-inventor-ebook-dies). London: Guardian. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[13] Personal Dynamic Media (http:/ / www. newmediareader. com/ book_samples/ nmr-26-kay. pdf) – By Alan Kay and Adele Goldberg
[14] The book and beyond: electronic publishing and the art of the book. (http:/ / www. vam. ac. uk/ vastatic/ wid/ exhibits/ bookandbeyond/ )
Text of an exhibition held at the Victoria and Albert Museum, London, 1995.
[15] eBooks: la guerra digital global por el dominio del libro (http:/ / www. realinstitutoelcano. org/ wps/ portal/ rielcano/
contenido?WCM_GLOBAL_CONTEXT=/ elcano/ elcano_es/ zonas_es/ lengua+ y+ cultura/ ari92-2010) – By Chimo Soler (Historian)
[16] Doris Small. "E-books in libraries: some early experiences and reactions." Searcher 8.9 (2000): 63-5. http:/ / www. highbeam. com/ doc/
1G1-66217098. html
[17] Genco, Barbara. ” It’s been Geometric! (http:/ / www. ifla. org/ files/ hq/ papers/ ifla75/ 212-genco-en. pdf) Documenting the Growth and
Acceptance of eBooks in America’s Urban Public Libraries.” IFLA Conference, July 2009.
[18] (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ research/ initiatives/ plftas/ 2009_2010/ index. cfm)
[19] "66% of Public Libraries in US offering eBooks" (http:/ / www. libraries. wright. edu/ noshelfrequired/ ?p=1353). Libraries.wright.edu.
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[20] "At the Tipping Point: Four voices probe the top ebook issues for librarians." Library Journal, August 2010
[21] "J.K. Rowling refuses e-books for Potter" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ books/ news/ 2005-06-14-rowling-refuses-ebooks_x. htm).
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[22] Becker, B. W. The e-Book Apocalypse: A Survivor's Guide. Behavioral & Social Sciences Librarian v. 30 no. 3 (July 2011) p. 181-4
[23] http:/ / wiki. mobileread. com/ wiki/ Rocket_eBook
[24] Take, First (2010-09-11). "Bookeen Cybook OPUS | ZDNet UK" (http:/ / community. zdnet. co. uk/ blog/
0,1000000567,10014045o-2000667842b,00. htm). Community.zdnet.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[25] http:/ / www. digitimes. com/ news/ a20100426VL204. html/
[26] "iPad - See the web, email, and photos like never before" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ ipad/ ). Apple. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[27] "Apple Launches iPad" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ pr/ library/ 2010/ 01/ 27ipad. html). Apple.com. 2010-01-27. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[28] "E-Books Top Hardcovers at Amazon" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 07/ 20/ technology/ 20kindle. html). New York Times.
2010-07-19. . Retrieved 2010-07-19.
[29] "Amazon Media Room: Press Releases" (http:/ / phx. corporate-ir. net/ phoenix. zhtml?c=176060& p=irol-newsArticle& ID=1521090&
highlight& ref=tsm_1_tw_kin_prearn_20110127). Phx.corporate-ir.net. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[30] Lynn Neary, Don Gonyea (2010-07-27). "Conflict Widens In E-Books Publishing" (http:/ / www. npr. org/ templates/ story/ story.
php?storyId=128789516). NPR. . Retrieved 2010-07-27.
[31] "Scarcity of Giller-winning ‘Sentimentalists’ a boon to eBook sales" (http:/ / www. thestar. com/ entertainment/ books/ article/
889818--scarcity-of-giller-winning-sentimentalists-a-boon-to-ebook-sales?bn=1). Toronto Star, November 12, 2010.
[32] Coburn, M., Burrows, P., Loi, D., Wilkins, L. (2001). E-book readers directions in enabling technologies. In Print and Electronic Text
Convergence, edited by Cope, B. & Kalantzis, D. Melbourne: Common Ground, 145-182.
[33] "Foto Franco, l'uomo che inventò l'e-book "Ma nel 1993 nessuno ci diede retta" - 1 di 10" (http:/ / milano. repubblica. it/ cronaca/ 2011/ 06/
24/ foto/ franco_l_uomo_che_invento_l_e-book_ma_nel_1993_nessuno_ci_diede_retta-18137331/ 1/ ). Milano.repubblica.it. . Retrieved
2011-10-24.
[34] "Checks Out Library Books – News from" (http:/ / www. google. com/ press/ pressrel/ print_library. html). Google. 2004-12-14. . Retrieved
2011-10-24.
[35] Samuelson, Pamela (July 2010). "Legally speaking: Should the Google Book settlement be approved?". Communications of the ACM 53 (7):
32–34. doi:10.1145/1785414.1785429.
[36] "Bookeen debuts Orizon touchscreen e-book reader" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2010/ 01/ 08/
bookeen-debuts-orizon-touchscreen-e-book-reader/ ). Engadget. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[37] "The Simple Touch Reader" (http:/ / www. ljinteractive. com/ index. php/ barnes-and-noble-launches-a-new-nook-the-simple-touch-reader/
). LJ Interactive 24th May 2011. .
[38] Rapaport, Lisa (2011-05-19). "Amazon.com Says Kindle E-Book Sales Surpass Printed Books for First Time" (http:/ / www. bloomberg.
com/ news/ 2011-05-19/ amazon-com-says-kindle-electronic-book-sales-surpass-printed-format. html). Bloomberg. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[39] "Bookeen launches a new e-book store" (http:/ / www. e-reader-info. com/ bookeen-launches-new-e-book-store). E-reader-info.com.
2011-08-01. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[40] Chloe Albanesius (January 19, 2012 11:32am EST). "Apple Targets Educators Via iBooks 2, iBooks Author, iTunes U App" (http:/ / www.
pcmag. com/ article2/ 0,2817,2399075,00. asp). PCMag.com. .
[41] Josh Lowensohn (January 19, 2012 8:20 AM PST). "Apple unveils iBooks 2 for digital textbooks, self-pub app (live blog)" (http:/ / news.
cnet. com/ 8301-13579_3-57360688-37/ apple-unveils-ibooks-2-for-digital-textbooks-self-pub-app-live-blog/ ). CNET. .
[42] Skoobe: publishing houses start e-book library (http:/ / www. netzwelt. de/ news/ 91142-skoobe-verlage-starten-e-book-abo. html) (german)
[43] McCracken, Jeffrey (2011-03-23). "Barnes & Noble Said to Be Likely to End Search Without Buyer" (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ news/
2011-03-22/ barnes-noble-is-said-to-be-likely-to-end-search-for-buyer-without-a-sale. html). Bloomberg. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[44] Barbour, Mary Beth (2011-11-08). "BlackBerry, Apple, Kobo Top Brands in Canada’s Mobile Device Market" (http:/ / www. ipsos-na. com/
news-polls/ pressrelease. aspx?id=5399). Ipsos Reid. . Retrieved 2011-12-17.
10
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[45] Suleman, Khidr (September 20, 2010). "Sony Reader Touch and Amazon Kindle 3 go head-to-head" (http:/ / www. theinquirer. net/
inquirer/ review/ 1732281/ sony-reader-touch-amazon-kindle-head-head). The Inquirer. . Retrieved January 27, 2012.
[46] "Beyond Ebooks" (http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ nook/ container/ standard_bothnavs. asp?PID=35678). . Retrieved 12 June 2011.
[47] Patel, Nilay (January 27, 2010). "The Apple iPad: starting at $499" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2010/ 01/ 27/ the-apple-ipad/ ). Engadget.
. Retrieved January 27, 2010.
[48] Covert, Adrian. "Kobo Touch E-Reader: You’ll Want to Love It, But…" (http:/ / gizmodo. com/ 5812387/ kobo-touch-e+
reader-youll-want-to-love-it-but). Gizmodo.com. . Retrieved 17 June 2011.
[49] "Kobo eReader Touch Specs" (http:/ / www. kobobooks. com/ touch_tech). . Retrieved 29 June 2011.
[50] by gwilson (2009-07-09). "2 million free eBooks" (http:/ / www. law. stanford. edu/ library/ blog/ ?tag=2-million-free-ebooks).
Law.stanford.edu. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[51] Harris, Christopher. "The Truth About Ebooks." School Library Journal 55, no. 6 (2009): 18. Wilson Select Plus. Online Database
[52] "Should we switch to reading books online?" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ environment/ 2009/ aug/ 30/
reading-books-online-eco-friendly) Lucy Siegel, The Observer Magazine, 30 August 2009.
[53] Goleman, Daniel (2010-04-04). "How Green Is My iPad" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ interactive/ 2010/ 04/ 04/ opinion/ 04opchart. html).
The New York Times. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[54] "Giving It Away" (http:/ / www. forbes. com/ 2006/ 11/ 30/ cory-doctorow-copyright-tech-media_cz_cd_books06_1201doctorow. html).
Forbes. 2006-12-01. .
[55] Abel, David. "Welcome to the library. Say goodbye to the books. The Boston Globe, 4 Sept. 2009.
[56] Noorhidawat, A and Gibb, Forbes. "How Students Use E-books-Reading or Referring?" Malaysian Journal of Library and Information
Science 13, no. 2 (2009): 1-14 Wilson Select Plus. Online Database.
[57] "Amazon Kindle and Sony Reader Locked Up: Why Your Books Are No Longer Yours" (http:/ / gizmodo. com/ 369235/
amazon-kindle-and-sony-reader-locked-up-why-your-books-are-no-longer-yours). Gizmodo.com. 2008-03-21. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[58] "How to loan ebooks on the nook with LendMe service" (http:/ / www. zdnet. com/ blog/ mobile-gadgeteer/
how-to-loan-ebooks-on-the-nook-with-lendme-service/ 2250). ZDNet. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[59] Rich, Motoko (2009-05-11). "Print Books Are Target of Pirates on the Web" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 05/ 12/ technology/
internet/ 12digital. html). Nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[60] Pogue, David (8 February 2011). "Page Numbers for Kindle Books an Imperfect Solution" (http:/ / pogue. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2011/ 02/
08/ page-numbers-for-kindle-books-an-imperfect-solution/ ). New York Times, "Pogue's Post" blog. . Retrieved 9 July 2011.
[61] Walters, Chris. "How to cite a Kindle ebook" (http:/ / booksprung. com/ how-to-cite-a-kindle-ebook). Booksprung: Ebook news and tips. .
Retrieved 22 October 2011.
[62] "Kobo Terms of Sale" (http:/ / www. kobobooks. com/ termsOfSales/ ). . Retrieved 2012-01-21.
[63] "Amazon e-Books returns policy" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ help/ customer/ display. html/
ref=hp_901904_kcontentreturn?nodeId=200527380#returncontent/ ). . Retrieved 2012-01-21.
[64] Matt Phillips (2009-05-07). "Kindle DX: Must You Turn it Off for Takeoff and Landing?" (http:/ / blogs. wsj. com/ middleseat/ 2009/ 05/
07/ kindle-dx-must-you-turn-it-off-for-takeoff-and-landing/ ). The Wall Street Journal. . Retrieved 2011-07-28.
[65] Pogue, David (2009-07-17). "Case where Amazon remotely deleted titles from purchasers' devices" (http:/ / pogue. blogs. nytimes. com/
2009/ 07/ 17/ some-e-books-are-more-equal-than-others/ ). Pogue.blogs.nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[66] The Book Standard is closed (http:/ / www. thebookstandard. com/ bookstandard/ news/ publisher/ article_display.
jsp?vnu_content_id=1002035592)
[67] "Amazon Kindle Bestsellers" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ bestsellers/ digital-text). Amazon.com. 2009-09-09. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[68] "Fictionwise Bestseller eBooks" (http:/ / www. fictionwise. com/ topstories. htm). Fictionwise.com. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[69] EPIC eBook Awards (http:/ / www. epicauthors. com/ epicawards. html)
[70] "Dream Realm Awards" (http:/ / www. dream-realm-awards. net/ ). Dream Realm Awards. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[71] McCracken, Jeffrey (2011-03-23). "Barnes & Noble Said to Be Likely to End Search Without Buyer" (http:/ / www. bloomberg. com/ news/
2011-03-22/ barnes-noble-is-said-to-be-likely-to-end-search-for-buyer-without-a-sale. html). Bloomberg. . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[72] Barbour, Mary Beth (2011-11-08). "BlackBerry, Apple, Kobo Top Brands in Canada’s Mobile Device Market" (http:/ / www. ipsos-na. com/
news-polls/ pressrelease. aspx?id=5399). Ipsos Reid. . Retrieved 2011-12-17.
11
E-book
12
References
• Doctorow, Cory (February 12, 2004). Ebooks: Neither E, Nor Books (http://craphound.com/
ebooksneitherenorbooks.txt), O'Reilly Emerging Technologies Conference
• James, Bradley (November 20, 2002). The Electronic Book: Looking Beyond the Physical Codex (http://www.
scinet.cc/articles/ebook/electronicbook.html), SciNet
• Lynch, Clifford (May 28, 2001). The Battle to Define the Future of the Book in the Digital World (http://
firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/864/773), First Monday - Peer reviewed
journal on the Internet
• Flint, Eric (2000). "Building the Baen Free Library" (http://www.speculations.com/?t=189167). Retrieved
2007-07-19.
External links
• Project Gutenberg (http://www.gutenberg.org/)
• About the Google Book Settlement (GBS) and online books (rights) (http://www.truthdig.com/report/item/
20090929_scanning_the_horizon_of_books_and_libraries/)
• E-Books Spark Battle Inside Publishing Industry (Washington Post, 27 Dec 2009) (http://www.washingtonpost.
com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/12/24/AR2009122403326.html)
• E-book (http://www.dmoz.org/Business/Publishing_and_Printing/Publishing/Electronic/E-Books/) at the
Open Directory Project
Comparison of e-book formats
The following is a comparison of e-book formats used to create and publish e-books.
A writer or publisher has many options when it comes to choosing a format for publication. While the average
end-user might arguably simply want to read books, every format has its proponents. The myriad e-book formats are
sometimes collectively referred to as the "Tower of eBabel".[1]
The file size for texts without images depends on the file format, but is always relatively small compared with a
richly illustrated text.
Format descriptions
Formats available include, but are by no means limited to:
Amazon Kindle
Format:
Kindle
Published as: .azw; .kf8
With the release of the Kindle Fire reader in late 2011, Amazon.com also released Kindle Format 8, their
next-generation file format. The .kf8 file format supports HTML5 and CSS3. Older Kindle eBook readers use the
proprietary format, AZW. It is based on the Mobipocket standard, with a slightly different serial number scheme (it
uses an asterisk instead of a dollar sign) and its own DRM formatting. Because the eBooks bought on the Kindle are
delivered over its wireless system called Whispernet, the user does not see the AZW files during the download
process. The Kindle format is now available on a variety of platforms, such as through the Kindle app for the iPad.
Comparison of e-book formats
13
Apple iBooks Author
Format:
iBook
Published as: .iba
With the free iBooks Author epub layout software, Apple Inc. created the proprietary format, IBA. It is based on the
epub standard, with slightly different CSS tags, thus making it incompatible with the epub open standard. Books
created with it may only be distributed through the iTunes Bookstore. The end-user licensing agreement forbids
authors from reusing books in the IBA format, created with iBooks, in other bookstores. The software currently does
not support importing an epub produced with other software, nor does it support exporting content to other epub
formats. However, any original content produced with iBooks Author may be repurposed and resold elsewhere if
produced with different software.
Archos Diffusion
Format:
Archos Reader
Published as: .aeh
The AEH format is an XML-based proprietary format developed by the French firm Archos Diffusion. AEH files
use a proprietary DRM and encryption method and are readable only in the Archos Player. It supports various input
formats for text, audio or video, such as PDF, WMA, MP3, WMV, and allows multiple interactive functions such as
bookmarking, advanced plain-text searching, dynamic text highlighting, etc.
Broadband eBooks (BBeB)
Format:
Sony media
Published as: .lrf; .lrx
The digital book format used by Sony Corporation. It is a proprietary format, but some reader software for
general-purpose computers, particularly under Linux (for example, calibre's internal viewer[2]), have the capability to
read it. The LRX file extension represents a DRM encrypted eBook. Sony has converted its books from BBeB to
EPUB.
Comic Book Archive file
Format:
compressed images
Published as: .cbr (RAR); .cbz (ZIP); .cb7 (7z); .cbt (TAR); .cba (ACE)
A Comic Book Archive file or ComicBook Reader File consists of a series of image files, typically PNG (lossless
compression) or JPEG (lossy compression) files, stored as a single archive file, for the purpose of sequential viewing
of images, especially comic books. The idea was made popular by the CDisplay image viewer; since then, many
viewers for different platforms have been created. Comic Book Archive files are not a distinct file format; only the
file name extension differs from a standard file of the given archive type. Some applications support additional tag
information (like artists or story information) in the form of embedded XML files in the archive, or use of the Zip
comment function.
Comparison of e-book formats
14
Compiled HM
Format:
Microsoft Compiled HTML Help
Published as: .chm
CHM format is a proprietary format based on HTML. Multiple pages and embedded graphics are distributed along
with proprietary metadata as a single compressed file. In contrast, in HTML, a site consists of multiple HTML files
and associated image files in standardized formats.
DAISY - ANSI/NISO Z39.86
Format:
DAISY
Published as:
The Digital Accessible Information SYstem (DAISY) is an XML-based open standard maintained by the DAISY
Consortium for people with print disabilities. DAISY has wide international support with features for multimedia,
navigation and synchronization. A subset of the DAISY format has been adopted by law in the United States as the
National Instructional Material Accessibility Standard (NIMAS), and K-12 textbooks and instructional materials are
now required to be provided to students with disabilities.
DAISY is already aligned with the EPUB open standard, and is expected to fully converge with its forthcoming
EPUB3 revision.[3]
Desktop Author
Format:
DNL Reader
Published as: .dnl; .exe
Desktop Author is an electronic publishing suite that allows creation of digital web books with virtual turning pages.
Digital web books of any publication type can be written in this format, including brochures, e-books, digital photo
albums, e-cards, digital diaries, online resumes, quizzes, exams, tests, forms and surveys. DesktopAuthor packages
the e-book into a ".dnl" or ".exe" book. Each can be a single, plain stand-alone executable file which does not require
any other programs to view it. DNL files can be viewed inside a web browser or stand-alone via the DNL Reader.
DNL format is an e-Book format, one which replicates the real life alternative, namely page turning Books. The
DNL e-Book is developed by DNAML Pty Limited an Australian company established in 1999. A DNL e-Book can
be produced using DeskTop Author or DeskTop Communicator.
DjVu
Format:
DjVu
Published as: .djvu
DjVu is a format specialized for storing scanned documents. It includes advanced compressors optimized for
low-color images, such as text documents. Individual files may contain one or more pages. DjVu files cannot be
re-flowed.
The contained page images are divided in separate layers (such as multi-color, low-resolution, background layer
using lossy compression, and few-colors, high-resolution, tightly-compressed foreground layer), each compressed in
the best available method. The format is designed to decompress very quickly, even faster than vector-based formats.
Comparison of e-book formats
15
The advantage of DjVu is that it is possible to take a high-resolution scan (300-400 DPI), good enough for both
on-screen reading and printing, and store it very efficiently. Several dozens of 300 DPI black-and-white scans can be
stored in less than a megabyte.
EPUB
Format:
IDPF/EPUB
Published as: .epub
The .epub or OEBPS format is an open standard for e-books created by the International Digital Publishing Forum
(IDPF). It combines three IDPF open standards:
• Open Publication Structure (OPS) 2.0, which describes the content markup (either XHTML or Daisy DTBook)
• Open Packaging Format (OPF) 2.0, which describes the structure of an .epub in XML
• OEBPS Container Format (OCF) 1.0, which bundles files together (as a renamed ZIP file)
The EPUB format is rapidly gaining popularity and as of 2011 is the most widely supported vendor-independent
XML-based e-book format. The format can be read at least by the Kobo eReader, Blackberry Playbook, Apple's
iBooks app running on iOS devices such as the iPhone, iPod Touch and iPad, Barnes and Noble Nook, Sony Reader,
BeBook, Bookeen Cybook Gen3 (with firmware v. 2 and up), COOL-ER, Adobe Digital Editions, Lexcycle Stanza,
BookGlutton, AZARDI, FBReader, Aldiko, Moon+ Reader and WordPlayer on Android, Freda [4] on Windows
Mobile and Windows Phone 7, and the Mozilla Firefox add-on EPUBReader. Several other desktop reader software
programs are currently implementing support for the format, such as dotReader, FBReader, Mobipocket, uBook and
Okular.
The only notable device lacking integrated support for the EPUB format is the Amazon Kindle, although there has
recently been speculation that the Kindle will soon support this format.[5]
Adobe Digital Editions uses .epub format for its e-books, with DRM protection provided through their proprietary
ADEPT mechanism. The recently developed ADEPT framework and scripts have been reverse-engineered to
circumvent this DRM system.[6]
DSLibris [7], a Sourceforge.net project, is able to decode e-books in .epub and .xht format for reading on Nintendo
DS systems.
eReader
Formerly Palm Digital Media/Peanut Press
Format:
Palm Media
Published as: .pdb
eReader is a freeware program for viewing Palm Digital Media electronic books which use the pdb format used by
many Palm applications. Versions are available for iPhone, PalmOS (not webOS), Android, Symbian, BlackBerry,
Windows Mobile Pocket PC/Smartphone, desktop Windows, and Macintosh. The reader shows text one page at a
time, as paper books do. eReader supports embedded hyperlinks and images. Additionally, the Stanza application for
the iPhone and iPod Touch can read both encrypted and unencrypted eReader files.
The program supports features like bookmarks and footnotes, enabling the user to mark any page with a bookmark,
and any part of the text with a footnote-like commentary. Footnotes can later be exported as a Memo document.
The company also offers two Windows/MacOS programs for producing e-books: the Dropbook [8], which is free,
and the eBook Studio [9], which is not. Dropbook is a file-oriented PML-to-PDB converter; eBook Studio
incorporates a WYSIWYG editor. Both programs are compatible with simple text files.
Comparison of e-book formats
16
On July 20, 2009, Barnes & Noble announced[10] that the eReader format will be the method they will use to deliver
e-books. Their Nook Reader supports the eReader format,[11] but it is not currently supported on Barnes & Noble's
NookColor. eReader format is also supported by the discontinued eSlick [12], an e-reading device from Foxit
Software.
FictionBook (Fb2)
Format:
FictionBook
Published as: .fb2
FictionBook[13] is a popular XML-based e-book format, supported by free readers such as FBReader, Bebook, Haali
Reader and STDU Viewer.
Founder Electronics
Format:
Apabi Reader
Published as: .xeb; .ceb
APABI is a format devised by Founder Electronics. It is a popular format for Chinese e-books. It can be read using
the Apabi Reader software, and produced using Apabi Publisher. Both .xeb and .ceb files are encoded binary files.
The Iliad e-book device includes an Apabi 'viewer'.
Hypertext Markup Language
Format:
Hypertext
Published as: .htm; .html
HTML is the markup language used for most web pages. E-books using HTML can be read using a Web browser.
The specifications for the format are available without charge from the W3C.
HTML adds specially marked meta-elements to otherwise plain text encoded using character sets like ASCII or
UTF-8. As such, suitably formatted files can be, and sometimes are, generated by hand using a plain text editor or
programmer's editor. Many HTML generator applications exist to ease this process and often require less intricate
knowledge of the format details involved.
HTML on its own is not a particularly efficient format to store information in, requiring more storage space for a
given work than many other formats. However, several e-Book formats including the Amazon Kindle, Open eBook,
Compressed HM, Mobipocket and EPUB store each book chapter in HTML format, then use ZIP compression to
compress the HTML data, images, metadata and style sheets into a single, significantly smaller, file.
HTML files encompass a wide range of standards[14] and displaying HTML files correctly can be complicated.
Additionally many of the features supported, such as forms, are not relevant to e-books.
Comparison of e-book formats
17
IEC 62448
Format:
IEC 62448
Published as:
IEC 62448 is an international standard created by International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC)), Technical
Committee 100, Technical Area 10 (Multimedia e-publishing and e-book).
The current version of IEC 62448 is an umbrella standard that contains as appendices two concrete formats, XMDF
of Sharp and BBeB of Sony. However, BBeB has been discontinued by Sony and the version of XMDF that is in the
specification is out of date. The IEC TA10 group is discussing next steps, and has invited the IDPF organization
which has standardized EPUB to be a liaison. It is possible that the current version of EPUB and/or the forthcoming
EPUB3 revision may be added to IEC 62448. Meanwhile a number of Japanese companies have proposed that IEC
standardize a proposed new Japanese-centric file format that is expected to unify DotBook of Voyager Japan and
XMDF of Sharp. This new format has not been publicly disclosed as of November, 2010 but it is supposed to cover
basic representations for the Japanese language. Technically speaking, this revision is supposed to provide a
Japanese minimum set, a Japanese extension set, and a stylesheet language. These issues were discussed in the
TC100 meeting held in October 2010 but no decisions were taken besides offering the liaison status to IDPF.
Microsoft LIT
Format:
Microsoft Reader
Published as: .lit
DRM-protected LIT files are only readable in the proprietary Microsoft Reader program, as the .LIT format,
otherwise similar to Microsoft's CHM format, includes Digital Rights Management features. Other third party
readers, such as Lexcycle Stanza, can read unprotected LIT files. There are also tools such as Convert Lit [15], which
can convert .lit files to HTML files or OEBPS files.
The Microsoft Reader uses patented ClearType display technology. In Reader navigation works with a keyboard,
mouse, stylus, or through electronic bookmarks. The Catalog Library records reader books in a personalized "home
page", and books are displayed with ClearType to improve readability. A user can add annotations and notes to any
page, create large-print e-books with a single command, or create free-form drawings on the reader pages. A built-in
dictionary allows the user to look up words.
Microsoft announced Microsoft Reader will be discontinued on August 30th 2012.
Mobipocket
Format:
Mobipocket
Published as: .prc; .mobi
The Mobipocket e-book format is based on the Open eBook standard using XHTML and can include JavaScript and
frames. It also supports native SQL queries to be used with embedded databases. There is a corresponding e-book
reader. A free e-book of the German Wikipedia has been published in Mobipocket format.[16]
The Mobipocket Reader has a home page library. Readers can add blank pages in any part of a book and add
free-hand drawings. Annotations — highlights, bookmarks, corrections, notes, and drawings — can be applied,
organized, and recalled from a single location. Images are converted to GIF format and have a maximum size of
64K,[17] sufficient for mobile phones with small screens, but rather restrictive for newer gadgets. Mobipocket Reader
has electronic bookmarks, and a built-in dictionary.
Comparison of e-book formats
18
The reader has a full screen mode for reading and support for many PDAs, Communicators, and Smartphones.
Mobipocket products support most Windows, Symbian, BlackBerry and Palm operating systems, but not the
Android platform. Using WINE, the reader works under Linux or Mac OS X. Third-party applications like Okular
and FBReader can also be used under Linux or Mac OS X, but they work only with unencrypted files.
The Amazon Kindle's AZW format is basically just the Mobipocket format with a slightly different serial number
scheme (it uses an asterisk instead of a dollar sign), and .prc publications can be read directly on the Kindle. The
Kindle AZW format also lacks some Mobipocket features such as JavaScript.[18]
Mobipocket has developed an .epub to .mobi converter called KindleGen[19] (supports IDPF 1.0 and IDPF 2.0 epub
format, according to the company).
Multimedia eBooks
Format:
Eveda
Published as: .exe or .html
A multimedia ebook is media and book content that utilizes a combination of different book content formats. The
term can be used as a noun (a medium with multiple content formats) or as an adjective describing a medium as
having multiple content formats.
The 'multimedia ebook' term is used in contrast to media which only utilize traditional forms of printed or text books.
Multimedia ebooks include a combination of text, audio, images, video, and/or interactive content formats. Much
like how a traditional book can contain images to help the text tell a story, a multimedia ebook can contain other
elements not formerly possible to help tell the story.
With the advent of more widespread tablet-like computers, such as the smartphone, some publishing houses are
planning to make multimedia ebooks, such as Penguin.[20]
Newton eBook
Format:
Newton eBook
Published as: .pkg
Commonly known as an Apple Newton book; a single Newton package file can contain multiple books (for example,
the three books of a trilogy might be packaged together). All systems running the Newton operating system (the most
common include the Newton MessagePads, eMates, Siemens Secretary Stations, Motorola Marcos, Digital Ocean
Seahorses and Tarpons) have built-in support for viewing Newton books. The Newton package format was released
to the public by Newton, Inc. prior to that company's absorption into Apple Computer. The format is thus arguably
open and various people have written readers for it (writing a Newton book converter has even been assigned as a
university-level class project[21]).
Newton books have no support for DRM or encryption. They do support internal links, potentially multiple tables of
contents and indexes, embedded gray scale images, and even some scripting capability (for example, it's possible to
make a book in which the reader can influence the outcome).[22] Newton books utilize Unicode and are thus
available in numerous languages. An individual Newton book may actually contain multiple views representing the
same content in different ways (such as for different screen resolutions).
Comparison of e-book formats
19
Open Electronic Package
Format:
Open eBook
Published as: .opf
OPF is an XML-based e-book format created by E-Book Systems; it has been superseded by the EPUB electronic
publication standard.
Portable Document Format
Format:
Adobe Portable Document Format
Published as: .pdf
A file format created by Adobe Systems, initially to provide a standard form for storing printable documents
containing a set of page images. The format derives from PostScript, but without language features like loops, and
with added support for features like compression, passwords and DRM. Because PDF documents can easily be
viewed and printed by users on a variety of computer platforms, they are very common on the World Wide Web.
The specification of the format is available without charge from Adobe.
Since the format is designed to reproduce page images, the text traditionally could not be re-flowed to fit the screen
width or size. As a result, PDF files designed for printing on standard paper sizes are less easily viewed on screens
with limited size or resolution, such as those found on mobile phones and e-book readers. Adobe has addressed this
drawback by adding a re-flow facility to its Acrobat Reader software, but for it to work the document must be
marked for re-flowing at creation[23] — meaning that existing PDF documents won't benefit unless they are tagged
and resaved. The Windows Mobile (aka Pocket PC) version of Adobe Acrobat will automatically attempt to tag a
PDF for reflow during the synchronization process using an installed plugin to Active Sync. However, this tagging
process will not work on most locked or password protected PDF documents. It also doesn't work at present
(2009–10) on the Windows Mobile Device Center (the successor to Active Sync) as found in Windows Vista and
Windows 7. Thus, automatic tagging support during synchronization is limited to Windows XP/2000.
Multiple products support creating and tagging PDF files, such as Adobe Acrobat, PDFCreator, OpenOffice.org,
iText, and FOP, and several programming libraries. Third party viewers such as xpdf are also available. Mac OS X
has built-in PDF support, both for creation as part of the printing system and for display using the built-in Preview
application.
PDF files are supported on many e-book readers including: Mobipocket, iRex iLiad, iRex DR1000, Sony Reader,
Bookeen Cybook, Foxit eSlick, Amazon Kindle (2, 3, International & DX), Barnes & Noble Nook[24], the iPad,
PocketBook Reader, Bebook Neo and the Kobo eReader. Also, pdf files can be read on the iPod Touch using the free
Stanza app. On iPad, there are also many readers such as Stanza, iBook, FlipReader, ...
Scientific papers and books are often found in PDF format. In this case, the problem of showing tables and equations
correctly has been dealt with, when the PDF was created. When trying to reflow such text, ereaders typically obtain
very poor results.
Comparison of e-book formats
20
Plain text files
Format:
text
Published as: .txt
E-books in plain text exist. The size in bytes is simply the number of characters, including spaces, and with a new
line counting for 1 or 2. For example, the Bible, an 800,000-word book, is about 4 MB.[25] The ASCII standard
allows ASCII-only text files to be interchanged and readable on Unix, Macintosh, Microsoft Windows, DOS, and
other systems. These differ in their preferred line ending convention and their interpretation of values outside the
ASCII range (their character encoding). Conversion of files from one to another line-ending convention is easily
possible with free software on most computers.
Plucker
Format:
Plucker
Published as: .pdb
Plucker is an Open Source free mobile and desktop e-book reader application with its own associated file format and
software to automatically generate Plucker files from text, PDF, HTML, or other document format files, web sites or
RSS feeds. The format is public and well-documented. Free readers are available for all kinds of desktop computers
and many PDAs.
PostScript
Format:
PostScript
Published as: .ps
PostScript is a page description language used in the electronic and desktop publishing areas for defining the
contents and layout of a printed page, which can be used by a rendering program to assemble and create the actual
output bitmap. Many office printers directly support interpreting PostScript and printing the result. As a result, the
format also sees wide use in the Unix world.
SSReader
Format:
SSReader
Published as: .pdg
The digital book format used by a popular digital library company 超 星 数 字 图 书 馆 [26] in China. It is a
proprietary raster image compression and binding format, with reading time OCR plug-in modules. The company
scanned a huge number of Chinese books in the China National Library and this becomes the major stock of their
service. The detailed format is not published. There are also some other commercial e-book formats used in Chinese
digital libraries.
Comparison of e-book formats
21
TealDoc
Format:
TealDoc
Published as: .pdb
TealPoint Software's [27] proprietary reader for Palm OS. In addition to its own format, it opens plain text and
PalmDoc files. Newer versions of the software include an editor for Palm OS. Embedded images must be converted
to TealPoint's proprietary TealPaint format. The format uses HTML like tags for formatting and has been
reverse-engineered for 3rd party programs to edit and convert to/from TealDoc format.
Text Encoding Initiative
Format:
TEI Lite
Published as: .xml
TEI Lite is the most popular of the TEI-based (and thus XML-based or SGML-based) electronic text formats.
TomeRaider
Format:
TomeRaider
Published as: .tr2; .tr3
The TomeRaider e-book format is a proprietary format. There are versions of TomeRaider for Windows, Windows
Mobile (aka Pocket PC), Palm, Symbian and iPhone. Several Wikipedias are available as TomeRaider files with all
articles unabridged, some even with nearly all images. Capabilities of the TomeRaider3 e-book reader vary
considerably per platform: the Windows and Windows Mobile editions support full HTML and CSS. The Palm
edition supports limited HTML (e.g., no tables, no fonts), and CSS support is missing. For Symbian there is only the
older TomeRaider2 format, which does not render images or offer category search facilities. Despite these
differences any TomeRaider e-book can be browsed on all supported platforms. The Tomeraider website[28] claims
to have over 4000 e-books available, including free versions of the Internet Movie Database and Wikipedia.
Comparison tables
Features
Format
Filename DRM
Image
extension support support
Table
support
Sound
support
Interactivity
support
Word
Open
Embedded
wrap standard annotation
support
support
Bookmarking
Video
support
ArchosReader
.aeh
Yes
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
No
?
Yes
?
DjVu
.djvu
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
EPUB (IDPF)
.epub
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes/No
FictionBook
.fb2
No
Yes
[31]
Yes/No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
HTML
.html
No
Yes
Yes
[32]
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Kindle
.azw
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
Microsoft
Reader
.lit
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
[34][35]
[36][37]
Yes
Yes
?
No
?
[29]
[29]
Yes/No
Yes
Yes
[30]
?
[33]
?
Comparison of e-book formats
Mobipocket
.prc,
.mobi
Multimedia
EBook
.exe
eReader
22
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
.pdb
Yes
Yes
Plain text
.txt
No
Plucker
.pdb
Portable
Document
Format
.pdf
PostScript
Yes
?
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
.ps
No
Yes
?
No
No
No
Yes
?
?
?
Repligo
.rgo
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
?
TealDoc
.pdb
Yes
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
?
Tome Raider
.tr2, .tr3
Yes
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
[1] Razing The Tower Of e-Babel -- The reason e-books haven't caught on is simple: they're too complicated (http:/ / new. publishersweekly.
com/ pw/ by-topic/ columns-and-blogs/ soapbox/ article/ 8355-razing-the-tower-of-e-babel-. html) at Publishers Weekly.
[2] http:/ / calibre-ebook. com/ about
[3] http:/ / www. daisy. org/ z3986
[4] http:/ / www. turnip. demon. co. uk/ jim/ freda/
[5] Bookseller article on Amazon's apparent policy change over EPUB (http:/ / www. thebookseller. com/ news/ amazon-accept-epub-files. html)
[6] http:/ / i-u2665-cabbages. blogspot. com/ 2009/ 02/ circumventing-adobe-adept-drm-for-epub. html
[7] http:/ / sourceforge. net/ projects/ ndslibris/
[8] http:/ / secure. ereader. com/ ereader/ help/ dropbook/
[9] http:/ / secure. ereader. com/ ereader/ software/ ebookstudio. htm
[10] Barnes & Noble Launches World's Largest eBookstore (http:/ / www. barnesandnobleinc. com/ press_releases/ 2009_july_20_ebookstore.
html)
[11] Nook Help and FAQs, eBook Reader, eBook Device - Barnes & Noble (http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ nook/ compare/ )
[12] http:/ / www. foxitsoftware. com/ ebook/ over_specification. html
[13] FictionBook description (http:/ / haali. cs. msu. ru/ pocketpc/ FictionBook_description. html)
[14] http:/ / www. webstandards. org/ learn/ faq/
[15] http:/ / www. convertlit. com
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]
[33]
[34]
[35]
[36]
[37]
http:/ / www. beam-ebooks. de/ ebook/ 667
http:/ / www. mobipocket. com/ dev/ article. asp?BaseFolder=creatorhome& File=image. htm
http:/ / www. mobileread. com/ forums/ showpost. php?p=1299906& postcount=2
http:/ / www. mobipocket. com/ dev/
http:/ / paidcontent. co. uk/ article/ 419-first-look-how-penguin-will-reinvent-books-with-ipad/
http:/ / metcs. bu. edu/ ~feneric/ cs331/ Archives/ Project2002/
http:/ / tools. unna. org/ wikiwikinewt/ index. php/ MakeNewtonEbooksIndex
Reflow the contents of Adobe PDF documents: Tutorial (http:/ / www. adobe. com/ ap/ epaper/ tips/ acr5reflow/ index. html)
http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ u/ Support-NOOK-Simple-Touch/ 379003176?#40270-90
King James Bible (http:/ / www. gutenberg. org/ ebooks/ 10) at Project Gutenberg.
http:/ / www. ssreader. com/ downland_index. asp
http:/ / www. tealpoint. com/ softdoc. htm
http:/ / www. tomeraider. com/
Depends on the eReader application
With ePub 3
Table support added in FictionBook V2.1. Not supported in V2.0
With HTML 5
With HTML 5
Supported in all except 1st Generation Kindle. (Support level is as it is in mobipocket)
http:/ / kindleformatting. com/ blog/ 2009/ 02/ kindle-2-review-formatting-perspective. php
Supported only in kindle for iPhone, iPod, iPad.
http:/ / www. amazon. com/ b?ie=UTF8& node=2248263011
[38]
Comparison of e-book formats
23
[38] With Flash Embeded
Supporting platforms
Reader Plain PDF
text
ePub
HTML
MobiPocket
FictionBook
(Fb2)
DjVu
[1]
[1]
[1]
Broadband eReader
Kindle
WOLF
Tome
Open
[1]
[2]
eBook
Raider
eBook
[1]
(BBeB)
Amazon
Kindle 1
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Amazon
Kindle 2, DX
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Amazon
Kindle 3
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Amazon
Kindle Fire
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Android
Devices
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
[4][6]
No
[4][7]
Yes
Yes
No
[4][28]
Yes
[4]
Yes
Apple iOS
Devices
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
[4]
Yes
No
[4]
Yes
[4]
Yes
Azbooka
WISEreader
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Barnes &
Noble Nook
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Barnes &
Noble Nook
Color
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Bookeen
Cybook
Gen3, Opus
Yes
Yes Yes[8]
Yes
COOL-ER
Classic
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Gnu/Linux
Operating
System
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Foxit eSlick
Yes
Yes
Yes
Hanlin
e-Reader V3
Yes
Yes
Hanvon
WISEreader
Yes
iRex iLiad
[3]
No
Yes
[4][5]
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Iriver Story
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
[4]
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Kobo
eReader
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Nokia N900
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
NUUTbook 2 Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
OLPC XO,
Sugar
Yes
Yes
[8]
Yes
Yes
Yes
[4]
Yes
[4]
Yes
Yes
[4]
Yes
[9]
[4]
[4]
Yes
Comparison of e-book formats
24
Onyx Boox
60
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Mac OS X
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
Yes
Windows
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
?
Yes
[10]
Yes
?
?
Yes
Pocketbook
301 Plus,
302, 360°
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Sony Reader
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Viewsonic
VEB612
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Windows
Phone 7
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
[1] Proprietary format
[2] Predecessor of ePUB
[3] Yes, if the Duokan alternate Kindle OS (third-party software add-on) is used.
[4] Requires latest firmware
[5] http:/ / ireader. over-blog. com/
[6] http:/ / code. google. com/ p/ vudroid/
[7] http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ u/ nook-for-android/ 379002287
[8] Versions support either ePUB or MobiPocket
[9] Only ePUB version and with FW 2.0+
[10] DRM-protected publications are supported as of Kindle for PC v1.3.0
References
General information
• Chandler, S. (2007). From entrepreneur to infopreneur: Make money with books, ebooks, and information
products. Hoboken, N.J.: John Wiley & Sons.
• Rich, J. (2006). Self-publishing for dummies. Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.
• Cavanaugh, T. W. (2006). The digital reader: Using e-books in K-12 education. Eugene, OR: International
Society for Technology in Education.
• Cope, B., & Mason, D. (2002). Markets for electronic book products. C-2-C series, bk. 3.2. Altona, Vic: Common
Ground Pub.
• Henke, H. (2001). Electronic books and epublishing: A practical guide for authors. London: Springer.
• Hanttula, D. (2001). Pocket PC handbook.
Footnotes
External links
• ebookwise-1150 ebook reader device (http://wiki.mobileread.com/wiki/EBookwise-1150)
• ebook reader articles at Mobile Read Wiki (http://wiki.mobileread.com/wiki/Main_Page)
• Daisy 3: A Standard for Accessible Multimedia Books (http://digbib.ubka.uni-karlsruhe.de/volltexte/
1000010574)
• Free eBooks Files Download (http://thisebook.org)
• Details about the most popular eBook formats (http://ebookarchitects.com/conversions/formats.php)
• An E-Book Buyer's Guide to Privacy (http://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2009/12/e-book-privacy)
• E Book Readers Compared (http://www.e-readerscompared.net)
EPUB
25
EPUB
Electronic Publication (EPUB)
Filename extension .epub
Internet media type application/epub+zip (unofficial[1])
Developed by
International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF)
Initial release
September 2007
Latest release
3.0 / October 11, 2011
Type of format
e-book file format
Contained by
OEBPS Container Format (OCF) (ZIP)
Extended from
Open eBook, XHTML, CSS, DTBook
Website
IDPF Home Page
[2]
[3]
EPUB (short for electronic publication; alternatively capitalized as ePub, ePUB, EPub, or epub, with "EPUB"
preferred by the vendor) is a free and open e-book standard by the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF).
Files have the extension .epub.
EPUB is designed for reflowable content, meaning that the text display can be optimized for the particular display
device used by the reader of the EPUB-formatted book, although EPUB now also supports fixed-layout content. The
format is meant to function as a single format that publishers and conversion houses can use in-house, as well as for
distribution and sale. It supersedes the Open eBook standard.[4]
History
EPUB became an official standard of the International Digital Publishing Forum (IDPF) in September 2007,
superseding the older Open eBook standard.[5]
In August 2009, the IDPF announced that they would begin work on maintenance tasks of the EPUB standard.[6]
Two broad objectives were defined by this working group: "One set of activities governs maintenance of the current
EPUB Standards (i.e. OCF, OPF, and OPS), while another set of activities addresses the need to keep the Standards
current and up-to-date." The working group was expected to be active through 2010, publishing updated standards
throughout its lifetime.[7] On April 6, 2010, it was announced that this working group would complete their update in
April 2010. The result was to be a minor revision to EPUB 2.0.1 which "corrects errors and inconsistencies and does
not change functionality".[8] On July 2, 2010, drafts of the version 2.0.1 standards appeared on the IDPF website.
On April 6, 2010, it was announced that a working group would be formed to revise the EPUB specification.[8] In the
working group's charter draft, 14 main problems with EPUB are identified which the group will address. The group
was chartered through May 2011, and was scheduled to submit a final draft on May 15, 2011.[9] An initial Editors
Draft for EPUB3 was published on November 12, 2010,[10] and the first public draft was published on February 15,
2011.[11] On May 23, 2011, the IDPF released its proposed specification for final review.[12] On October 10, 2011,
the IDPF announced that its membership had approved EPUB 3 as a final Recommended Specification.
EPUB
26
Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Free and open
Reflowable (word wrap) and resizable text
Inline raster and vector images
Embedded metadata
DRM support
CSS styling
Support for alternative renditions in the same file
Use of out-of-line and inline XML islands to extend the functionality of EPUB
File format
Version 3.0 (current version)
EPUB 3 consists of a set of four specifications:[13]
• EPUB Publications 3.0, which defines publication-level semantics and overarching conformance requirements for
EPUB Publications.
• EPUB Content Documents 3.0, which defines profiles of XHTML, SVG and CSS for use in the context of EPUB
Publications.
• EPUB Open Container Format (OCF) 3.0, which defines a file format and processing model for encapsulating a
set of related resources into a single-file (ZIP) EPUB Container.
• EPUB Media Overlays 3.0, which defines a format and a processing model for synchronization of text and audio.
Detailed descriptions of the differences between 3.0 and 2.0.1 can be found on the IDPF website [14].
The EPUB 3.0 format is intended to address the following criticisms:
• While good for text-centric books, EPUB may be unsuitable for publications which require precise layout or
specialized formatting, such as a comic book.[15]
• A major issue hindering the use of EPUB for most technical publications is the lack of support for equations
formatted as MathML. They are currently included as bitmap or SVG images, precluding proper handling by
screen readers and interaction with computer algebra systems. Support for MathML is included in the EPUB 3.0
specification.
• Another criticism of EPUB revolves around the specification's lack of detail on linking into, between, or within an
EPUB book, as well as its lack of a specification for annotation. Such linking is hindered by the use of a ZIP file
as the container for EPUB. Furthermore, it is unclear if it would be better to link by using EPUB's internal
structural markup (the OPF specification mentioned above) or directly to files through the ZIP's file structure.[16]
The lack of a standardized way to annotate EPUB books could lead to difficulty sharing and transferring
annotations and therefore limit the use scenarios of EPUB, particularly in educational settings, because it cannot
provide a level of interactivity comparable to the web.[17]
EPUB
27
Version 2.0.1
EPUB version 2.0.1 consists of three specifications:
• Open Publication Structure (OPS) 2.0.1, contains the formatting of its content.[18]
• Open Packaging Format (OPF) 2.0.1, describes the structure of the .epub file in XML.[19]
• Open Container Format (OCF) 2.0.1, collects all files as a ZIP archive.[20]
EPUB internally uses XHTML or DTBook (an XML standard provided by the DAISY Consortium) to represent the
text and structure of the content document, and a subset of CSS to provide layout and formatting. XML is used to
create the document manifest, table of contents, and EPUB metadata. Finally, the files are bundled in a zip file as a
packaging format.
Open Publication Structure 2.0.1
An EPUB file uses XHTML 1.1 (or DTBook) to construct the content of a book as of version 2.0.1. This is different
from previous versions (OEBPS 1.2 and earlier) which used a subset drawn from XHTML. There are, however, a
few restrictions on certain elements. The mimetype for XHTML documents in EPUB is
application/xhtml+xml.[18] For a table of the required XHTML modules and a description of the restrictions,
please see Section 2.2 [21] of the specification.
Styling and layout are performed using a subset of CSS 2.0, referred to as OPS Style Sheets. This specialized syntax
requires only a portion of CSS properties to be supported by reading systems and adds a few custom ones. Custom
properties include oeb-page-head, oeb-page-foot, and oeb-column-number. Font-embedding can
be accomplished using the @font-face property, as well as including the font file in the OPF's manifest (see
below). The mimetype for CSS documents in EPUB is text/css.[18] For a table of supported properties and
detailed information, please see Section 3.0 [22] of the specification.
EPUB also requires that PNG, JPEG, GIF, and SVG images be supported using the mimetypes image/png,
image/jpeg, image/gif, image/svg+xml. Other media types are allowed, but creators must include
alternative renditions using supported types.[18] For a table of all required mimetypes, see Section 1.3.7 [23] of the
specification.
Unicode is required, and content producers must use either UTF-8 or UTF-16 encoding.[18] This is to support
international and multilingual books. However, reading systems are not required to provide the fonts necessary to
display every unicode character, though they are required to display at least a placeholder for characters that cannot
be displayed fully.[18]
An example skeleton of an XHTML file for EPUB looks like this:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML 1.1//EN" "http://www.w3.org/TR/xhtml11/DTD/xhtml11.dtd">
<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en">
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="application/xhtml+xml; charset=utf-8" />
<title>Pride and Prejudice</title>
<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/main.css" type="text/css" />
</head>
<body>
...
</body>
</html>
EPUB
28
Open Packaging Format 2.0.1
The OPF specification's purpose is to "[define] the mechanism by which the various components of an OPS
publication are tied together and provides additional structure and semantics to the electronic publication."[19] This is
accomplished by two XML files with the extensions .opf and .ncx.
.opf file
The OPF file, traditionally named content.opf houses the EPUB book's metadata, file manifest, and linear
reading order. This file has a root element package and four child elements: metadata, manifest,
spine, and guide. All of these except guide are required. Furthermore, the package node must have the
unique-identifier attribute. The .opf file's mimetype is application/oebps-package+xml.[19]
The metadata element contains all the metadata information for a particular EPUB file. Three metadata tags are
required (though many more are available): title, language, and identifier. title contains the title
of the book, language contains the language of the book's contents in RFC 3066 format or its successors, such as
the newer RFC 4646 and identifier contains a unique identifier for the book, such as its ISBN or a URL. The
identifier's id attribute should equal the unique-identifier attribute from the package element.[19]
For a full listing of EPUB metadata, please see Section 2.2 [24] of the specification.
The manifest element lists all the files contained in the package. Each file is represented by an item element,
and has the attributes id, href, media-type. All XHTML (content documents), stylesheets, images or other
media, embedded fonts, and the NCX file should be listed here. Only the .opf file itself, the container.xml,
and the mimetype files should not be included.[19] Note that in the example below, an arbitrary media-type is
given to the included font file, even though no mimetype exists for fonts.
The spine element lists all the XHTML content documents in their linear reading order. Also, any content
document that can be reached through linking or the table of contents must be listed as well. The toc attribute of
spine must contain the id of the NCX file listed in the manifest. Each itemref element's idref is set to the
id of its respective content document.[19]
The guide element is an optional element for the purpose of identifying fundamental structural components of the
book. Each reference element has the attributes type, title, href. Files referenced in href must be
listed in the manifest, and are allowed to have an element identifier (e.g. #figures in the example).[19] A list of
possible values for type can be found in Section 2.6 [25] of the specification.
An example OPF file:
<?xml version="1.0"?>
<package version="2.0" xmlns="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf" unique-identifier="BookId">
<metadata xmlns:dc="http://purl.org/dc/elements/1.1/" xmlns:opf="http://www.idpf.org/2007/opf">
<dc:title>Pride and Prejudice</dc:title>
<dc:language>en</dc:language>
<dc:identifier id="BookId" opf:scheme="ISBN">123456789X</dc:identifier>
<dc:creator opf:file-as="Austen, Jane" opf:role="aut">Jane Austen</dc:creator>
</metadata>
<manifest>
<item id="chapter1" href="chapter1.xhtml" media-type="application/xhtml+xml"/>
<item id="stylesheet" href="style.css" media-type="text/css"/>
<item id="ch1-pic" href="ch1-pic.png" media-type="image/png"/>
<item id="myfont" href="css/myfont.otf" media-type="application/x-font-opentype"/>
<item id="ncx" href="toc.ncx" media-type="application/x-dtbncx+xml"/>
EPUB
29
</manifest>
<spine toc="ncx">
<itemref idref="chapter1" />
</spine>
<guide>
<reference type="loi" title="List Of Illustrations" href="appendix.html#figures" />
</guide>
</package>
.ncx file
The NCX file (Navigation Control file for XML), traditionally named toc.ncx, contains the hierarchical table of
contents for the EPUB file. The specification for NCX was developed for Digital Talking Book (DTB), is maintained
by the DAISY Consortium, and is not a part of the EPUB specification. The NCX file has a mimetype of
application/x-dtbncx+xml.
Of note here is that the values for the docTitle, docAuthor, and meta name="dtb:uid" elements
should match their analogs in the OPF file. Also, the meta name="dtb:depth" element is set equal to the
depth of the navMap element. navPoint elements can be nested to create a hierarchical table of contents.
navLabel's content is the text that will appear in the table of contents generated by reading systems that use the
.ncx. navPoint's content element points to a content document listed in the manifest and can also include an
element identifier (e.g. #section1).[19][26]
A description of certain exceptions to the NCX specification as used in EPUB can be found in Section 2.4.1 [27] of
the specification. The complete specification for NCX can be found in Section 8 [28] of the Specifications for the
Digital Talking Book.[26]
An example .ncx file:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<!DOCTYPE ncx PUBLIC "-//NISO//DTD ncx 2005-1//EN"
"http://www.daisy.org/z3986/2005/ncx-2005-1.dtd">
<ncx version="2005-1" xml:lang="en" xmlns="http://www.daisy.org/z3986/2005/ncx/">
<head>
<!-- The following four metadata items are required for all NCX documents,
including those conforming to the relaxed constraints of OPS 2.0 -->
<meta name="dtb:uid" content="123456789X"/> <!-- same as in .opf -->
<meta name="dtb:depth" content="1"/> <!-- 1 or higher -->
<meta name="dtb:totalPageCount" content="0"/> <!-- must be 0 -->
<meta name="dtb:maxPageNumber" content="0"/> <!-- must be 0 -->
</head>
<docTitle>
<text>Pride and Prejudice</text>
</docTitle>
EPUB
30
<docAuthor>
<text>Austen, Jane</text>
</docAuthor>
<navMap>
<navPoint class="chapter" id="chapter1" playOrder="1">
<navLabel><text>Chapter 1</text></navLabel>
<content src="chapter1.xhtml"/>
</navPoint>
</navMap>
</ncx>
Open Container Format 2.0.1
An EPUB file is a group of files conforming to the OPS/OPF standards that is wrapped in a ZIP file.[4] The OCF
specifies how these files should be organized in the ZIP, and defines two additional files that must be included.
The mimetype file must be a text document in ASCII and must contain the string application/epub+zip. It
must also be uncompressed, unencrypted, and the first file in the ZIP archive. The purpose of this file is to provide a
more reliable way for applications to identify the mimetype of the file than just the .epub extension.[20]
Also, there must be a folder named META-INF which contains the required file container.xml. This XML file
points to the file defining the contents of the book. This will be the OPF file, though additional alternative
rootfile elements are allowed.[20]
Apart from mimetype and META-INF/container.xml, the other files (OPF, NCX, XHTML, CSS and
images files) are traditionally put in a directory named OEBPS.
An example file structure:
--ZIP Container-mimetype
META-INF/
container.xml
OEBPS/
book.opf
chapter1.xhtml
ch1-pic.png
css/
style.css
myfont.otf
An example container.xml, given the above file structure:
<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" ?>
<container version="1.0" xmlns="urn:oasis:names:tc:opendocument:xmlns:container">
<rootfiles>
<rootfile full-path="OEBPS/content.opf" media-type="application/oebps-package+xml"/>
</rootfiles>
</container>
EPUB
31
Digital rights management
An EPUB file can optionally contain DRM as an additional layer, but it is not required by the specifications.[29] In
addition, the specification does not name any particular DRM system to use, so publishers can choose a DRM
scheme to their liking. However, future versions of EPUB (specifically OCF) may specify a format for DRM.[20]
The EPUB specification does not enforce or suggest a particular DRM scheme. This could affect the level of support
for various DRM systems on devices and the portability of purchased e-books. Consequently, such DRM
incompatibility may segment the EPUB format along the lines of DRM systems, undermining the advantages of a
single standard format and confusing the consumer.[30][31][32][33][34][35]
When present, DRMed EPUB files must contain a file called rights.xml within the META-INF directory at the
root level of the ZIP container.[20]
Validation
An open source tool called epubcheck [36] exists for validating and detecting errors in the structural markup (OPS,
OPF, OCF) as well as the XHTML and image files. The tool can be run from the command line, or used in webapps
and applications as a library. A large part of the original work on the tool was done at Adobe Systems.[37]
Software
Software reading systems
Software that reads, and presumably displays, EPUB files is called a reading system. An EPUB reading system is
defined as:
“A combination of hardware and/or software that accepts OPS Publications and makes them available to
consumers of content. Great variety is possible in the architecture of Reading Systems. A Reading
System may be implemented entirely on one device, or it may be split among several computers....”[4]
Reading Systems and Software[4]
Software
Platform
DRM formats
supported
Notes
Adobe Digital Editions
Windows, Mac OS X
Adobe Content
Server
Requires online activation.
Aldiko
Android
Adobe Content
Server
Supports ePub for Android devices.
AZARDI
Windows, Mac OS X,
GNU/Linux
?
BookGlutton
Web
?
calibre
Windows, Mac OS X,
GNU/Linux
CoolReader
Windows, GNU/Linux,
Android
Dorian
Symbian
EPUBReader
Firefox add-on
FBReader
Windows, GNU/Linux,
PDAs
Supports ePub 3, ePub 2 and the secure AZD format.
Free online ePub reader focusing on the social aspects of reading.
None
Primarily for library management, conversion, and transferring to devices, it
[38]
includes a reader. "Calibre: About"
.
None
XML/CSS based E-Book reader for desktops and handheld devices.
Supported formats: FB2, TXT, RTF, TCR, HTML, EPUB, CHM. Has GUI
implementation for E Ink base devices. Most popular SourceForge epub
application.
?
None
?
Free ePub reader.
Enables reading ePub-files from within Firefox.
[39]
Incomplete ePub support.
EPUB
32
FBReaderJ
Android
?
Google Books
Web application,
Android, iOS
?
iBooks
iOS
Kitabu
[41]
Open source.
Supports downloading purchased books as ePub and/or PDF.
[40]
Mac OS X
Lexcycle Stanza
iOS, Windows, Mac
OS X
Moon+ Reader
Android
TwoDollarApps
Stanzetta
WP7
Mobipocket
Windows, BlackBerry,
Symbian, Windows
Mobile
FairPlay
Books not readable directly on computers (Mac or PC) yet.
None
Free lightweight ePub reader. Simple library management.
Yes
Acquired by Amazon in 2009.
?
None
Supports ePub on Windows Phones.
Converts EPUB into .PRC on import.
None
NOOK for Mac
Mac OS X
?
Need Barnes & Noble account just to read (free).
Okular
KDE Platform
?
readMe
iOS
?
EPUB, FB2 and PDF support.
sReader
iOS
?
EPUB support.
Editing systems
Creation Software
Software
Platform
Notes
ABBYY FineReader
Windows
Commercial license. Version 11 exports to EPUB format.
Adobe InDesign
Windows, Mac
OS X
Commercial license. Exports to EPUB format. Note that versions prior to 5.5 create EPUBs that
require significant editing in order to pass ePubCheck or ePubPreFlight. Plan on using Sigil or
studying Liz Castro's EPub Straight to the Point book if you want to make EPUBs using Indesign 5.0.
Atlantis Word Processor Windows,
Portable app
Converts any document to EPUB; supports multilevel TOCs, font embedding, and batch conversion.
Shareware.
calibre
Windows, Mac
OS X,
GNU/Linux
Conversion software and e-book organizer. Free Software under the GPL license. Allows plugins,
including for editing EPUB files; there is for instance a plugin to merge several EPUB files into
[42]
one.
eLML
Windows, Mac
OS X,
GNU/Linux
The eLesson Markup Language is a platform-independent XML-based open source framework to
create eLearning content. It supports various output formats like SCORM, HTML, PDF and also
eBooks based on the ePub format.
Feedbooks
Web
Free cloud service for downloading public domain works and for self-publishing.
Folium Book Studio
Web
Convert Microsoft Word and other documents to the EPUB 3 format and convert manuscripts to
typographically corrected proofs. Edit online, design cover art or upload from another source. Drop in
images and align with text. Preview and export the EPUB or HTML for direct distribution to
Amazon, Apple, Barnes & Noble, LuLu, or others.
iBooks Author
Mac OS X
Desktop publishing and page layout application. Free from Apple. Can export .ibooks format, which
[43]
is similar to EPUB, but contains non-standard markup.
Licensing agreement prevents submission
[44]
of non-free works created in the application to other distribution systems.
iStudio Publisher
Mac OS X
Desktop publishing and page layout application. Commercial license.
EPUB
33
Lulu.com
Web
Upload and convert .doc, .docx, or PDF manuscripts to an ePub. Then choose a title, create a cover,
describe your ePub, and pick a price. It's free to publish and sell.
oXygen XML Editor
Mac OS X,
Windows, Linux
XML Editor is the first tool which offers support for creating, transforming and validating documents
composing the EPUB package. Commercial license.
Pandoc
[45]
GNU/Linux, Mac Universal converter between many formats (even TeX -> EPUB). Free Software under the GPL
OS X, Windows license.
Pages
Mac OS X
Word processor (part of the iWork '09 suite) that can export to EPUB format (Pages '09 only, and
only with the iWork 9.0.4 update).
QuarkXPress
Mac OS X,
Windows
Desktop Publishing Tool, Page Layout Application. Exports also to the ePUB format. Commercial
license.
Serif PagePlus X6
Windows
Desktop Publishing Program. Exports also to the ePUB format. Commercial license.
Scrivener
Windows, Mac
OS X
Commercial program for writers. Includes organization capabilities for fiction writers. Publishes to
multiple formats.
Sigil
Windows,
Free, Open source under GPLv3. Currently the only application that can also open and edit EPUB
GNU/Linux, Mac books, instead of just converting from other formats to EPUB. Does not currently support embedding
OS X
video or audio in EPUB.
Jutoh
Windows, Mac
OS X, Linux
WYSIWYG ebook editor-compiler. Exports to ePUB and Mobipocket (Kindle) formats. Commercial
license.
Hardware reading systems
The boundary between hardware and software is not clear cut. Some of these devices are dedicated to e-book tasks
while others are platforms that include e-book readers or can have them added. See Comparison of e-book readers
for details of dedicated devices (not all support EPUB).
•
•
•
•
•
Android devices (using FBReader, Aldiko)
Barnes & Noble Nook
BeBook
Bookeen Cybook Gen3, Cybook Opus
Boox
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
COOL-ER
Cruz (Tablet)
eClicto
ECTACO jetBook and ECTACO jetBook Lite
eSlick
GNU/Linux tablets and PDAs such as Sharp Zaurus and Nokia 770, n800, n810, and n900
Hanlin eReader
iPad, iPhone, and iPod Touch (Lexcycle Stanza or iBooks on iOS 3.2+)
iRex Digital Reader 800, 1000
iRiver Story
Kobo eReader
Plastic Logic
PocketBook Reader
Sony Reader
EPUB
References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
application/epub+zip has not been registered with IANA (http:/ / www. iana. org/ assignments/ media-types/ application/ ) as of June 2010.
"Specifications" (http:/ / idpf. org/ epub). IDPF. . Retrieved January 25, 2012.
http:/ / www. idpf. org/
Conboy, Garth (May 11, 2009). "EPUB 101" (http:/ / www. idpf. org/ digitalbook09/ Presentations/ EPUB 101. pdf) (PDF). IDPF. eBook
Technologies. .
[5] IDPF (Mon Oct 15, 2007). "OPS 2.0 Elevated to Official IDPF Standard" (http:/ / www. idpf. org/ forums/ viewtopic. php?t=98). IDPF. .
[6] "IDPF Launches EPUB Standards Maintenance Work" (http:/ / www. idpf. org/ pressroom/ pressreleases/ EPUBMaintWGLaunch. htm).
IDPF. August 16, 2009. .
[7] "Charter for EPUB Standards Maintenance WG" (http:/ / www. idpf. org/ idpf_groups/ epubmaint. htm). IDPF. August 12, 2009. .
[8] "Draft Charter for revision to EPUB Standard for IDPF Comment" (http:/ / idpf. org/ idpf_groups/ epub2_1wg. htm). IDPF. April 6, 2010. .
[9] "EPUB 2.1 Working Group Charter – DRAFT 0.11" (http:/ / idpf. org/ idpf_groups/ epub21wg/ IDPF-EPUB-WG-Charter-5-7-2010. html).
IDPF. May 7, 2010. . Retrieved June 6, 2010.
[10] "EPUB3 Working Group" (http:/ / code. google. com/ p/ epub-revision). IDPF. November 12, 2010. .
[11] IPDF. "EPUB 3" (http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 30). . Retrieved 21 February 2011.
[12] "EPUB 3 Proposed Specification Released" (http:/ / idpf. org/ epub3_proposed_spec_released). IDPF. May 23, 2011. . Retrieved 2 June
2011.
[13] EPUB 3 Working Group (11 October 2011). "EPUB 3 Overview Draft" (http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 30/ spec/ epub30-overview. html). IDPF. .
Retrieved 11 October 2011.
[14] http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 30/ spec/ epub30-changes. html
[15] Rothman, David (July 27, 2008). "The ePub torture test: Starring ‘Three Shadows,’ a graphic novel" (http:/ / www. teleread. org/ 2008/ 07/
27/ the-epub-torture-test-starring-three-shadows/ ). TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. .
[16] "Links, pointers, bookmarks, highlights: How should .epub do it?" (http:/ / frontmatters. com/ 2008/ 03/ 29/
links-pointers-bookmarks-highlights-how-should-epub-do-it/ ). FrontMatters. BookGlutton. March 29, 2008. .
[17] Rothman, David (November 5, 2007). "'Social annotation and the marketplace of ideas': Time for an IDPF annotation standard for books and
other e-pubs!" (http:/ / www. teleread. org/ 2007/ 11/ 05/
social-annotation-and-the-marketplace-of-ideas-time-for-an-idpf-annotation-standard-for-books-and-other-e-pubs/ ). TeleRead: Bring the
E-Books Home. .
[18] IDPF (September 4, 2010). "Open Publication Structure (OPS) 2.0.1 - Recommended Specification" (http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/
OPS_2. 0. 1_draft. htm). IDPF. . Retrieved February 21, 2011.
[19] IDPF (September 4, 2010). "Open Packaging Format (OPF) 2.0.1 - Recommended Specification" (http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OPF_2.
0. 1_draft. htm). IDPF. . Retrieved February 21, 2011.
[20] IDPF (September 4, 2010). "Open Container Format (OCF) 2.0.1 - Recommended Specification" (http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OCF_2.
0. 1_draft. doc). IDPF. . Retrieved February 21, 2011.
[21] http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OPS_2. 0. 1_draft. htm#Section2. 2
[22] http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OPS_2. 0. 1_draft. htm#Section3. 0
[23] http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OPS_2. 0. 1_draft. htm#Section1. 3. 7
[24] http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OPF_2. 0. 1_draft. htm#Section2. 2
[25] http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OPF_2. 0. 1_draft. htm#Section2. 6
[26] "Specifications for the Digital Talking Book" (http:/ / www. niso. org/ workrooms/ daisy/ Z39-86-2005. html). April 21, 2005. .
[27] http:/ / idpf. org/ epub/ 20/ spec/ OPF_2. 0. 1_draft. htm#Section2. 4. 1
[28] http:/ / www. niso. org/ workrooms/ daisy/ Z39-86-2005. html#NCX
[29] IDPF (November 20, 2006). "IDPF's Digital Book Standards FAQs" (http:/ / www. idpf. org/ forums/ viewtopic. php?t=22). IDPF. .
[30] Gelles, David (January 29, 2010). "Walls close in on e-book garden" (http:/ / www. ft. com/ cms/ s/ 0/
a00ad6f8-0d0b-11df-a2dc-00144feabdc0. html). Financial Times. .
[31] Rothman, David (August 13, 2009). "Adobe-DRMed ePub isn’t ‘open’: Why the New York Times urgently needs to clarify its Sony eBook
Store article" (http:/ / www. teleread. org/ 2009/ 08/ 13/
adobe-drmed-epub-isnt-an-open-standard-will-nyt-distinguish-between-nonproprietary-and-common/ ). TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. .
[32] Biba, Paul (December 21, 2009). "Does the Nook use its own incompatible DRM scheme?" (http:/ / www. teleread. org/ 2009/ 12/ 21/
does-the-nook-use-its-own-incompatible-drm-scheme/ ). TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. .
[33] Biba, Paul (January 28, 2010). "iPad adds to the DRM mess? Apple ebook DRM exclusive to Apple hardware" (http:/ / www. teleread. org/
2010/ 01/ 28/ ipad-adds-to-the-drm-mess-apple-ebook-drm-exclusive-to-apple-hardware/ ). TeleRead: Bring the E-Books Home. .
[34] Kendrick, James (January 28, 2010). "Who Really Needs an iPad?" (http:/ / jkontherun. com/ 2010/ 01/ 28/ who-really-needs-an-ipad/ ).
jkOnTheRun. .
[35] Dave Dickson (January 27, 2010). "EPUB, iPad and Content Interoperability" (http:/ / blogs. adobe. com/ digitaleditions/ 2010/ 01/
epub_ipad_and_content_interope. html). Digital Editions. .
[36] http:/ / code. google. com/ p/ epubcheck/
[37] "epubcheck: Validation tool for Epub" (http:/ / code. google. com/ p/ epubcheck/ ). Google Code. . Retrieved January 29, 2010.
34
EPUB
35
[38] http:/ / calibre-ebook. com/ about
[39] FBReader.org. "Electronic Book Formats (supported and unsupported)" (http:/ / fbreader. org/ docs/ formats. php). . Retrieved 19 July 2010.
[40] Pham, Alex (February 15, 2010). "Apple to wrap digital books in FairPlay copy protection" (http:/ / latimesblogs. latimes. com/ technology/
2010/ 02/ apple-ibooks-drm-fairplay. html). Los Angeles Times. .
[41] http:/ / www. 64. ee/
[42] JimmXinu. "GUI Plugin: EpubMerge" (http:/ / www. mobileread. com/ forums/ showthread. php?t=169744). MobileRead Forums. .
Retrieved 24 February 2012.
[43] Bott, Ed (January 22, 2012). "How Apple is sabotaging an open standard for digital books" (http:/ / www. zdnet. com/ blog/ bott/
how-apple-is-sabotaging-an-open-standard-for-digital-books/ 4378). ZDNet. . Retrieved January 30, 2012.
[44] Ed Bott. "Apple's mind-bogglingly greedy and evil license agreement" (https:/ / www. zdnet. com/ blog/ bott/
apples-mind-bogglingly-greedy-and-evil-license-agreement/ 4360). .
[45] http:/ / johnmacfarlane. net/ pandoc/
External links
• EPUB Wiki/Home Page (http://www.daisy.org/epub/) includes issue and bug tracking.
• EPUB Format Construction Guide (http://www.hxa.name/articles/content/epub-guide_hxa7241_2007.html) (
also available in EPUB (http://www.hxa.name/articles/content/EpubGuide-hxa7241.epub))
• Video: Format overview of the .epub file (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vvGrFZdSDww)
• Publisher Tim O'Reilly explains the importance of EPUB (http://www.forbes.com/2009/02/22/
kindle-oreilly-ebooks-technology-breakthroughs_oreilly.html)
• Build a digital book with EPUB (http://www.ibm.com/developerworks/xml/tutorials/x-epubtut/index.html)
from IBM developerWorks
Comparison of e-book readers
An e-book reader is a portable electronic device that is designed primarily for the
purpose of reading digital books and periodicals.
e-book readers are similar in form to a tablet computer. A tablet computer
typically has a faster screen capable of higher refresh rates which makes them
more suitable for interaction. The main advantages of e-book readers are better
readability of their screens especially in bright sunlight and longer battery life.
This is achieved by using electronic paper technology to display content to
readers.
Any device that can display text on a screen can act as an e-book reader, but
without the advantages of the e-paper technology.
The larger Kindle DX with a Kindle
2 for size comparison
Comparison of e-book readers
36
Commercially available devices sold by maker or designer
Some of the terms used in the charts below include:
• Library compatible – Can be used to borrow e-books from public libraries. This typically means that the EPUB
and/or PDF formats with digital-rights-management (DRM) protection are supported.
Electronic-paper displays
Maker
Model
Intro End year Screen
year
size
Screen
Weight
type
Screen Screen
Operating
pixels shades
system
Touch
screen
[1]
Wireless
Text-to-speech Integrated
network
Directory
Internal
dictionary organization storage
Card
Replaceable
reader slot
battery
Web
Library
browser compatible
USB
periphe
(inch)
Aluratek
mazon.com
mazon.com
mazon.com
mazon.com
mazon.com
mazon.com
mazon.com
Libre Ebook
2009
5
ePaper
Reader Pro
?
213 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
operator:
?
?
SDHC 32
GB
?
?
16
Linux
No
No
No
No
?
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
?
No
u'strong' oz)
Kindle (4th
2011
6
eInk Pearl
generation)
170 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
(1.25
operator:
?
2 GB
No
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
Yes
GB)
u'strong' oz)
Kindle Touch
2011
6
eInk Pearl
[2]
3G
?
220 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
u'strong' oz)
Kindle Touch
2011
6
eInk Pearl
?
3G
CDMA,
(3 GB)
Yes
Yes
Yes
2010
2011
213 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
eInk Pearl
3G (now Kindle
Yes
[3]
600 ×
800
16
Linux
Wi-Fi
Yes
Yes
Yes
2010
2011
6
eInk Pearl
(now Kindle
[4]
No
3G
CDMA,
(3 GB)
Yes
Yes
Yes
241 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
2009
2011
9.7
eInk Pearl
No
540 g
824 ×
(unknown
1200
16
Linux
operator:
Wi-Fi
Yes
Yes
Yes
2009
2010
6
eInk
No
289 g
600 ×
800
u'strong' oz)
No
Yes (US
only)
No
CDMA
(USA),
Yes (US
only)
No
(3.3
Yes
Yes
Yes
GB)
Yes
Yes (US
(limited)
only)
Yes
Yes (US
(limited)
only)
No
3G GSM
(unknown
operator:
only)
4 GB
3G
u'strong' oz)
Kindle 2
Yes (US
4 GB
(3 GB)
u'strong' oz)
Kindle DX
No
3G GSM
operator:
Keyboard
only)
4 GB
Wi-Fi,
u'strong' oz)
3G
Kindle 3 Wi-Fi
247 g
(unknown
operator:
Keyboard
Yes (US
4 GB
(3 GB)
operator:
6
No
3G GSM
u'strong' oz)
Kindle 3 Wi-Fi
only)
4 GB
Wi-Fi,
Yes
Yes (US
16
Linux
3G
2 GB
CDMA
No
(USA),
3G GSM
(World)
(1.4
Yes
Yes
Yes
GB)
No
Comparison of e-book readers
mazon.com
Kindle
2007
2009
6
eInk
37
289 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
4
Linux
256 MB
SD
(180
operator:
No
CDMA
No
Yes
No
MB)
Yes
u'strong' oz)
rnes & Noble
Nook
2009
2011
6
eInk
343 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Android
2 GB
Wi-Fi,
operator:
Bottom
u'strong' oz)
rnes & Noble
Nook Simple
2011
6
eInk Pearl
Touch
?
UMTS
Yes
(FW v1.5)
212 g
600 ×
800
16
2 GB
Yes
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
(FW
Yes
No
v1.3)
Android
operator:
only)
Yes
GB)
(option)
(unknown
Yes (US
microSDHC
(1.3
No
Yes
(limited)
No
Yes
microSDHC
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
?
No
No
No
?
No
No
No
?
No
?
?
?
No
u'strong' oz)
Bookeen
Cybook Odyssey 2011
6
eInk Pearl
+
?
HSIS
[5]
195 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
2 GB
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Bookeen
Cybook Orizon
2010
6
eInk SiPix
?
245 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
Cybook Opus
2009
5
eInk
?
No
French
Yes
2 GB
Wi-Fi,
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Bookeen
Wi-Fi,
802.11bgn
802.11bgn,
Bluetooth
No
No
microSDHC
microSDHC
Yes
2.1+EDR
150 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
4
Linux
operator:
1 GB
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
microSDHC
u'strong' oz)
Bookeen
Cybook Gen3
2007
6
eInk
174 g (6.13
?
600 ×
4, 8 or
800
16
Linux
16 MB,
SD
512MB,
1 GB
bq
[6] [7]
]
movistar ebook
2011
bq
Condor
chnology
[8]
eGriver
?
2010
6
AUO
244 g
+SiPix
6
eInk
[9]
Touch
?
600 ×
16
Linux
800
240 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Yes
Wi-Fi
?
Yes
?
microSDHC
max 16 GB
Linux
operator:
2 GB
2 GB
Yes
Wi-Fi
Optional
Yes
Yes
No
No
Optional
Yes
Yes
SDHC
u'strong' oz)
Condor
chnology
EBS
[8]
[10]
hnology
eGriver
IDEO
2010
Agebook eBook
6
eInk
?
[9]
2010
6
eInk
Reader (model:
agebook+6)
[11]
600 ×
?
?
16
Linux
800
260 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
1 GB
Windows CE
operator:
512 MB
Stylus
No
Yes
Yes
SDHC
SD
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Elonex
621EB
2009
6
?
eInk
180 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
operator:
u'strong' oz)
8
512 MB microSDHC
?
No
No
?
No
?
Comparison of e-book readers
ndless ideas
BeBook Mini
2009
5
eInk ?
(Hanlin V5
clone)
[12]
?
38
160 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
Linux
operator:
512 MB
No
No
No
No
SDHC
No
?
No
Yes
No
?
Yes
?
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
No
?
?
?
Yes
No
?
?
u'strong' oz)
ndless ideas
BeBook Neo
2010
6
eInk ?
?
298 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
operator:
Linux
?
512 MB
Yes
Wi-Fi
Yes
?
SDHC
?
u'strong' oz)
ndless ideas
BeBook One
2009
6
eInk ?
(Hanlin V3
clone)
?
220 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
4
Linux
operator:
512 MB
No
No
No
No
SDHC
No
u'strong' oz)
EnTourage
eDGe
2010
[13]
2011
9.7
eInk &
1400 g
825 ×
LCD
(unknown
1200
8
Android
Yes,
operator:
Yes
u'strong' oz)
EnTourage
Pocket eDGe
2010
[13]
2011
6
Bluetooth
eInk &
700 g
600 ×
LCD
(unknown
800
16
[14]
2010
6
eInk
Yes
?
240 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
eSlick
2009
[15]
2010
operator:
6
eInk
Yes
GB
MB for
apps)
Wi-Fi,
Yes
Bluetooth
(Pico TTS)
Yes
Yes
GPRS,
Edge,
2 GB
Yes
Yes
microSD
Yes
Wi-Fi,
u'strong' oz)
xit Software
(Pico TTS)
Yes
SD max 32
(322
3 GB
u'strong' oz)
FnacBook
Yes
Android
operator:
Fnac
Wi-Fi,
3 GB
microSD
?
HSDPA
180 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
512 MB
SDHC
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
?
?
u'strong' oz)
Hanvon
WISEreader
N516
Hanvon
WISEreader
N518
Hanvon
Hanvon
N526
Hanvon
2009
eInk
5
eInk
5
eInk
?
2010
6
[20]
B630
?
eInk
263 g
600 ×
800
operator:
Windows CE
8
Windows CE
8
Windows CE
800
(unknown
u'strong' oz)
8
800
600 ×
?
Linux
800
600 ×
?
8
800
600 ×
?
?
2010
600 ×
?
5
2009
[19]
WISEreader
eInk
?
[18]
WISEreader
5
?
[17]
WISEreader
N520
2009
[16]
16
Windows CE
microSD
No
No
?
?
No
?
Comparison of e-book readers
Hanvon
WISEreader
N610
2010
6
[21]
39
eInk
260 g
600 ×
Vizplex
(unknown
800
?
16
Windows CE
operator:
512 MB
Yes
No
?
?
microSD
No
?
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
Yes
?
No
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
No
Yes
?
Yes
Optional
Yes
?
Yes
No
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
?
u'strong' oz)
Hanvon
WISEreader
N618
2010
6
[22]
eInk
260 g
600 ×
Vizplex
(unknown
800
?
16
Windows CE
operator:
512 MB
Yes
Yes
?
?
microSD
?
u'strong' oz)
Hanvon
WISEreader
W622
2010
6
[23]
eInk
335 g
600 ×
Vizplex
(unknown
800
?
16
Linux
operator:
512 MB
Yes
Yes
?
?
microSD
?
u'strong' oz)
Hanvon
WISEreader
W800
2010
8
[24]
eInk
400 g
1024 ×
Vizplex
(unknown
768
?
16
Windows CE
operator:
512 MB
Yes
Yes
?
?
microSD
?
u'strong' oz)
arus Reader
Icarus Reader
2010
6
eInk
[25]
Go
?
178 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
Linux
2 GB
Wi-Fi,
operator:
No
u'strong' oz)
arus Reader
Icarus Reader
2010
6
Sipix
[26]
Sense
?
UMTS
microSD
(1.3
No
No
(FW v1.5)
GB)
(option)
240 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
2 GB
microSD
(1.3
operator:
Yes
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
Yes
GB)
u'strong' oz)
Interead
COOL-ER
2009
[27]
2010
6
eInk
178 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
Linux
operator:
1 GB
No
No
?
?
?
Optional
Optional
Optional
Yes
Yes
SD
u'strong' oz)
[28]
apyrus
Technologies
iPapyrus 6
[29]
Digital Reader
2009
2010
800
?
[30]
2010
6
8.1
eInk
eInk
?
600 ×
8
Linux
16
Linux
800
360 g
768 ×
(unknown
1024
operator:
Yes
No
?
Yes
2 GB
SD
128 MB
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Technologies
Digital Reader
2008
1000
[30]
2010
10.2
eInk
700 g
1024 ×
(unknown
1280
16
Linux
operator:
SD
Yes
No
No
?
Yes
?
u'strong' oz)
Technologies
iLiad
2006
[30]
2010
8.1
eInk
480 g
768 ×
(unknown
1024
operator:
u'strong' oz)
16
Linux
64 MB
Yes
Wi-Fi
No
No
Yes
SD, CF
Comparison of e-book readers
Iriver
Story
2009
6
eInk
?
40
233 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
Linux
operator:
2 GB
No
No
?
?
SDHC
?
?
?
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
No
Yes
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
?
No
Yes
Yes
?
No
No
?
?
Yes
No
?
?
Yes
No
?
No
[40]
Yes
?
?
u'strong' oz)
Iriver
Iriver Story HD
2011
6
eInk
[31]
Pearl
?
207 g
768 ×
(unknown
1024
16
Linux
operator:
2 GB
No
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
SDHC
?
u'strong' oz)
Paperback
italica
2010
6
[32]
mbH
?
?
174 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
Linux
operator:
512 MB
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
SD
u'strong' oz)
JinKe
Hanlin V5
JinKe
Hanlin V3
JinKe
bo Inc.
[12]
Hanlin V2
[33]
Kobo Touch
2008
2007
2006
?
2008
2007
2011
5
6
6
6
eInk
eInk
eInk
eInk Pearl
?
?
?
?
600 ×
8
Linux
12
Linux
4
Linux
16
Linux
800
600 ×
800
600 ×
800
200 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
operator:
Yes
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
384 MB
SDHC
384 MB
SDHC
?
?
2 GB
microSD
No
u'strong' oz)
bo Inc.
[33]
Kobo eReader
2010
2011
6
eInk
Wireless N647
221 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
1 GB
No
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
SDHC
?
u'strong' oz)
bo Inc.
[33]
Kobo eReader
2010
2011
6
eInk
N416
221 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
Linux
operator:
1 GB
No
Bluetooth
No
Yes
SD
?
u'strong' oz)
Kogan
[34]
nologies
Kogan eBook
Reader
2010
6
eInk
[34]
?
228 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
2 GB
No
No
No
Yes
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Kolporter
eClicto
2007
6
eInk
?
174 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
4
Linux
operator:
512 MB
No
No
No
No
?
No
No
Yes
No
No
SD
u'strong' oz)
ewsmy
[35]
e6210
[36]
[38]
Onyx
[37]
Boox 60
2011
?
2010
6
?
220 g (7.76
600 ×
16
MicroC/OS-II
8
Linux
800
6
national
eInk
eInk
298 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
operator:
u'strong' oz)
Stylus
[39]
Wi-Fi
Optional
Yes
Yes
4 GB
SDHC
512 MB
SDHC
Comparison of e-book readers
[41]
Onyx
[37]
Boox X60
2010
6
eInk
national
?
41
298 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
Linux
operator:
512 MB
Stylus
[39]
Wi-Fi
Optional
Yes
SDHC
Yes
[40]
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
[49
Yes
Yes
Yes
[49
u'strong' oz)
x International
Boox
A61S
2011
6
eInk Pearl
[42]
?
278 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
2 GB
Stylus
No
?
?
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
x International
Boox
X61S
2011
6
eInk Pearl
[43]
?
275 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
2 GB
No
No
?
?
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
x International
[44]
Boox A62
2011
6
eInk Pearl
?
298 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
4 GB
Stylus
Yes
?
?
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
x International
[45]
Boox X62
2011
6
eInk Pearl
?
298 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
4 GB
No
Yes
?
?
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
x International
[46]
Boox i62
2011
6
eInk Pearl
?
238 g
800 ×
(unknown
600
16
Linux
operator:
4 GB
Yes (IR)
Yes
?
?
SDHC
?
u'strong' oz)
Onyx
[37]
Boox M90
[47]
2011
9.7
eInk Pearl
national
520 g
825 ×
(unknown
1200
16
Linux
SDHC
MB
operator:
?
1024
Stylus
[47]
Wi-Fi
Optional
Yes
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Onyx
[37]
Boox M92
[48]
2011
9.7
eInk Pearl
national
ocketBook
ocketBook
?
520 g
825 ×
(unknown
1200
16
Linux
4096
SDHC
MB
operator:
Stylus
[48]
Wi-Fi
Optional
Yes
Yes
u'strong' oz)
PocketBook 360
2011
5
eInk
Plus
?
150 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
2 GB
No
u'strong' oz)
PocketBook Pro
2010
9.7
903
?
eInk
581 g
825 ×
(unknown
1200
operator:
u'strong' oz)
16
Linux
Wi-Fi
802.11b/g
Yes
Yes
microSDHC
Yes
Wi-Fi
2 GB
microSDHC
802.11b/g,
Stylus
Bluetooth,
UMTS +
GPRS
Yes
Yes
Yes
Comparison of e-book readers
ocketBook
PocketBook Pro
2010
9.7
eInk
902
?
42
530 g
825 ×
(unknown
1200
16
Linux
2 GB
operator:
No
u'strong' oz)
ocketBook
PocketBook Pro
2010
6
eInk
[50]
603
?
microSDHC
Wi-Fi
802.11b/g,
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
[49
Yes
Yes
Yes
[49
Yes
Yes
Yes
[49
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
Bluetooth
280 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
Wi-Fi
2 GB
microSDHC
802.11b/g,
operator:
Stylus
u'strong' oz)
Bluetooth,
Yes
Yes
Yes
UMTS +
GPRS
ocketBook
PocketBook Pro
2010
6
eInk
[51]
602
?
250 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
2 GB
operator:
No
u'strong' oz)
Samsung
Papyrus
2009
Samsung
E6
2010
?
5
eInk
6
eInk
?
Reader Pocket
2010
2011
?
?
8
?
315 g
600 ×
8
Linux
(unknown
800
eInk Pearl
Edition
PRS-350
[52]
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
?
?
?
Wi-Fi
Stylus
operator:
5
802.11b/g,
Bluetooth
802.11b/g,
512M
No
2 GB
microSD
Limited
(1.4
Yes
Yes
Yes
GB)
Yes
Bluetooth
u'strong' oz)
Sony
microSDHC
Wi-Fi
155 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
2 GB
(1.4
operator:
Yes
No
No
Yes
collections
GB)
No
No
No
Yes
?
2 GB
SDHC, MS
(1.4
Pro DUO
No
No
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
PRO Duo
No
No
Yes
?
No
No
No
Yes
?
No
No
No
Yes
?
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Reader Touch
2010
2011
6
eInk
Edition
PRS-650
[53]
215 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Linux
operator:
Yes
No
No
Yes
collections
GB)
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Reader Daily
2009
2011
7.1
eInk
Edition PRS-900
283 g
600 ×
(unknown
1024
16
MontaVista
2 GB
Linux
operator:
SDHC, MS
Pro DUO
Yes
No
No
Yes
?
Yes
No
No
Yes
?
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Reader Touch
2009
2010
6
eInk
286 g (10.1
Edition PRS-600
600 ×
8
800
MontaVista
Linux
512 MB SDHC, MS
(380
MB)
Sony
Reader Pocket
2009
2010
5
eInk
Edition PRS-300
220 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
MontaVista
512 MB
Linux
operator:
(480
No
No
No
No
?
MB)
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Reader Pocket
Edition
PRS-300SC
2011
?
5
eInk
220 g
600 ×
Vizplex
(unknown
800
operator:
u'strong' oz)
8
MontaVista
512 MB
Linux
(350
No
No
No
No
?
MB)
Comparison of e-book readers
Sony
Reader PRS-700
2008
2009
6
eInk
43
283 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
MontaVista
512 MB
SDHC
Linux
operator:
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
?
No
No
Yes
?
No
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
No
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
No
Yes
?
?
?
No
?
?
Web
Library
USB
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Reader PRS-505
2008
2009
6
eInk
250 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
MontaVista
256
Linux
MB,
operator:
No
No
No
No
?
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Reader PRS-500
2006
2008
6
eInk
SD, MS
(192
MB)
250 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
8
MontaVista
92 MB
SD
Linux
operator:
No
No
No
No
No
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Reader PRS-T1
2011
6
eInk Pearl
?
168 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
16
Android
2 GB
Micro-SD
(1.3
operator:
Yes (IR)
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
Yes
GB)
u'strong' oz)
Sony
Librié
2004
2005
6
eInk
190 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
4
Linux
operator:
10 MB
No
No
No
Yes
MS PRO
No
u'strong' oz)
Spring
esign
Alex eReader
2010
2011
6
[54]
eInk &
221 g
600 ×
LCD
(unknown
800
8
Android
operator:
2 GB
Yes
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
SD
No
u'strong' oz)
Stereo
ES600
2009
6
nternational
?
rprise Co, Ltd
aiwan)
?
[55]
Wolder
[56]
240 g
600 ×
(unknown
800
Linux
operator:
2 GB
Yes
Wi-Fi
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
?
Yes
Yes
SDHC
u'strong' oz)
Boox-S
[38]
2010
6
eInk
?
600 ×
?
ctronics
Maker
16
Model
Intro End year Screen
year
size
Screen
type
Weight
16
Linux
800
Screen Screen
Operating
pixels shades
system
(inch)
Non-electronic-paper displays
512 MB
Touch
screen
[1]
Wireless
network
Text-to-speech Integrated
Directory
Internal
dictionary organization storage
SDHC
Card
Replaceable
reader slot
battery
browser compatible periphe
Comparison of e-book readers
Maker
Model
Intro Screen
year
Screen type
Weight
size
44
Screen Screen
pixels
shades
Hours
reading
[57]
Operating
system
Touch
screen
[1]
Wireless
Text-to-speech
network
Integrated
Directory
Internal
Card
Replaceable
dictionary
organization
storage
reader slot
battery
4 GB
microSD
Web
Library
browser compatible
USB
peripherals
(inch)
Aluratek
Libre Touch 2011
7
LCD
eBook
Reader
199 g
480 x
(unknown
800
operator:
8
Android 1.5
?
Yes
Yes, Wi-Fi
No
No
?
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Aluratek
Libre Air
2011
5
LCD
eBook
Reader
170 g
480 ×
16
(unknown
640
grey
operator:
20
Linux+Xwindows
scale
512 MB
No
Yes, Wi-Fi
No
No
microSD
?
u'strong' oz)
Aluratek
Libre Color
2010
7
LCD
eBook
Reader
245 g
480 x
(unknown
800
operator:
24
MicroC/OS-II
?
2 GB
No
No
No
No
SD
?
u'strong' oz)
Aluratek
Libre Pro
2009
5
LCD
eBook
Reader
190 g
480 x
16
(unknown
640
grey
operator:
24
Linux+Xwindows
scale
256 MB
No
No
No
No
SD
?
u'strong' oz)
Amazon.com
Kindle Fire
2011
[58]
7
LCD(IPS)
413 g
1024 x
24-bit
(unknown
600
color
8
Android 2.3
8 GB
(6 GB)
operator:
Yes
Wi-Fi
[59]
No
Yes (US
Yes
?
No
No
only)
u'strong' oz)
Apple Inc.
iPad 2
2011
[60]
9.7
LCD(IPS)
613 g
1024 x 24-bit?
10
iOS
16-64
iBooks &
(unknown
768
SD via
color
GB
system-wide
operator:
Yes
Wi-Fi, 3G
Yes
camera
Yes
dictionary
connection
with iOS 5
kit
No
Yes
?
Yes
No
Yes
?
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Apple Inc.
iPad
2010
9.7
LCD
601 g
1024 x 24-bit?
9
iOS
16-64
iBooks &
(unknown
768
SD via
color
GB
system-wide
operator:
Yes
Wi-Fi
Yes
Camera
Yes
dictionary
Connection
with iOS 5
Kit
u'strong' oz)
Barnes &
Nook Color
2010
7
LCD
Noble
450 g
1024 ×
(unknown
600
16M
8
Android 2.2
2 GB, 1 microSDHC
?
GB
operator:
Wi-Fi
for B&N Kids
802.11b/g/n
Books
Yes
Yes
Yes
available
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
?
No
?
No
u'strong' oz)
Ectaco
jetBook
2008
5
LCD
212 g
480 x
(unknown
640
16
20
Linux
operator:
112 MB
No
No
No
Yes
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Elonex
705EB
2010
7
LED
190 g
480 ×
(unknown
800
operator:
u'strong' oz)
256?
8
4 GB
?
No
No
?
No
?
microSDHC
Comparison of e-book readers
[61]
Notion Ink
2011
10.1
Pixel Qi
Adam
45
725 g
1024 ×
(unknown
600
15
Android
1GB
microSD
?
DDR2
operator:
?
Yes
Wi-Fi, 3G
Yes
?
?
RAM
u'strong' oz)
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
Web
Library
USB
1GB
SLC
PocketBook
PocketBook
2010
7
LCD
IQ 701
516 g
600 ×
262K
(unknown
800
color
8
Android 2.0
2 GB
operator:
Yes
Wi-Fi
Yes
Yes
SDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
TrekStor
eBook
2011
7
LCD
Reader 3.0
275 g
800 ×
(unknown
480
8
operator:
MicroC/OS-II
2 GB
?
No
No
No
No
microSDHC
Yes
u'strong' oz)
Zzbook
eReader
2010
7
TFT-LCD
[62]
HD
300 g
800 ×
(unknown
480
16
8
Linux
2 GB
operator:
No
microSD
No
?
?
?
Wireless
Text-to-speech
Integrated
Directory
Internal
Card
Replaceable
dictionary
organization
storage
reader slot
battery
u'strong' oz)
Maker
Model
Intro Screen
year
Screen type
Weight
Screen Screen
size
pixels
shades
Operating
Hours
reading
[57]
Touch
system
screen
[1]
network
browser compatible peripherals
(inch)
File format support
See Comparison of e-book formats for details on the file formats.
The most notable formats are:
• .epub is a free and open e-book standard used by most e-book readers.
• .azw is Amazon’s proprietary e-book file format for the Kindle.
Maker
Model
Number
Aluratek
Liber Touch eBook
9
Reader
Aluratek
Libre Air eBook
.arg
.azw
.chm
.djvu
.doc
.epub
.html
.lbr
.lit
.mobi
.mp3
.opf
.pdb
.pdg
.pdf
.tr3
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
11
Reader
Partial
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
(non-DRM
Partial
No
No
only
Aluratek
Libre Color eBook
10
Reader
(non-DRM
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
only
Partial
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
(non-DRM
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
only)
Aluratek
Libre Pro eBook
8
Reader
Partial
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
(non-DRM
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
only)
Amazon.com
Kindle 3 Wi-Fi & 3G
12+
No
Yes
?
[63]
No
Amazon.com
Kindle DX
.fb2
.rtf
Partial
Partial
Partial
(non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM
only)
only)
only)
Partial
Partial
Partial
(non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM
only)
only
only)
Partial
Partial
Partial
(non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM
only)
only)
Partial
Partial
(non-DRM (non-DRM
only)
only)
.tcr
.cbr
.cbz
.gif
.jpg
.png
.tiff
.bmp
.docx
.html
.wmv
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
only)
.flv
.m4v
.mov
.avi
Partial
Partial
Partial
Partial
(non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM
.mpeg1/2/4
Partial
(non-DRM
only)
only)
only)
only)
only)
No
No
No
No
No
No
Partial
Partial
Partial
Partial
Partial
(non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM (non-DRM
Partial
(non-DRM
only)
only)
only)
only)
only)
only)
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
No
Partial (no
[63]
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
.txt
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
?
?
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
DRM)
12
Partial (no
No
Yes
?
No
?
No
No
DRM)
Amazon.com
Kindle 2
12
Partial (no
No
Yes
?
No
?
No
Yes
No
No
DRM)
Comparison of e-book readers
Amazon.com
46
Kindle
Partial (no
?
No
Yes
?
?
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
DRM)
Asus
Eee Reader DR900
Barnes & Noble
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
?
No
?
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
?
No
?
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
?
No
?
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
?
No
?
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
15+
Nook
[64][65]
Color
Barnes & Noble
nook
[66]
[67]
Barnes & Noble
4
8
Nook Touch
Bookeen
Cybook
8
[68]
Orizon
Bookeen
Cybook
6
[69]
Opus
Bookeen
Cybook
7
[69]
Gen3
bq
Condor Technology
Associates
[8]
Condor Technology
Associates
[8]
EBS
movistar ebook bq
14
[9]
18
[9]
8
eGriver IDEO
eGriver Touch
Agebook+6
12
[70]
Technology
Elonex
Endless ideas
eBook
BeBook One (Hanlin
?
23
[71]
V3 clone)
Endless ideas
BeBook Mini (Hanlin
23
[71]
V5 clone)
Foxit Corp.
Hanvon
eSlick
WISEreader
[16]
N516
Hanvon
WISEreader
[17]
N518
Hanvon
WISEreader
[18]
N520
Hanvon
WISEreader
[19]
N526
Interead
iPapyrus
Inc.
[28]
COOL-ER
iPapyrus 6
[38]
iRex Technologies
Digital Reader 800
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
iRex Technologies
Digital Reader 1000
9
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
iRex Technologies
iLiad
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Iriver
Story
?
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
?
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Comparison of e-book readers
Iriver
italica
GmbH
IRiver Story HD
?
[72]
Paperback 1.0
[32]
6
47
No
?
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
No
?
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
JinKe
Hanlin V2
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
JinKe
Hanlin V3
19
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
JinKe
Hanlin V5
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
eReader
3
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
eReader WiFi
9
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
Kobo
[33]
Kobo
Kobo
14
eReader
Touch
[73]
Partial
(raw
markup)
Kogan
[74]
Kogan eBook Reader
[34]
16
No
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
?
No
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
Technologies
Kolporter
Newsmy
[35]
Onyx
[37]
eClicto
e6210
[36]
[38]
18
Boox 60
Partial (no
DRM)
International
[75]
Onyx International
22
Partial (no
No
Boox X61S
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
DRM)
Onyx
[37]
[38]
18
Boox M90
Partial (no
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
DRM)
International
Onyx
[37]
[38]
18
Boox M92
Partial (no
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
DRM)
International
PocketBook
PocketBook 360 Plus
18
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
?
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
PocketBook
PocketBook Pro 602
18
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
?
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
PocketBook
PocketBook Pro 603
18
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
?
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
PocketBook
PocketBook Pro 902
18
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
?
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
PocketBook
PocketBook Pro 903
18
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
?
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
Samsung
Papyrus
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Samsung
E6
?
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Sony
Librié
?
No
?
No
?
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
No
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
No
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
Yes
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
Yes
?
?
?
Yes
?
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
Sony
Reader Pocket Edition
6
[76]
PRS-300
Sony
Reader
9
[77]
PRS-500
Sony
Sony
Reader PRS-505
Reader Touch Edition
?
12
[78]
PRS-600
Sony
Sony
Reader PRS-700
Reader Daily Edition
PRS-900
[79]
?
11
Comparison of e-book readers
Spring
Design
Alex eReader
5
[54]
Stereo International
[55]
Velocity
eBook Reader 3.0
8
Cruz Reader
14+
Cruz Tablet T103
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
No
No
?
No
?
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
?
No
?
Yes
?
Yes
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
?
.mp3
.opf
.pdb
.pdg
.pdf
.tr3
.txt
.fb2
.rtf
.tcr
.cbr
.cbz
.gif
.jpg
.png
.tiff
.bmp
.docx
.html
.wmv
.flv
.m4v
.mov
.avi
.mpeg1/2/4
14+
[81]
Velocity
Micro
?
8
[80]
Velocity
Micro
No
[55]
TrekStor
Micro
No
ES600
Enterprise Co, Ltd
(Taiwan)
48
Cruz Tablet T301
14+
[82]
Wolder
Electronics
[56]
Maker
[38]
14
Boox-S
Partial (no
DRM)
Model
Number
.arg
.azw
.chm
.djvu
.doc
.epub
.html
.lbr
.lit
.mobi
This list is missing many of the 1st and 2nd generation e-reader devices from the 1990s to 2005.
This list can be expanded by adding Unicode support information for e-readers. Such information is very difficult to
find right now.
Changes
Rebranded devices
• Hanlin V3 → BeBook (EU): BeBook, Koobe [83] (HU), Astak EZ Reader (US), Lbook (UA) Papyre (Spain)
• Netronix EB001 → Astak Mentor EZ Reader, Cybook Gen3 (200 MHz version)
• Netronix EB600 → Cool-er, eClicto, Elonex eBook, eSlick, Astaka Mentor EZ Reader, Cybook Gen3 (400 MHz
version),
• Condor eGriver touch → Medion OYO, Prestigio PER5062B, Icarus Sense, Pandigital Novel 6" Personal
eReader, Qisda QD060B00
• TrekStor eBook Reader 3.0 → Prestigio Nobile PER3172B
Announced devices or prototypes
• Adam by Notion Ink (Shipped January 2011)
• txtr, (October 2009), 6 inch reader from Wizpac
• Readius by Polymer Vision (Autumn 2008) UPDATE: Polymer Vision filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in July
2009. This ebook reader will not be coming to market in its current form.
• eDGe, dual screen, by enTourage (Available since April 2010)[84]
• Slate, 8.9 inch screen, by Hewlett-Packard (June–September 2010)[85]
• E6 Slider, 6 inch reader, by Samsung (Spring 2010)[86]
• Samsung E61 with QWERTY design (early 2010)[87]
• Takeop – an eBook project by Mircea Batranu (proj-2007/ prez-2009)[88]
Comparison of e-book readers
49
Discontinued models and products
Alex eReader by Spring Design, discontinued in 2011[54]
eSlick by Foxit Corp., discontinued in late 2010[89]
QUE proReader by Plastic Logic[90]
Cybook, Cybook Gen1 sold by Cytale (1998–2003) then by Bookeen (2003–2007), now replaced with the
Cybook Gen3 and Cybook Opus
• Franklin eBookMan – 1999(?)–2002, last model
•
•
•
•
Other mobile text viewers
Some portable multimedia players and smartphones include a text viewer, e.g.
several Cowon players, including the Cowon D2 and the iAUDIO U3 and
Mobipocket Reader for Symbian OS and Windows Mobile mobile phones and
devices. Adobe Reader mobile also turns Windows Mobile devices (for example,
Samsung Omnia) into e-book viewers. Apple's iPad, iPhone,[91] and iPod Touch
are acquiring status as e-book readers through a variety of e-reader apps.
WordPlayer, FBReader, Aldiko or Mantano Reader turn Android phones into
e-book readers. Palm OS based devices and smartphones are also usable for
reading books. PalmOS supports PalmDoc, iSilo, Mobipocket reader, PDF,
HTML conversion, text format, Handstory, TealDoc among many other software
titles, and word processing.
Some mobile devices support word processing. Some fully functional tablet
notebooks (with screens that turn 180 degrees and lie with the back to the
keyboard) and subnotebooks are used as e-book readers.
A Symbian OS smartphone used as
an e-book reader
Table notes
[1] Touch screen: "Yes" - finger touchable; "Stylus" - touchable with stylus only; "No" - no touch screen
[2] "Kindle Touch versus Kindle 3" (http:/ / reviewsebookreaders. com/ kindle-touch-versus-kindle-3/ ). reviewsebookreaders.com. . Retrieved
2011-09-30.
[3] "Kindle 3 Wi-Fi 3G" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ B002FQJT3Q/ ). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-30.
[4] "Kindle 3 Wi-Fi" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ B002Y27P3M). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-30.
[5] "More about the Cybook Odyssey and the High Speed Ink System technology" (http:/ / bookeen. com/ blog/ cybook-odyssey-hsis/ ).
Bookeen.com. . Retrieved 2011-10-27.
[6] http:/ / es. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Bq_readers
[7] "bq Readers" (http:/ / es. wikipedia. org/ wiki/ Bq_readers). .
[8] "Condor Technology Associates" (http:/ / www. ctaindia. com). Ctaindia.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[9] IDEO (http:/ / www. ctaindia. asia),
[10] "Agebook eBook Reader (model: agebook+6)" (http:/ / www. agebook. com. tr/ ). ebsteknoloji.com.tr. . Retrieved 04-08-2010.
[11] "Agebook+6 eBook Reader" (http:/ / www. agebook. com. tr/ ). ebsteknoloji.com.tr. . Retrieved 04-08-2010.
[12] Petr Hájek (2009-12-28). "Hanlin eReader V5 review: paper or e-paper, that is the question" (http:/ / www. maxiorel. com/
hanlin-ereader-v5-review-paper-or-e-paper-question). Maxiorel.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[13] http:/ / blog. laptopmag. com/ would-the-entourage-edge-have-survived-in-a-post-honeycomb-world
[14] "Fnac web" (http:/ / www. fnac. com/ FnacBook-Livre-numerique-3G-gratuite-et-WiFi-50-livres-offerts-inclus/ a2995447/ w-4#ficheDt). .
[15] "Foxit kills off eSlick ebook reader, focuses on licensing software instead" (http:/ / www. engadget. com/ 2010/ 08/ 04/
foxit-kills-off-eslick-ebook-reader-focuses-on-licensing-softwa/ ). 2010-08-04. . Retrieved 2011-08-27.
[16] "WISEreader N516" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N516. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[17] "WISEreader N518" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N518. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[18] "WISEreader N520" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N520. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[19] "WISEreader N526" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N526. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[20] "WISEreader B630" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-B630. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-12.
[21] "WISEreader N610" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N610. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-12.
Comparison of e-book readers
[22] "WISEreader N618" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N618. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-12.
[23] "WISEreader W622" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N628. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-12.
[24] "WISEreader W800" (http:/ / www. hanvon. com/ en/ products/ ebook/ products-N800. html). Hanvon.com. . Retrieved 2011-04-12.
[25] "Icarus Go" (http:/ / www. icarusreader. com/ icarusreader. com/ ?q=go). Icarusreader.com. . Retrieved 2011-05-13.
[26] "Icarus Sense" (http:/ / www. icarusreader. com/ icarusreader. com/ ?q=sense). Icarusreader.com. . Retrieved 2011-05-13.
[27] Bowers, Simon (2010-07-13). "Court hits the off button on Cool-er e-reader company" (http:/ / www. guardian. co. uk/ business/ 2010/ jul/
13/ cool-er-ereader-interead-liquidation). London: The Guardian. . Retrieved 2011-08-16.
[28] "iPapyrus Inc" (http:/ / www. ipapyrus. info/ ). iPapyrus Inc. . Retrieved 2010-03-03.
[29] (http:/ / www. ipapyrus. info) (),
[30] Calvin Reid (June 10, 2010). "IREX Files for Bankruptcy" (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ pw/ by-topic/ digital/ devices/ article/
43466-irex-files-for-bankruptcy. html). publishersweekly.com. . Retrieved November 2, 2011.
[31] "E Ink: Customer Showcase: Story HD by iRiver" (http:/ / www. eink. com/ customer_showcase_iriver_storyhd. html). eink.com. .
Retrieved 2012-02-11.
[32] "italica GmbH" (http:/ / www. italicareader. com). Italicareader.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[33] "Kobo eReader" (http:/ / www. koboereader. com/ ). .
[34] "iKogan eBook Reader" (http:/ / www. kogan. com. au/ shop/ ebook-reader-6-e-ink-screen/ ). kogan.com.au. . Retrieved 2010-07-28.
[35] "Newsmy website" (http:/ / www. newsmy. com). .
[36] "Newsmy e6210 technical specifications" (http:/ / www. newsmy. com/ en/ products_show. asp?ArticleID=521). .
[37] "Onyx International" (http:/ / www. onyxboox. com/ ). onyxboox.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[38] Boox 60 (http:/ / www. onyx-international. com/ products) ( spanish (http:/ / www. wolder. com/ Wolder_Electronics/ Boox. html)), Boox-S
(spanish) (http:/ / www. wolder. com/ Wolder_Electronics/ Boox-s. html)
[39] "Onyx Boox" (http:/ / www. the-ebook-reader. com/ onyx-boox. html). the-ebook-reader.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-17.
[40] "Onyx Boox" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. com). onyx-boox.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-17.
[41] Boox X60 (http:/ / www. onyxboox. com/ product_info. php?cPath=21& products_id=38) ( spanish (http:/ / www. wolder. com/
Wolder_Electronics/ Boox. html)), Boox-S (spanish) (http:/ / www. wolder. com/ Wolder_Electronics/ Boox-s. html)
[42] "Onyx Boox A61S (in Russia)" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. ru/ boox_a61s). .
[43] "Onyx Boox X61S review (in Polish)" (http:/ / technowinki. onet. pl/ wiadomosci/
premiera-ekonomiczny-e-reader-onyx-boox-x61s,1,4804928,artykul. html). .
[44] "Onyx Boox A62" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. com/ onyx-boox-a62). .
[45] "Onyx Boox X62" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. com/ onyx-boox-x62). .
[46] "Onyx Boox i62" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. com/ onyx-boox-i62). .
[47] "Onyx Boox M90 technical specifications" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. com/ onyx-boox-m90/ specifications). .
[48] "Onyx Boox M92 technical specifications" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. com/ onyx-boox-m92/ specifications). .
[49] "You ask — we answer" (http:/ / www. pocketbook-int. com/ us/ support/ faq). PocketBook International S.A. . Retrieved 2011-07-24.
[50] PocketBook Pro 603 (http:/ / www. pocketbook-usa. com/ products/ pocketbook-603/ )
[51] PocketBook Pro 602 (http:/ / www. pocketbook-usa. com/ products/ pocketbook-602/ )
[52] PRS-350SC | Reader Pocket Edition | Sony | Sony Style USA (http:/ / www. sonystyle. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/
ProductDisplay?productId=8198552921666257813)
[53] PRS-650 | Reader Touch Edition | Sony | Sony Style USA (http:/ / www. sonystyle. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/
ProductDisplay?productId=8198552921666257815)
[54] "Spring Design, Inc" (http:/ / www. springdesign. com/ ). . Retrieved 14 June 2011.
[55] "Stereo International Enterprise Co, Ltd (Taiwan)" (http:/ / www. punch-video. com. tw/ products/ main. php?cat=19& topage=1#201). .
[56] "Wolder Electronics" (http:/ / www. wolder. com/ Wolder_Electronics/ Wolder_Electronics. html). Wolder.com. . Retrieved 2010-04-05.
[57] battery life, usually requires Wifi/3G to be turned off
[58] "Kindle Fire - Full Color 7" Multi-Touch Display with Wi-Fi - More than a Tablet" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ product/
B0051VVOB2). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 2011-11-28.
[59] Android 2.3 has built-in TTS that can be used by certain apps. However, the Kindle app is not one of them.
[60] "iPad 2 Technical Specifications" (http:/ / www. apple. com/ ipad/ specs/ ). Apple. . Retrieved 2011-06-12.
[61] "Tech Specs" (http:/ / notionink. in/ techspecs. php). NotionInk.com. . Retrieved 2011-01-01.
[62] "eReader HD" (http:/ / www. zzbook. co. uk). zzbook.co.uk. . Retrieved 2011-03-29.
[63] "Sending Personal Documents to Kindle" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ gp/ help/ customer/ display. html?nodeId=200505520& #email).
Amazon.com: Transferring, Downloading, and Sending Files to Kindle. .
[64] "NOOKcolor Tech Specs - Barnes & Noble" (http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ nookcolor/ features/ techspecs/ index.
asp?cds2Pid=35607). Barnesandnoble.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-31.
[65] "NOOKcolor User Guide - Barnes & Noble" (http:/ / img1. imagesbn. com/ PImages/ nook/ encore/ support/ pdf/ User_Guide_NOOKcolor.
pdf). Barnesandnoble.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-31.
[66] "NOOK Tech Specs - Barnes & Noble" (http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ nook/ features/ techspecs/ ?cds2Pid=30195).
Barnesandnoble.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
50
Comparison of e-book readers
[67] "NOOK Tech Specs - Barnes & Noble" (http:/ / www. barnesandnoble. com/ nook/ features/ techspecs/ ?cds2Pid=30195).
Barnesandnoble.com. . Retrieved 2022-6-13.
[68] "Cybook Orizon File formats" (http:/ / www. bookeen. com/ en/ cybook/ ?id=2). Bookeen. . Retrieved 2011-03-21.
[69] "File formats" (http:/ / www. bookeen. com/ en/ ebooks/ fileFormats). Bookeen. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[70] "EBS Technology" (http:/ / www. agebook. com. tr/ ). EBS Technology. . Retrieved 04-08-2010.
[71] "FAQ - eBooks" (http:/ / mybebook. com/ a35/ FAQ_Ebooks/ article_info. html). Mybebook.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[72] "italica Readers" (http:/ / www. italicareader. com). Italicareader.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[73] "Kobo eReader Touch - Kobo Books" (http:/ / www. kobobooks. com/ touch_tech). Kobobooks.com. . Retrieved 2011-07-04.
[74] "eBook Reader with 1500 Free eBook, Buy 6" E Ink eBook Reader - Kogan Technologies Pty Ltd" (http:/ / www. kogan. com. au/ shop/
ebook-reader-6-e-ink-screen/ ). Kogan.com.au. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[75] "Onyx Boox A61S (in Russia)" (http:/ / www. onyx-boox. ru/ boox_a61s). .
[76] "PRS-300 | Reader Pocket Edition | Sony | Sony Style USA" (http:/ / www. sonystyle. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/
ProductDisplay?catalogId=10551& storeId=10151& langId=-1& productId=8198552921665921188#specifications). Sonystyle.com. .
Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[77] Sony Electronics, Inc.. "Sony eSupport - PRS-500 - Support Information" (http:/ / esupport. sony. com/ US/ perl/ support-info.
pl?info_id=505& mdl=PRS500). Esupport.sony.com. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[78] "PRS-600 | Reader Touch Edition | Sony | Sony Style USA" (http:/ / www. sonystyle. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/
ProductDisplay?catalogId=10551& storeId=10151& langId=-1& productId=8198552921665921180#specifications). Sonystyle.com. .
Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[79] "PRS-900BC | Reader Daily Edition | Sony | Sony Style USA" (http:/ / www. sonystyle. com/ webapp/ wcs/ stores/ servlet/
ProductDisplay?catalogId=10551& storeId=10151& langId=-1& productId=8198552921666064650#specifications). Sonystyle.com. .
Retrieved 2010-12-07.
[80] "Velocity Micro Cruz Reader" (http:/ / www. cruzreader. com/ reader. php). Velocity Micro. . Retrieved 12-31-2010.
[81] "Velocity Micro Cruz Tablet T103" (http:/ / www. cruzreader. com/ tablet. php). Velocity Micro. . Retrieved 12-31-2010.
[82] "Velocity Micro Cruz Tablet T301" (http:/ / www. cruzreader. com/ tablet301. php). Velocity Micro. . Retrieved 12-31-2010.
[83] http:/ / www. koobe. hu
[84] Wed 30 Dec. "Entourage eDGe" (http:/ / www. entourageedge. com/ ). Entourage eDge. .
[85] Tue 06 Apr. "The HP Slate" (http:/ / www. bestereaders. net/ the-hp-slate/ ). The Best eReaders. . Retrieved 2010-04-06.
[86] Wed 01 Jan. "First hands on: Samsung E6 e-book reader" (http:/ / www. crunchgear. com/ 2010/ 01/ 06/
first-hands-on-samsung-e6-e-book-reader/ ). .
[87] Samsung E61 — e-book reader with QWERTY keyboard and without touchscreen (http:/ / www. samsung. com/ uk/ news/ newsRead.
do?news_seq=17656& page=1) (February 2010)
[88] Mircea Batranu. "takeop the product who change the world" (http:/ / mirceabatranu. wordpress. com/ produse/ ). .
[89] "eSlick Reader" (http:/ / www. foxitsoftware. com/ ebook/ eslick_eol. html). Foxit website. Foxit Corporation. 2010. . Retrieved 17 January
2011.
[90] Plastic Logic Moves On To Next Generation Product (http:/ / www. plasticlogic. com/ news/ pr_2g_aug102010. php)
[91] Stone, Brad (2010-06-21). "Amazon and Barnes & Noble Cut E-Reader Prices" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 06/ 22/ technology/
22reader. html?ref=technology). The New York Times. .
References
External links
• E-book Readers (http://www.dmoz.org/Computers/E-Books/Readers/) at the Open Directory Project
• E-book Reader Database & Comparison Engine (http://ereaderlookup.com)
51
Amazon Kindle
52
Amazon Kindle
Amazon Kindle
A third generation Kindle (now known as "Kindle Keyboard") in graphite color
Developer
Amazon.com
Manufacturer
Foxconn
Product family
Kindle
Type
E-book reader
Release date
November 19, 2007
Introductory price $399
Operating system
Linux 2.6.26
Power
1,750 mAh 3.7 V, lithium polymer, BA1001 model
CPU
Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11
Storage capacity
Internal flash memory (available total:user)
Original: 256:180 MB
Kindle 2: 2:1.4 GB
Kindle 3: 4:3 GB
Kindle DX: 4:3.3 GB
Kindle 4: 2:1.25 GB
Kindle Touch: 4:3 GB
Memory
Kindle 3: 256 MB
Amazon Kindle
53
Display
6 in diagonal,
3.6 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) × 4.8 in (unknown operator:
u'strong' mm),
600 × 800 pixels (0.48 megapixels),
167 ppi density,
Original: 4-level grayscale
Kindle 2, 3, 4: 16-level grayscale
Kindle DX: electronic paper 9.7 in (246 mm) diagonal, 1,200 × 824 pixels, 150 ppi
Graphics
None
Input
USB 2.0 port (micro-B connector),
SD card (original model only),
3.5 mm stereo headphone jack
built-in stereo speakers, and
AC power adapter jack
Controller input
D-pad and keyboard (some models)
Camera
None
Touchpad
None
Connectivity
Amazon Whispernet using EVDO/CDMA AnyDATA wireless modem (selected
models),
802.11bg Wi-Fi (Kindle 3)
802.11bgn Wi-Fi (Kindle 4)
Dimensions
Original
8.0 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) H
5.3 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) W
0.8 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) D
Kindle 2
8.0 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) H
5.3 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) W
0.36 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) D
Kindle 3
7.5 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) H
4.8 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) W
0.34 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) D
Kindle DX 2
10.4 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) H
7.2 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) W
0.38 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) D
Kindle Touch
6.8 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) H
4.7 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) W
0.40 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) D
Kindle 4
6.5 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) H
4.5 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) W
0.34 in (unknown operator: u'strong' mm) D
Weight
Kindle 1, 2
10.2 oz (unknown operator: u'strong' g)
Kindle 3
unknown operator: u'strong' oz (247 g)
Kindle 3 Wi-Fi only
unknown operator: u'strong' oz (241 g)
Kindle DX 2
18.9 oz (unknown operator: u'strong' g)
Kindle 4
5.98 oz (unknown operator: u'strong' g)
Amazon Kindle
54
Related articles
Amazon.com
Website
Kindle.com
[1]
The Amazon Kindle is a series of e-book readers now in their fourth generation, which enable users to shop for,
download, browse, and read e-books, newspapers, magazines, blogs, and other digital media via wireless
networking.[2] The hardware platform, developed by Amazon.com subsidiary Lab126, began as a single device and
now comprises a range of devices — most using an E Ink electronic paper display capable of rendering 16 shades of
gray to simulate reading on paper while minimizing power consumption.
Kindle hardware has evolved from the original Kindle introduced in 2007 and a Kindle DX line (with a larger screen)
introduced in 2009. Announced in September 2011, the range now includes devices with keyboards (Kindle
Keyboard), devices with touch sensitive screens (Kindle Touch), a tablet computer with a reader app and a color
display (Kindle Fire) and a low-priced model with an on-screen keyboard (Kindle).
Amazon has also introduced Kindle software for use on various devices and platforms, including Microsoft
Windows, iOS, BlackBerry, Mac OS X (10.5 or later, Intel processor only), Android, webOS, and Windows
Phone.[3] Amazon also has a "cloud" reader to allow users to read, and purchase, Kindle books from a web browser.
Content for the Kindle can be purchased online and downloaded wirelessly in some countries, using either standard
Wi-Fi or Amazon's 3G "Whispernet" network.[4] Whispernet is accessible without any monthly fee or wireless
subscription,[5] although fees can be incurred for the delivery of periodicals and other content when roaming
internationally beyond the customer's home country. Through a service called "Whispersync," customers can
synchronize reading progress, bookmarks and other information across Kindle hardware devices and other mobile
devices.[6][7]
In the last three months of 2010, Amazon announced that in the United States, their e-book sales had surpassed sales
of paperback books for the first time.[8]
Devices
First generation: Kindle
Amazon released the Kindle First Generation[9] on November 19,
[10]
2007, for US$399. It sold out in five and a half hours.
The device
remained out of stock for five months until late April 2008.[11]
It is the only Kindle with expandable memory, via an SD card slot.
The device features a 6 inch (diagonal) 4-level grayscale display, with
250 MB of internal memory, which can hold approximately 200
non-illustrated titles.[12]
Amazon did not sell the Kindle First Generation outside the United
States.[12] Plans for a launch in the UK and other European countries
were delayed by problems with signing up suitable wireless network
operators.[13]
A first generation Kindle
Amazon Kindle
55
Second generation: Kindle 2
On February 10, 2009, Amazon announced the Kindle 2.[14] It became
available for purchase on February 23, 2009. The Kindle 2 features a
text-to-speech option to read the text aloud, and 2 GB of internal
memory of which 1.4 GB is user-accessible. By Amazon's estimates
the Kindle 2 can hold about 1500 non-illustrated books. Unlike the
Kindle First Generation, Kindle 2 does not have a slot for SD memory
cards.[15] It was slimmer than the original Kindle.[16][17][18]
To promote the new Kindle, author Stephen King made UR, his
then-new novella, available exclusively through the Kindle Store.[19]
On October 22, 2009, Amazon stopped selling the original Kindle 2 in
favor of the international version it had introduced earlier in the month.
A second generation Kindle
According to an early review by iFixIt, the Kindle 2 features a
Freescale 532 MHz, ARM-11 90 nm processor, 32 MB main memory,
2 GB moviNAND flash memory and a 3.7 V 1,530 mAh lithium
polymer battery.[20]
On November 24, 2009, Amazon released a firmware update for the
Kindle 2 that it said increased battery life by 85% and introduces native PDF support.[21]
On July 8, 2009, Amazon reduced price of the Kindle 2 from the original $359 to $299. On October 7, 2009,
Amazon further reduced the price of the Kindle 2 to $259.[22] The Kindle 2 was criticized[23] for its high original
retail price, compared to the $185.49 manufacturing cost estimated by iSuppli.
International version
On October 7, 2009, Amazon announced an international version of the Kindle 2 with the ability to download new
titles in over 100 countries. It became available October 19, 2009. The international Kindle 2 is physically very
similar to the U.S.-only model, although it uses a different mobile network standard.
The original Kindle 2 used CDMA2000, for use on the Sprint network. The international version used standard GSM
and 3G GSM, enabling it to be used on AT&T's U.S. mobile network and internationally in 100 other countries.[24]
Kindle 2 International Version is believed to have a noticeably higher contrast screen, although Amazon does not
advertise this.[25] Another review done by Gadget lab,[26] disputes this and actually states that the font appears to be
fuzzier than the first generation kindle. The review goes on to say that changes to the Kindle 2 have made it harder to
read the smaller font sizes that most books use. On another website[27] they also discuss how the font size is at times
worse than the Kindle 1's. It appears that whether or not the Kindle 2 is clearer or fuzzier than the prior model
depends on the font size. These issues became moot when Amazon sourced a higher contrast E Ink technology it
dubbed "Pearl E-ink" and which it used in all of its e-reader devices thereafter.
On October 22, 2009, Amazon lowered the price on the international version from $279 to $259 and discontinued
the U.S.-only model. On June 21, 2010, hours after Barnes & Noble lowered the price of its Nook, Amazon lowered
the price of the Kindle 2 to $189.
Amazon Kindle
56
Kindle DX
Amazon announced the Kindle DX on May 6, 2009. This device has a
larger screen than the standard Kindle and supports simple PDF files. It
was also the thinnest Kindle to date and offers an accelerometer, which
enables the user to seamlessly rotate pages between landscape and
portrait orientations when the Kindle DX is turned on its side.[28] It is
marketed as more suitable for displaying newspaper and textbook
content.[29] The device can only connect to Whispernet in the United
States. It can be distinguished from the later International version by a
serial number starting with "B004".[30]
International version
The larger Kindle DX with a Kindle 2 for size
comparison
Since January 19, 2010, the Kindle DX International has shipped in
100 countries.[31] The Kindle DX comes with a 9.7-inch E Ink screen
instead of the 6-inch basic Kindle screen. It has support for
International 3G Wireless, and its serial number will start with
"B005".[30]
Kindle DX Graphite
The second generation Kindle DX in graphite
color
On July 1, 2010, Amazon released a new revision of the Kindle DX
"Graphite" (3rd Generation Kindle DX). As well as dropping the price
from $489 to $379, the new Kindle DX has an E Ink display with 50%
better contrast ratio (due to new E Ink Pearl technology) and comes
only in a "graphite" case color. It is speculated the case color change is
to improve contrast ratio perception further, as some users found the
prior white casing highlighted that the E Ink background is light gray
and not white. Like the prior Kindle DX, it does not have a Wi-Fi
connection.[32] Its serial numbers start with "B009".[30] The DX
Graphite (DXG) is generally accepted to be of the 3rd generation, yet it
is a mix of 3rd generation hardware and 2nd generation software. The
CPU is of the same speed as Kindle 3 but it is of a different revision.
Even though DX Graphite has a larger case, it has only a half the
system memory (128MB) of the Kindle 3 (256 MB). Due to these
hardware differences, DXG runs the same firmware as Kindle 2
(currently at version 2.5.8). Therefore, DXG cannot display
international fonts (such as the Cyrillic font, Chinese, or any other
non-Latin font), and PDF and the web browser are limited to Kindle 2
features.
Amazon Kindle
57
Third generation: Kindle Keyboard
Amazon announced a new generation of the Kindle on July 28, 2010.[33] While Amazon does not officially add
numbers to the end of each Kindle denoting its generation, reviewers, customers and press companies often refer to
this updated Kindle as the "K3" or the "Kindle 3".[34][35][36]
The Kindle Keyboard is available in two versions. One of these, the
Kindle Wi-Fi, was initially priced at US$139 / GB£111, and connects
to the Internet exclusively via Wi-Fi networks.[33] The other version,
considered a replacement to the Kindle 2, was priced at US$189 /
GB£152 and includes both 3G and Wi-Fi connectivity.[33] The built-in
free 3G connectivity uses the same wireless signals that cell phones
use, allowing it to have download and purchase capability from any
location with cell service.[33] The new Kindle with 3G is available in
two colors: classic white and graphite. Both models use the new E ink
"Pearl" display, which has a higher contrast than prior displays and a
faster refresh rate. However, it remains slower than traditional
LCDs.[37]
Kindle Keyboard. (Left to right) Volume control,
headphone jack, microphone, USB and power
switch
The Kindle Keyboard uses a Freescale i. MX353 applications processor, Freescale MC13892 power management
chip, Epson EINK controller and Samsung DRAM and flash. Other hardware changes include a larger 1,750 mAh
lithium-ion polymer battery, AnyDATA DTP-600W 3G GSM modem and Atheros AR6102G 802.11bg Wi-Fi chip.
The third-generation Kindle is 0.5 inches shorter and 0.5 inches narrower than the Kindle 2. It supports additional
fonts and international Unicode characters. An experimental browser based on the popular WebKit rendering engine
is included, as well as text-to-speech menu navigation. Internal memory is expanded to 4 GB, with approximately
3 GB available for user content. Battery life is advertised at up to two months of reading on a single charge with the
wireless turned off.[33]
Pre-orders for the new Kindle began at the same time as the announcement of the device, and Amazon began
shipping the devices on August 27, 2010 in the United States and United Kingdom. With the announcement of the
Kindle Keyboard, Amazon also launched an Amazon.co.uk version of the Kindle store. On August 25, 2010,
Amazon announced that the Kindle 3 was the fastest-selling Kindle ever.[38]
In late January 2011, Amazon announced that digital books were outselling their traditional print counterparts for the
first time ever on its site, with an average of 115 Kindle editions being sold for every 100 paperback editions.[39]
An ad-supported version, the "Kindle with Special Offers" was introduced on May 3, 2011, with a price reduction of
$25 less at $114. On July 13, 2011, Amazon announced that due to a sponsorship agreement with AT&T, the price
of the Kindle 3G with Special Offers would be lowered to $139, $50 less than the Kindle 3G.[40] With the 2011
Kindle announcement, the price of the "Kindle Keyboard with Special Offers" was reduced to $99.
The Kindle Keyboard generally received good reviews after launch. In their Kindle Keyboard Review, Review
Horizon,[41] describes it as offering "the best reading experience in its class" while Engadget[42] says "In the
standalone category, the Kindle is probably the one to beat".
After the introduction of the low priced Kindle version, and Kindle Touch and Kindle Fire readers in September
2011 Amazon began describing the older Kindle version as the 'Kindle Keyboard' instead of the Kindle 3.
Amazon Kindle
Fourth generation: Kindle
Kindle
Amazon announced the fourth generation Kindle on September 28,
2011, offering models with and without ad-support, retailing for $79
and $109 respectively. Retaining the 6 inch e-ink display of the
previous Kindle model as well as Amazon's experimental
web-browsing capability (when within Wi-fi range), the fourth
generation Kindle features a slightly smaller and lighter form factor[43]
as well as five hard keys, a cursor pad, an on-screen rather than
physical keyboard, a flash storage capacity of 2GB, and an estimated
one month battery life.[44][45]
Kindle Touch
Amazon announced a touchscreen version of the Kindle on September
28, 2011; available with Wi-Fi ($99 ad-supported, $139 no ads) or
Wi-Fi/3G connectivity ($149 ad-supported, $189 no ads). Via 3G the
device is able to connect to the Kindle Store, download books and
Fourth-generation Kindle
periodicals, and access Wikipedia. Experimental web browsing
(outside of Wikipedia) on Kindle Touch 3G is only available over
Wi-Fi. [46]. The device uses the same 6-inch E-ink screen of the previous Kindle model, with the addition of an
infrared touch-screen control.[43] Like its predecessor, the Kindle Touch has a capacity of 4 gigabytes and battery life
of two months.[47] The Kindle Touch began to ship on November 15, 2011.[48]
Kindle Fire
Amazon announced an Android-based tablet with a color touch screen on September 28, 2011. It costs $199 and has
a 7-inch IPS display. This is the first Kindle without an E Ink display. Unlike previously released Kindles, it has no
3G option. The Kindle Fire also has an unused light sensor but lacks a microphone, camera, and an SD card reader. It
has 8GB of storage and a projected battery life of up to eight hours. [33]
Kindle applications
Amazon released a "Kindle for PC" application in late 2009, available as a free download for Windows 7, Vista, and
XP.[49] This application allows thousands of books to be read on a personal computer in color, with no Kindle unit
required, as e-books can simply be purchased from Amazon's store.[50] Amazon later released a version for the
Macintosh, in early 2010.[51] In June 2010, Amazon released a "Kindle for Android" version. With the Android
application release, versions for the Apple iPhone, the iPad, Windows and Mac computers, and BlackBerry
cellphones are also available.[52] In January 2011, Amazon released Kindle for Windows Phone 7.[53] In July 2011,
Kindle for HP TouchPad (running under WebOS) was released in the US as beta.[54] At this writing (November
2011) Amazon has expressed no interest in releasing a similar application for Linux. In August 2011, Amazon
released an HTML5 based webapp supporting Chrome and Safari Browser called Kindle Cloud Reader.[55]
58
Amazon Kindle
Kindle sales
Specific Kindle sales numbers are not released by the company; however, Jeff Bezos, founder and CEO of
Amazon.com, stated in a shareholders' meeting in January 2010 that "millions of people now own Kindles."[56]
According to anonymous inside sources, over three million Kindles have been sold as of December 2009,[57] while
external estimates, as of Q4-2009, place the number at about 1.5 million.[58] According to James McQuivey of
Forrester Research, estimates are ranging around four million, as of mid-2010.[59] On March 6, 2011, AT&T stores
officially started sales of the Amazon Kindle. [60]
In 2010, Amazon remained the undisputed leader in the e-reader category, accounting for 59% of e-readers shipped,
and it gained 14 percentage points in share.[61] According to an IDC study from March 2011, sales for all e-book
readers worldwide reached 12.8 million in 2010; 48% of them were Kindle models.[62]
In December 2011, Amazon announced sales figures for the first time: since the end of November customers bought
"well over" one million Kindles per week; this includes all available Kindle models and also the Kindle Fire
tablet.[63]
Document availability
Content from Amazon and some other content providers is primarily encoded in Amazon's proprietary Kindle format
(AZW). It is also possible to load content in various formats from a computer by simply transferring it to the Kindle
via USB (for free) or by emailing it to a registered email address provided by Amazon (for a fee via 3G, or free via
Wi-Fi); the email service can convert a number of document formats to Amazon's AZW format and then transmit the
result to the associated Kindle over Whispernet. In addition to published content such as books and periodicals,
Kindle users can also access the Internet, free of charge, via either Wi-Fi or 3G.[64]
The Kindle's terms of use forbid transferring Amazon e-books to another user or
a different type of device.[65] However, Amazon announced on December 30,
2010 that lending books on Kindles was allowed.[66] Users can select reading
material using the Kindle itself or through a computer at the Amazon Kindle
store and can download content through the Kindle Store, which upon the initial
launch of the Kindle had more than 88,000 digital titles available for download.
This number continued steadily increasing to more than 275,000 by late 2008,
and exceeded 500,000 in the spring of 2010. As of July 4, 2011, there were more
than 765,000 books available for download,[67] about 36,000 of them in German
language.[68] In late 2007, new releases and New York Times best sellers were
being offered for approximately US$11, with first chapters of many books
offered as free samples. Many titles, including some classics, are offered free of
The New Yorker subscribed on a
charge or at a low price, which has been stated to relate to the cost of adapting
"Kindle Keyboard"
the book to the Kindle format. Magazines, newspapers and blogs via RSS are
provided by Amazon per a monthly subscription fee or a free trial period. Newspaper subscriptions cost from
US$1.99 to $27.99 per month; magazines charge between $1.25 and $10.99 per month, and blogs charge from $0.99
to $1.99 per month.[69] Amazon e-book sales overtook print for one day for the first time on Christmas Day of
2009.[70]
International users of Kindle pay different prices for books depending on their registered country. For U.S.
customers traveling abroad, Amazon originally charged a $1.99 fee to download books over 3G while overseas. That
charge was quietly dropped in May 2010. Fees remain for wireless delivery of periodical subscriptions and personal
documents.
In addition to the Kindle store, paid content for the Kindle can be purchased from various independent sources such
as Fictionwise, Mobipocket and Baen Ebooks. Public domain titles are also obtainable for the Kindle via content
59
Amazon Kindle
providers such as Project Gutenberg and World Public Library. A survey has revealed that the Kindle store has more
than twice as much paid content as its nearest competitor, Barnes and Noble.[71]
The device is sold with electronic editions of its owner's manual; the U.S. version also includes the New Oxford
American Dictionary and the UK version the Oxford Dictionary of English (not to be confused with the Oxford
English Dictionary). Users are able to purchase different dictionaries from the Kindle store as specified in the
included manual.[72][73] The Kindle also contains several free experimental features including a basic web
browser.[74] Users can also play music from MP3 files in the background in the order they were added to the Kindle.
Operating system updates are designed to be received wirelessly and installed automatically during a period in sleep
mode in which wireless is turned on.[75]
File formats
First generation Kindle
The first generation Kindle can read only unprotected Mobipocket books (MOBI, PRC), plain text files (TXT),
Topaz format books (TPZ), and Amazon's proprietary DRM-restricted format (AZW).
Kindle 2 and Kindle Keyboard
The Kindle 2 (U.S. and International) added native Portable Document Format (PDF) capability with the Version 2.3
firmware upgrade.[21] Earlier versions could not generally read PDF files, but Amazon provided "experimental"
conversion to the native AZW format,[76] with the caveat that not all PDFs may format correctly.[77] Kindle 2 added
the ability to read Audible Enhanced (AAX) format, but dropped the ability to read Audible versions 2 and 3.
On the Kindle 2, it was possible to view HTML files that were stored directly on the unit itself. This allowed creation
of local offline content in linked web-pages that could be used even if the unit had no active connection to the
internet at the time. Such pages could be accessed by directing the browser address to the local filesystem (for
example, file:///mnt/us/test.html) as opposed to a live website address (for example, Wikipedia). The Kindle 3 is not
able to browse local HTML in this manner, only live external websites.
Fourth generation Kindle
The fourth generation Kindle, Kindle Touch and Kindle Touch 3G are able to display Kindle (AZW), TXT, PDF,
unprotected MOBI, and PRC files natively. HTML, DOC, DOCX, JPEG, GIF, PNG, and BMP are usable through
conversion. The Touch and Touch 3G versions are also able to play Audible (Audible Enhanced (AA, AAX)) and
MP3 files.[78]
Email conversion
Amazon offers an email-based service that will convert JPEG, GIF, PNG and BMP graphics to AZW.[79] Amazon
will also convert HTML pages and Microsoft Word (DOC) documents through the same email-based mechanism,
which will send a Kindle-formatted file to the device via 3G for $0.15 per MB or via WiFi for free. However, the
free WiFi conversion is not available to customers outside USA and UK, and this fact is not revealed to the customer
until after the purchase has been made. These services can be accessed by sending emails to
<kindleusername>@kindle.com and to <kindleusername>@free.kindle.com for Whispernet-delivered and
WiFi-delivered file conversion, respectively — and are available to true Kindle devices, Apple iOS devices running
Kindle app version 2.9 or greater and not to other devices running the Kindle application (i.e., android, etc.). [80] The
file that the user wants to be converted needs to be attached to these emails. Users could also convert PDF and other
files to the formats first-generation Kindles could read using third-party software. The original Kindle could read
audio in the form of MP3s and Audible audiobooks (versions 2, 3 and 4), which had to be transferred to the Kindle
via USB or on an SD card.
60
Amazon Kindle
EPUB
The Kindle platform cannot use documents in the international EPUB ebook standard format. However there is
software available (e.g., calibre) which can convert a non-DRM EPUB file into the unprotected Mobipocket format
that the Kindle can read. Additionally, Amazon offers a free program called KindleGen which converts EPUB and
several other formats.[81]
Multiple device abilities and organization
A book may be downloaded from Amazon to several devices at the same time. The devices sharing the book must be
registered to the same Amazon account. A sharing limit typically ranges from one to six devices, depending on an
undisclosed number of licenses set by the book publisher. When a limit is reached, the user must remove the book
from some device[82] or unregister a device containing the book[83] in order to add a book to another device.
The original Kindle and Kindle 2 did not allow the user to organize books into folders. The user could only select
what type of content to display on the home screen and whether to organize by author, title, or download date.
Kindle software version 2.5 (released July 2010) allowed for the organization of books into "Collections" which
roughly corresponds to folders except for the fact that a collection can not include other collections, and that one
book may be added to multiple collections. These collections are normally set and organized on the Kindle itself.
calibre has a plugin that makes it possible to organize these collections on a computer. There remains no option to
organize by series or series order, as the AZW format does not possess the needed metadata fields.
User-created annotations
Users can bookmark, highlight and look up content. Pages can be dog-eared for reference and notes can be added to
relevant content. While a book is open on the display, menu options allow users to search for synonyms and
definitions from the built-in dictionary. The device also remembers the last page read for each book. Pages can be
saved as a "clipping", or a text file containing the text of the currently displayed page. All clippings are appended to
a single file, which can be downloaded over a USB cable.[84] Due to the TXT format of the clippings file all
formattings like bold, italics, bigger fonts for headlines etc. are stripped off the original text. But not only that, the
clippings file does not keep paragraph breaks, which means the clipping is, as long it may be, completely
unstructured.
Textbook rentals
On July 18, 2011, Amazon began a program that allows college students to rent Kindle textbooks from three
different publishers for a fixed period of time.[85]
Kindle Development Kit (KDK)
On January 21, 2010, Amazon announced the forthcoming release of their Kindle Development Kit.[86] Their aim is
to allow developers to build 'active content' for the Kindle, and a beta version was announced with a February 2010
release date. A number of companies have already experimented with delivering active content through the Kindle's
bundled browser, and the KDK promises 'sample code, documentation and the Kindle Simulator' together with a new
revenue sharing model for developers.[87]
The KDK is based on the Java Programming Language, specifically, the JSR 1.1.2 Personal Basis flavor of packaged
Java APIs.
61
Amazon Kindle
Kindle Direct Publishing
Concurrently with the Kindle device, Amazon launched Kindle Direct Publishing, where authors and publishers
independently publish their books directly to Kindle and Kindle Apps worldwide. In open beta testing as of late
2007, the platform has been promoted to established authors by an e-mail[88] and by advertisements at Amazon.com.
Authors can upload documents in several formats for delivery via Whispernet and charge between $0.99 and
$200.00 per download.[88]
In a December 5, 2009 interview with The New York Times, CEO Jeff Bezos revealed that Amazon.com keeps 65%
of the revenue from all ebook sales for the Kindle.[89] The remaining 35% is split between the book author and
publisher. After numerous commentators observed that Apple's popular App Store offers 70% of royalties to the
publisher, Amazon began a program that offers 70% royalties to Kindle publishers who agree to certain
conditions.[90]
Other criticisms involve the business model behind Amazon's implementation and distribution of e-books.[91][92]
Amazon introduced a software application allowing Kindle books to be read on an iPhone or iPod Touch.[93]
Amazon soon followed with an application called "Kindle for PCs" that can be run on a Windows PC. Due to the
book publisher's DRM policies, Amazon claims that there is no right of first sale with e-books. Amazon states they
are licensed, not purchased; so unlike paper books, buyers do not actually own their e-books according to Amazon.
This has however never been tested in the courts and the outcome of any action by Amazon is by no means certain.
The law is in a state of flux in jurisdictions around the world.[94][95]
Remote content removal
On July 17, 2009, Amazon.com withdrew certain Kindle titles, Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four by George
Orwell, from sale, refunded the cost to those who had purchased them, and remotely deleted these titles from
purchasers' devices after discovering that the publisher lacked rights to publish the titles in question.[96] Notes and
annotations for the books made by users on their devices were left in a separate file, but "rendered useless" without
the content they were directly linked to.[97][98] The move prompted outcry and comparisons to Nineteen Eighty-Four
itself. In the novel, books, magazines and newspapers in public archives that contradict the ruling party are either
edited long after being published or destroyed outright; the removed materials go "down the memory hole",
nickname for an incinerator chute.[99] Customers and commentators noted the resemblance to the censorship in the
novel, and described Amazon's action in Orwellian terms. Some critics also argued that the deletion violated the
Kindle's Terms of Service, which states in part:[100]
"Upon your payment of the applicable fees set by Amazon, Amazon grants you the non-exclusive right to keep
a permanent copy of the applicable Digital Content and to view, use and display such Digital Content an
unlimited number of times, solely on the Device or as authorized by Amazon as part of the Service and solely
for your personal, non-commercial use."
Amazon spokesman Drew Herdener stated that the company is "… changing our systems so that in the future we
will not remove books from customers' devices in these circumstances."[101] On July 23, 2009, Amazon CEO Jeff
Bezos posted an apology about the company's handling of the matter on Amazon's official Kindle forum. Bezos said
the action was "stupid", and that the executives at Amazon "deserve the criticism received."[102]
On July 30, 2009, Justin Gawronski, a Michigan high school senior, and Antoine Bruguier, a California engineer,
filed suit against Amazon in the United States District Court for the Western District of Washington. Gawronski
argued that Amazon had violated their terms of service by remotely deleting the copy of Nineteen Eighty-Four he
had purchased, in the process preventing him from accessing annotations he had written. Bruguier also had his copy
deleted without his consent, and found Amazon practiced "deceit" in an email exchange. The complaint, which
requested class-action status, asked for both monetary and injunctive relief.[98][103] The case was settled on
September 25, 2009, with Amazon agreeing to pay $150,000 divided between the two plaintiffs, on the
62
Amazon Kindle
understanding that the law firm representing them, Kamber Edelson LLC, "...will donate its portion of that fee to a
charitable organization...".[104] The settlement also saw Amazon guaranteeing wider rights to Kindle owners over
their eBooks:
For copies of Works purchased pursuant to TOS granting "the non-exclusive right to keep a permanent
copy" of each purchased Work and to "view, use and display [such Works] an unlimited number of
times, solely on the [Devices]. . . and solely for [the purchasers'] personal, non-commercial use",
Amazon will not remotely delete or modify such Works from Devices purchased and being used in the
United States unless (a) the user consents to such deletion or modification; (b) the user requests a refund
for the Work or otherwise fails to pay for the Work (e.g., if a credit or debit card issuer declines to remit
payment); (c) a judicial or regulatory order requires such deletion or modification; or (d) deletion or
modification is reasonably necessary to protect the consumer or the operation of a Device or network
through which the Device communicates (e.g., to remove harmful code embedded within a copy of a
Work downloaded to a Device).[105]
On September 4, 2009, Amazon offered affected users a restoration of the deleted ebooks, an Amazon gift
certificate, or a check for the amount of $30.[106]
In December 2010, three eBooks by author Selena Kitt were removed due to violations of Amazon's publishing
guidelines. For what Amazon describes as "a brief period of time," the books were unavailable for redownload by
users who had already purchased them. This ability was restored after it was brought to Amazon's attention;
however, no remote deletion took place.[107]
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[87] Johnson, Alex (26 January 2010). "Amazon to launch app store for Kindle e-reader" (http:/ / uk. ibtimes. com/ articles/ 20100126/
amazon-launch-app-store-kindle-ereader. htm). International Business Times. . Retrieved 28 December 2010.
[88] Munarriz, Rick Aristotle (November 27, 2007). "Why Kindle Will Change the World" (http:/ / www. fool. com/ investing/ general/ 2007/
11/ 27/ why-kindle-will-change-the-world. aspx). Motley Fool. . Retrieved 2007-11-27.
[89] Solomon, Deborah (December 6, 2009). "Questions for Jeffrey P. Bezos: Book Learning" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 12/ 06/
magazine/ 06fob-q4-t. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved December 22, 2009.
[90] Henry Blodget (2010-01-20). "Amazon Fires Missile At Book Industry, Launches 70% Kindle Royalty Option" (http:/ / www.
businessinsider. com/ henry-blodget-amazon-fires-torpedo-at-book-industry-launches-70-kindle-royalty-option-2010-1). Businessinsider.com.
. Retrieved 2011-08-18.
[91] Perlow, Jason. "Kindle Economics" (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ perlow/ ?p=9441). ZDNet.com. pp. "Tech Broiler" blog. . Retrieved
2009-03-06.
[92] Frommer, Dan. "Bad News for the Kindle: iPhone 3G + Apps (AAPL, AMZN)" (http:/ / www. businessinsider. com/ 2008/ 7/
bad-news-for-the-kindle-iphone-3g-apps-aapl-amzn-). BusinessInsider.com. pp. "Silicon Alley Insider" section. . Retrieved 2009-03-06.
[93] "Kindlenomics Zero: When e-Texts Have No Entry Cost" (http:/ / blogs. zdnet. com/ perlow/ ?p=9570). ZDNet.com. pp. "Tech Broiler"
blog. . Retrieved 2009-03-06.
[94] "Gizmodo – Amazon Kindle and Sony Reader Locked Up: Why Your Books Are No Longer Yours – Amazon:" (http:/ / gizmodo. com/
369235/ amazon-kindle-and-sony-reader-locked-up-why-your-books-are-no-longer-yours). Gizmodo. Gawker Media. March 21, 2008. .
Retrieved 4 July 2009.
[95] "Kindle owners find out about DRM's ever-present threat – Ars Technica:" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ gadgets/ news/ 2009/ 04/
amazon-kindle-incidents-highlight-drm-limitations-once-again. ars). Gear & Gadgets. Ars Technica. April 16, 2009. . Retrieved 4 July 2009.
[96] Pogue, David (2009-07-17). "Some E-Books Are More Equal Than Others" (http:/ / pogue. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 07/ 17/
some-e-books-are-more-equal-than-others/ ). Pogue.blogs.nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-18.
[97] Stone, Brad (July 18, 2009). "Amazon Erases Orwell Books From Kindle" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 07/ 18/ technology/
companies/ 18amazon. html). The New York Times: p. B1. .
[98] "Plaintiff's Complaint in JUSTIN GAWRONSKI and A. BRUGUIER v. AMAZON.COM, INC" (http:/ / www. prnewschannel. com/ pdf/
Amazon_Complaint. pdf). PR News Channel. July 30, 2009. .
[99] George Orwell, 1984, Part One, Chapter 4
[100] "Why Amazon went Big Brother on some Kindle e-books" (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ tech-policy/ news/ 2009/ 07/
amazon-sold-pirated-books-raided-some-kindles. ars). Ars Technica. 2009-07-17. . Retrieved 2009-07-19.
[101] Fried, Ina (2009-07-17). "Amazon says it won't repeat Kindle book recall – CNet News" (http:/ / news. cnet. com/
8301-13860_3-10290047-56. html?tag=newsEditorsPicksArea. 0). News.cnet.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-18.
[102] "Amazon Chief Says Erasing Orwell Books Was 'Stupid'" (http:/ / bits. blogs. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 07/ 23/
amazon-chief-says-erasing-orwell-books-was-stupid/ ), The New York Times, July 23, 2009
[103] Fowler, Geoffrey A. (2009-07-30). "Lawsuit: Amazon Ate My Homework" (http:/ / blogs. wsj. com/ digits/ 2009/ 07/ 30/
lawsuit-amazon-ate-my-homework/ ). The Wall Street Journal. .
[104] "Amazon settles lawsuit over deleted Kindle copy of '1984'" (http:/ / www. techflash. com/ seattle/ 2009/ 09/
amazon_settles_lawsuit_over_deleted_1984. html). Techflash.com. 2009-09-30. . Retrieved 2011-03-19.
[105] KindleCase1 (http:/ / assets. bizjournals. com/ cms_media/ pdf/ KindleCase1. pdf?site=techflash. com) - The Business Journals - American
City Business Journals, Inc.
[106] Amazon.com Offers to Replace Copies of Orwell Book (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 09/ 05/ technology/ companies/ 05amazon.
html) The New York Times September 4, 2009
66
Amazon Kindle
[107] Amazon's latest Kindle deletion (http:/ / arstechnica. com/ media/ news/ 2010/ 12/
amazons-latest-kindle-deletion-erotic-incest-themed-fiction. ars) Ars Technica December 15, 2010
External links
• Kindle Store (http://www.amazon.com/b?node=133141011), official
• Source code to GPL portions of Kindle (https://www.amazon.com/gp/help/customer/display.
html?ie=UTF8&nodeId=200203720)
• The Revolution Will Be Digitalized, City Journal, June 13, 2008 (http://www.city-journal.org/2008/
eon0613gs.html)
• Video: Charlie Rose Interview with CEO Jeff Bezos about the Kindle November 19, 2007 (http://www.
charlierose.com/shows/2007/11/19/1/a-conversation-with-amazon-com-ceo-jeff-bezos)
Textbook
A textbook or coursebook is a manual of instruction in any branch of
study. Textbooks are produced according to the demands of
educational institutions. Although most textbooks are only published in
printed format, many are now available as online electronic books and
increasingly, although illegally, in scanned format in P2P networks.
History
Textbook
The ancient Greeks wrote texts intended for education. The modern
textbook has its roots in the standardization made possible by the
printing press. Johannes Gutenberg himself may have printed editions of Ars Minor, a schoolbook on Latin grammar
by Aelius Donatus. Early textbooks were used by tutors and teachers, who used the books as instructional aids (e.g.,
alphabet books), as well as individuals who taught themselves.
The Greek philosopher Socrates (469-399 B.C.) lamented the loss of knowledge because the media of transmission
were changing. Before the invention of the Greek alphabet 2,500 years ago, knowledge and stories were recited
aloud, much like Homer's epic poems.
The new technology of writing meant stories no longer needed to be memorized, a development Socrates feared
would weaken the Greeks' mental capacities for memorizing and retelling. (Paradoxically, we know about Socrates'
concerns only because they were written down by his student Plato in his famous Dialogues.) [1]
The next revolution for books came with the 15th-century invention of printing with changeable type. The invention
is attributed to German metalsmith Johannes Gutenberg, who cast type in molds using a melted metal alloy and
constructed a wooden-screw printing press to transfer the image onto paper.
Gutenberg's first and only large-scale printing effort was the now iconic Gutenberg Bible in the 1450s — a Latin
translation from the Hebrew Old Testament and the Greek New Testament, copies of which can be viewed on the
British Library website www.bl.uk [2]. Gutenberg's invention made mass production of texts possible for the first
time. Although the Gutenberg Bible itself was stratospherically expensive, printed books began to spread widely
over European trade routes during the next 50 years, and by the 16th century printed books had become more widely
accessible and less costly.[3]
Compulsory education and the subsequent growth of schooling in Europe led to the printing of many standardized
texts for children. Textbooks have become the primary teaching instrument for most children since the 19th century.
Two textbooks of historical significance in United States schooling were the 18th century New England Primer and
67
Textbook
the 19th century McGuffey Readers.
Technological advances change the way people interact with textbooks. Online and digital materials are making it
increasingly easy for students to access materials other than the traditional print textbook. Students now have access
to electronic and PDF books, online tutoring systems and video lectures. An example of e-book publishing is
Principles of Biology from Nature Publishing.
Most notably, an increasing number of authors are foregoing commercial publishers and offering their textbooks
under a creative commons or other open license. The New York Times recently endorsed the use of free, open,
digital textbooks in the editorial "That book costs how much?" [4]
Market
The "broken market"
The textbook market does not operate in exactly the same manner as most consumer markets. First, the end
consumers (students) do not select the product, and the product is not purchased by faculty or professors. Therefore,
price is removed from the purchasing decision, giving the producer (publishers) disproportionate market power to set
prices high. Similarities are found in the pharmaceutical industry, which sells its wares to doctors, rather than the
ultimate end-user (i.e. patient).
This fundamental difference in the market is often cited as the primary reason that prices are out of control. The term
"Broken Market" first appeared in Economist James Koch's analysis of the market commissioned by the Advisory
Committee on Student Financial Assistance.[5]
This situation is exacerbated by the lack of competition in the textbook market. Consolidation in the past few
decades has reduced the number of major textbook companies from around 30 to just a handful.[6] Consequently,
there is less competition than there used to be, and the high cost of starting up keeps new companies from entering.
New editions & the used book market
Students seek relief from rising prices through the purchase of used copies of textbooks, which tend to be less
expensive. Most college bookstores offer used copies of textbooks at lower prices. Most bookstores will also buy
used copies back from students at the end of a term if the book is going to be re-used at the school. Books that are
not being re-used at the school are often purchased by an off-campus wholesaler for 0-30% of the new cost, for
distribution to other bookstores where the books will be sold. Textbook companies have countered this by
encouraging faculty to assign homework that must be done on the publisher's website. If a student has a new
textbook then he or she can use the pass code in the book to register on the site. If the student has purchased a used
textbook then he or she must pay money directly to the publisher in order to access the website and complete
assigned homework.
Students who look beyond the campus bookstore can typically find lower prices. With the ISBN or title, author and
edition, most textbooks can be located through online used book sellers or retailers.
Most leading textbook companies publish a new edition every 3 or 4 years, more frequently in math & science.
Harvard economics chair James K. Stock has stated that new editions are often not about significant improvements
to the content. "New editions are to a considerable extent simply another tool used by publishers and textbook
authors to maintain their revenue stream, that is, to keep up prices," [7] A study conducted by The Student PIRGs
found that a new edition costs 12% more than a new copy of previous edition, and 58% more than a used copy of the
previous edition. Textbook publishers maintain these new editions are driven by faculty demand. The Student PIRGs'
study found that 76% of faculty said new editions were justified “half of the time or less” and 40% said they were
justified “rarely” or “never.”[8] The PIRG study has been criticized by publishers, who argue that the report contains
factual inaccuracies regarding the annual average cost of textbooks per student.[9]
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Textbook
69
The Student PIRGs also point out that recent emphasis on electronic textbooks, or "eTextbooks," does not always
save students money. Even though the book costs less up-front, the student will not recover any of the cost through
resale.[10]
Bundling
Another publishing industry practice that has been highly criticized is "bundling," or shrink-wrapping supplemental
items into a textbook. Supplemental items range from CD-ROMs and workbooks to online passcodes and bonus
material. Students do not always have the option to purchase these items separately, and often the one-time-use
supplements destroy the resale value of the textbook.[11]
According to the Student PIRGs, the typical bundled textbook is 10%-50% more than an unbundled textbook, and
65% of professors said they “rarely” or “never” use the bundled items in their courses.[8]
A 2005 Government Accountability Office (GAO) Report found that the production of these supplemental items was
the primary cause of rapidly increasing prices:
While publishers, retailers, and wholesalers all play a role in textbook pricing, the primary factor
contributing to increases in the price of textbooks has been the increased investment publishers have
made in new products to enhance instruction and learning...While wholesalers, retailers, and others do
not question the quality of these materials, they have expressed concern that the publishers’ practice of
packaging supplements with a textbook to sell as one unit limits the opportunity students have to
purchase less expensive used books....If publishers continue to increase these investments, particularly
in technology, the cost to produce a textbook is likely to continue to increase in the future.[12]
Bundling has also been used as a means of segmenting the used book market. Each combination of a textbook and
supplemental items receives a separate ISBN. A single textbook could therefore have dozens of ISBNs that denote
different combinations of supplements packaged with that particular book. When a bookstore attempts to track down
used copies of textbooks, they will search for the ISBN the course instructor orders, which will locate only a subset
of the copies of the textbook.
Legislation on the state and federal level seeks to limit the practice of bundling, by requiring publishers to offer all
components separately.[13] Publishers have testified in favor of bills including this provision,[14] but only in the case
that the provision exempts the loosely defined category of "integrated textbooks." The Federal bill[15] only exempts
3rd party materials in integrated textbooks, however publisher lobbyists have attempted to create a loophole through
this definition in state bills.[16][17]
Price disclosure
Given that the problem of high textbook prices is linked to the "broken" economics of the market, requiring
publishers to disclose textbook prices to faculty is a solution pursued by a number of legislatures.[18] By inserting
price into sales interactions, this regulation will supposedly make the economic forces operate more normally.
No data suggests that this is in fact true. However, The Student PIRGs have found that publishers actively withhold
pricing information from faculty, making it difficult to obtain. Their most recent study found that 77% of faculty say
publisher sales representatives do not volunteer prices, and only 40% got an answer when they directly asked.
Furthermore, the study found that 23% of faculty rated publisher websites as “informative and easy to use” and less
than half said they typically listed the price.[19]
The US Congress passed a law in the 2008 Higher Education Opportunity Act that would require price
disclosure.[13][20][21] Legislation requiring price disclosure has passed in Connecticut,[22] Washington,[23][24]
Minnesota,[25] Oregon,[23] Arizona,[26] Oklahoma,[27] and Colorado.[17] Publishers are currently supporting price
disclosure mandates, though they insist that the "suggested retail price"[28] should be disclosed, rather than the actual
price the publisher would get for the book.
Textbook
Used textbook market
Once a textbook is purchased from a retailer for the first time, there are several ways a student can sell his/her
textbooks back at the end of the semester. Students can sell to 1) the college/university bookstore; 2) fellow students;
or 3) a number of online Web sites or student swap service.
Campus buyback
As for buyback on a specific campus, faculty decisions largely determine how much a student receives. If a professor
chooses to use the same book the following semester, even if it is a custom text, designed specifically for an
individual instructor, bookstores often buy the book back. The GAO report found that, generally, if a book is in good
condition and will be used on the campus again the next term, bookstores will pay students 50 percent of the original
price paid. If the bookstore has not received a faculty order for the book at the end of the term and the edition is still
current, they may offer students the wholesale price of the book, which could range from 5 to 35 percent of the new
retail price, according to the GAO report.[12]
When students resell their textbooks during campus “buyback” periods, these textbooks are often sold into the
national used textbook distribution chain. If a textbook is not going to be used on campus for the next semester of
courses then many times the college bookstore will sell that book to a national used book company. The used book
company then resells the book to another college bookstore. Finally, that book is sold as used to a student at another
college at a price that is typically 75% of the new book price. At each step, a markup is applied to the book to enable
the respective companies to continue to operate.
Student to student sales
Students can also sell or trade textbooks among themselves. After completing a course, sellers will often seek out
members of the next enrolling class, people who are likely to be interested in purchasing the required books. This
may be done by posting flyers to advertise the sale of the books or simply soliciting individuals who are shopping in
the college bookstore for the same titles. Many larger schools have independent websites set up for the purpose of
facilitating such trade. These often operate much like digital classified ads, enabling students to list their items for
sale and browse for those they wish to acquire.
Student online marketplaces
Online marketplaces are one of the two major types of online websites students can use to sell used textbooks.
Online marketplaces may have an online auction format or may allow the student to list their books for a fixed price.
In either case, the student must create the listing for each book themselves and wait for a buyer to order, making the
use of marketplaces a more passive way of selling used textbooks. Unlike campus buyback and online book buyers,
students are unlikely to sell all their books to one buyer using online marketplaces, and will likely have to send out
multiple books individually.
Online book buyers
Online book buyers buy textbooks, and sometimes other types of books, with the aim of reselling them for a profit.
Like online marketplaces, online book buyers operate year-round, giving students the opportunity to sell their books
even when campus "buyback" periods are not in effect. Students enter the ISBN numbers of the books they wish to
sell and receive a price quote or offer. These online book buyers often offer "free shipping" (which in actuality is
built into the offer for the book), and allow students to sell multiple books to the same source. Because online book
buyers are buying books for resale, the prices they offer may be lower than students can get on online marketplaces.
However, their prices are competitive, and they tend to focus on the convenience of their service. Some even claim
that buying used textbooks online and selling them to online book buyers has a lower total cost than even textbook
rental services.
70
Textbook
Textbook exchanges
In response to escalating textbook prices, limited competition, and to provide a more efficient system to connect
buyers and sellers together, online textbook exchanges were developed. Most of today's sites handle buyer and seller
payments, and usually deduct a small commission only after the sale is completed.
According to textbook author Henry L. Roediger (and Wadsworth Publishing Company senior editor Vicki Knight),
the used textbook market is illegitimate, and entirely to blame for the rising costs of textbooks. As methods of
"dealing with this problem", he recommends making previous editions of textbooks obsolete, binding the textbook
with other materials, and passing laws to prevent the sale of used books.[29] The concept is not unlike the limited
licensing approach for computer software, which places rigid restrictions on resale and reproduction. The intent is to
make users understand that the content of any textbook is the intellectual property of the author and/or the publisher,
and that as such, subject to copyright. Obviously, this idea is completely opposed to the millennia-old tradition of the
sale of used books, and would make that entire industry illegal.
Rental programs
According to Nicole Allen of The Student PIRGs, renting is “the best short-term” way to lower textbook costs.[30]
PIRG data found that students using existing textbook rental services pay $130 to $240 per year plus some course
materials, while students attending public four-year colleges currently pay an average of $800 to $900 to purchase
their textbooks each year.[31]
"According to a NACS OnCampus Research survey, more than 2,400 of the Association’s more than 3,000 member
stores were offering textbook rental programs of some kind as of January 2010. This is up from only 300 or so in the
fall of 2009, and the total is expected to grow until almost all of NACS’ 3,000 member stores will be offering
textbook rentals by fall of 2011. This recent growth has been sparked by student demand, campus stores wishing to
provide more options to students, and governmental encouragement through federal grants." [32]
In-store rentals are processed by either using a kiosk and ordering books online with a third party facilitator or
renting directly from the store's inventory. Some stores use a hybrid of both methods, opting for in-store selections of
the most popular books and the online option for more obscure titles or books they consider too risky to put in the
rental system.
Open textbooks
The latest trend in textbooks is "open textbooks." An open textbook is a free, openly licensed textbook offered online
by its author(s). According to PIRG, a number of textbooks already exist, and are being used at schools such as the
MIT and Harvard.[33] A 2010 study published found that open textbooks offer a viable and attractive means to meet
faculty and student needs while offering savings of approximately 80% compared to traditional textbook options.[34]
Although the largest question seems to be who is going to pay to write them, several state policies suggest that public
investment in open textbooks might make sense.[35] To offer another perspective, any jurisdiction might find itself
challenged to find sufficient numbers of credible academics who would be willing to undertake the effort of creating
an open textbook without realistic compensation, in order to make such a proposal work.
The other challenge involves the reality of publishing, which is that textbooks with good sales and profitability
subsidize the creation and publication of low demand but believed to be necessary textbooks. Subsidies skew
markets and the elimination of subsidies is disruptive; in the case of low demand textbooks the possibilities
following subsidy removal include any or all of the following: higher retail prices, a switch to open textbooks, a
reduction of the number of titles published.
On the other hand, independent open textbook authoring and publishing models are developing. Most notably, the
startup publisher Flat World Knowledge already has dozens of college-level open textbooks that are used by more
than 900 institutions in 44 countries.[36][37][38] Their innovative business model[39] is to offer the open textbook free
71
Textbook
online,[40][41] and then sell ancillary products that students are likely to buy if prices are reasonable - print copies,
study guides, ePub, .Mobi (Kindle), PDF download, etc. Flat World Knowledge compensates its authors with
royalties on these sales.[42] Generated revenue is also used to fund high-quality publishing activities, making the Flat
World financial model sustainable. Flat World Knowledge intends to have open textbooks available for the 125
highest-enrolled courses on college campuses within the next few years.[43]
CK-12 FlexBooks are the open textbooks designed for United States K-12 courses.[44] CK-12 FlexBooks are
designed to facilitate conformance to national and United States and individual state textbook standards. CK-12
FlexBooks are licensed under a Creative Commons BY-NC-SA license, are easy to update, and easy to customize.
CK-12 FlexBooks are free to use online and offer formats suitable for use on portable personal reading devices and
computers - both online and offline. Formats for both iPad and Kindle are offered. School districts may select a title
as is or customize the open textbook to meet local instructional standards. The file may be then accessed
electronically or printed using any print on demand service without paying a royalty, saving 80% or more when
compared to traditional textbook options. An example print on demand open textbook title, "College Algebra" by
Stitz & Zeager through Lulu is 608 pages, royalty free, and costs about $20 ordered one at a time (March, 2011).[45]
(Any print on demand service could be used - this is just an example. School districts could easily negotiate even
lower prices for bulk purchases to be printed in their own communities.) Teacher's editions are available for
educators and parents. Titles have been authored by various individuals and organizations and are vetted for quality
prior to inclusion in the CK-12 catalog. An effort is underway to map state educational standards correlations.[46]
Stanford University provided a number of titles in use.[47] CK-12 Foundation is a non-profit organization with a
mission to reduce the cost of textbook materials for the K-12 market both in the U.S. and worldwide using a
standards driven, open-licensed, web-based, collaborative content aggregation model.[48]
Curriki is another modular K-12 content non-profit "empowering educators to deliver and share curricula." Selected
Curriki materials are also correlated to U.S. state educational standards.[49] Some Curriki content has been collected
into open textbooks and some may be used for modular lessons or special topics.
Wikibooks
Wikibooks is a Wikimedia project that aims to provide and promote the editing of open-content textbooks.
Wikibooks is for textbooks, annotated texts, instructional guides, and manuals. These materials can be used in a
traditional classroom, an accredited or respected institution, a home-school environment, as part of a Wikiversity
course or for self-learning. As a general rule only instructional books are suitable for inclusion. Most types of books,
both fiction and non-fiction, are not allowed on Wikibooks, unless they are instructional. The use of literary
elements, such as allegory or fables as instructional tools can be permitted in some situations.
Although the project does not permit verbatim copies of pre-existing works (those would be covered by
WikiSource), it does permit annotated texts, which are a kind of text that includes an original text within it and
serves as a guide to reading or studying that text. Annotated editions of previously published source texts may only
be written if the source text is compatible with the project's license.
MIT OpenCourseWare
Provides several open textbooks.
International market pricing
Similar to the issue of reimportation of pharmaceuticals into the U.S. market, the GAO report[12] also highlights a
similar phenomenon in textbook distribution. Retailers and publishers have expressed concern about the
reimportation of lower-priced textbooks from international locations. Specifically, they cited the ability students
have to purchase books from online distribution channels outside the United States at lower prices, which may result
in a loss of sales for U.S. retailers. Additionally, the availability of lower-priced textbooks through these channels
72
Textbook
73
has heightened distrust and frustration among students regarding textbook prices, and college stores find it difficult
to explain why their textbook prices are higher, according to the National Association of College Stores. Retailers
and publishers have also been concerned that some U.S. retailers may have engaged in reimportation on a large scale
by ordering textbooks for entire courses at lower prices from international distribution channels. While the 1998
Supreme Court decision Quality King v. L'anza protects the reimportation of copyrighted materials under the
first-sale doctrine, textbook publishers have still attempted to prevent the U.S. sale of international editions by
enforcing contracts which forbid foreign wholesalers from selling to American distributors.[50] Concerned about the
effects of differential pricing on college stores, the National Association of College Stores has called on publishers to
stop the practice of selling textbooks at lower prices outside the United States.[51] For example, some U.S.
booksellers arrange for drop-shipments in foreign countries which are then re-shipped to America where the books
can be sold online at used prices (for a "new" unopened book). The authors often getting half-royalties instead of
full-royalties, minus the charges for returned books from bookstores.
Production
Cost distribution
According to the National Association of College Stores, the entire cost of the book is justified by expenses, with
typically 11.7% of the price of a new book going to the author's royalties (or a committee of editors at the publishing
house), 22.7% going to the store, and 64.6% going to the publisher. The store and publisher amounts are slightly
higher for Canada. Bookstores and used-book vendors profit from the resale of textbooks on the used market, with
publishers only earning profits on sales of new textbooks.
Research
According to the GAO study published July 2005:
Following closely behind annual increases in tuition and fees at postsecondary institutions, college textbook
and supply prices have risen at twice the rate of annual inflation over the last two decades.
Rising at an average of 6 percent each year since academic year 1987-1988, compared with overall average
price increases of 3 percent per year, college textbook and supply prices trailed tuition and fee increases,
which averaged 7 percent per year. Since December 1986, textbook and supply prices have nearly tripled,
increasing by 186 percent, while tuition and fees increased by 240 percent and overall prices grew by 72
percent. While increases in textbook and supply prices have followed increases in tuition and fees, the cost of
textbooks and supplies for degree-seeking students as a percentage of tuition and fees varies by the type of
institution attended. For example, the average estimated cost of books and supplies per first-time, full-time
student for academic year 2003-2004 was $898 at 4-year public institutions, or about 26 percent of the cost of
tuition and fees. At 2-year public institutions, where low-income students are more likely to pursue a degree
program and tuition and fees are lower, the average estimated cost of books and supplies per first-time,
full-time student was $886 in academic year 2003-2004, representing almost three-quarters of the cost of
tuition and fees.[12]
According to the 2nd edition of a study by the United States Public Interest Research Group (US PIRG) published in
February 2005: "Textbook prices are increasing at more than four times the inflation rate for all finished goods,
according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics Producer Price Index. The wholesale prices charged by textbook
publishers have jumped 62 percent since 1994, while prices charged for all finished goods increased only 14
percent. Similarly, the prices charged by publishers for general books increased just 19 percent during the same
time period."
According to the 2007 edition of the College Board’s Trend in College Pricing Report published October 2007:
"College costs continue to rise and federal student aid has shown slower growth when adjusted for inflation, while
textbooks, as a percentage of total college costs, have remained steady at about 5 percent."
Textbook
K-12 textbooks
In most U.S. K-12 public schools, a local school board votes on which textbooks to purchase from a selection of
books that have been approved by the state Department of Education. Teachers receive the books to give to the
students for each subject. Teachers are usually not required to use textbooks, however, and many prefer to use other
materials instead. Textbook publishing in the U.S. is a business primarily aimed at large states. This is due to state
purchasing controls over the books. The Texas State Board of Education spends in excess of $600 million annually
on its central purchasing of textbooks.
High school
In recent years, high school textbooks of United States history have come under increasing criticism. Authors such as
Howard Zinn (A People's History of the United States), Gilbert T. Sewall (Textbooks: Where the Curriculum Meets
the Child) and James W. Loewen (Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your American History Textbook Got
Wrong), make the claim that U.S. history textbooks contain mythical untruths and omissions, which paint a
whitewashed picture that bears little resemblance to what most students learn in universities. Inaccurately retelling
history, through textbooks or other literature, has been practiced in many societies, from ancient Rome to the Soviet
Union (USSR) and the People's Republic of China. The content of history textbooks is often determined by the
political forces of state adoption boards and ideological pressure groups.
Science textbooks have been the source of ongoing debates and have come under scrutiny from several
organizations. The presentation or inclusion of controversial scientific material has been debated in several court
cases. Poorly designed textbooks have been cited as contributing to declining grades in mathematics and science in
the United States and organizations such as the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS) have criticized the
layout, presentation, and amount of material given in textbooks.
Discussions of textbooks have been included on creation and evolution in the public education debate. The Smith v.
Board of School Commissioners of Mobile County case brought forward a debate about scientific fact being
presented in textbooks.
In his book, Surely You're Joking, Mr. Feynman!, the late physics Nobel Prize laureate Richard P. Feynman
described his experiences as a member of a committee that evaluated science textbooks.[52] At some instances, there
were nonsensical examples to illustrate physical phenomena; then a company sent — for reasons of timing — a
textbook that contained blank pages, which even got good critiques. Feynman himself experienced attempts at
bribery.
Mathematics
Largely in the US, but increasingly in other nations, K-12 Mathematics textbooks have reflected the controversies of
new math and reform mathematics which have sought to replace traditional mathematics in what have been called
the math wars. Traditional texts, still favored in Asia and other areas, merely taught the same time-tested
mathematics that most adults have learned. By contrast "progressive" approaches seek to address problems in social
inequity with approaches that often incorporate principles of constructivism and discovery. Texts such as TERC and
CMP discourage or omit standard mathematics methods and concepts such as long division and lowest common
denominators. For example an index entry to multiply fractions would lead to "devise your own method to multiply
fractions which work on these examples", and the formula for the area of a circle would be an exercise for a student
to derive rather than including it in the student text. By the 2000s, while some districts were still adopting the more
novel methods, others had abandoned them as unworkable.
74
Textbook
Higher education
In the U.S., college and university textbooks are chosen by the professor teaching the course, or by the department as
a whole. Students are typically responsible for obtaining their own copies of the books used in their courses,
although alternatives to owning textbooks, such as textbook rental services and library reserve copies of texts, are
available in some instances.
In some European countries, such as Sweden or Spain, students attending institutions of higher education pay for
textbooks themselves, although higher education is free of charge otherwise.
With higher education costs on the rise, many students are becoming sensitive to every aspect of college pricing,
including textbooks, and in many cases amount to one tenth of tuition costs. The 2005 Government Accountability
Office report on college textbooks said that since the 1980s, textbook and supply prices have risen twice the rate of
inflation in the past two decades. A 2005 PIRG study found that textbooks cost students $900 per year, and that
prices increased four times the rate of inflation over the past decade.[53] A June 2007 Advisory Committee on
Student Financial Assistance (ACSFA) report, “Turn the Page,” reported that the average U.S. student spends
$700–$1000 per year on textbooks.[54]
While many groups have assigned blame to publishers, bookstores or faculty, the ACSFA also found that assigning
blame to any one party—faculty, colleges, bookstores or publishers—for current textbook costs is unproductive and
without merit. The report called on all parties within the industry to work together to find productive solutions,
which included a movement toward open textbooks and other lower-cost digital solutions.
Textbook prices are considerably higher in Law School. Students ordinarily pay close to $200 for case books
consisting of cases available free online.
Textbook bias on controversial topics
In cases of history, science, current events, and political textbooks, the writer might be biased towards one way or
another. Topics such as actions of a country, presidential actions, and scientific theories are common potential
biases.
References
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
Marcia Clemmitt, "Learning Online Literacy," in "Reading Crisis?" CQ Researcher, Feb. 22, 2008, pp. 169-192.
http:/ / www. bl. uk/
British Library, “Treasures in Full: Gutenberg Bible,” www.bl.uk/treasures/gutenberg/background.html.
http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2008/ 04/ 25/ opinion/ 25fri4. html
Koch, James P. "An Economic Analysis of Textbook Prices and the Textbook Market" (http:/ / www. ed. gov/ about/ bdscomm/ list/ acsfa/
kochreport. pdf) (PDF), 2006-09. Retrieved on 2008-07-31.
[6] Rose, Marla Matzer. City at the head of the class: Consolidation, talent pool have made Columbus a hotbed for educational publishers. (http:/
/ web. archive. org/ web/ 20110523050151/ http:/ / www. dispatch. com/ live/ contentbe/ dispatch/ 2007/ 08/ 05/ 20070805-D1-01. html)
August 5, 2007. Retrieved 2/14/09. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. dispatch. com/ live/ contentbe/ dispatch/ 2007/ 08/ 05/
20070805-D1-01. html) on 23 May 2011.
[7] D'Gama, Alissa and Benjamin Jaffe. " Professors Find Differents Uses for Textbook Profits (http:/ / www. thecrimson. com/ article.
aspx?ref=522288)." The Harvard Crimson, 4 March 2008. Retrieved on 7 October 2011.
[8] Rip-off 101: How the Current Practices of the Textbook Industry Drive Up the Cost of College Textbooks (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/
textbooks/ reports/ ripoff-101) The Student PIRGs (2004)
[9] Capriccioso, Rob. Throwing Down the Book (http:/ / www. insidehighered. com/ news/ 2006/ 08/ 29/ textbooks). Inside Higher Ed, August
29, 2006. Retrieved 2/14/09.
[10] Allen, Nicole. Course Correction: How Digital Textbooks Are Off Track and How to Set Them Straight (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/
textbooks/ reports/ course-correction). The Student PIRGs (2008)
[11] Required Reading: A Look at the Words Publishing Tactics at Work (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ textbooks/ reports/ required-reading),
The Student PIRGs (2006)
[12] " College Textbooks: Enhanced Offerings Appear to Drive Recent Price Increases (http:/ / www. gao. gov/ docsearch/ abstract.
php?rptno=GAO-05-806)." U.S. Government Accountability Office, Washington, DC, 2005. Abstract. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
75
Textbook
[13] Analysis of Textbook Affordability Provisions in H.R. 4137 (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ textbooks/ campaign/ hr4137), The Student
PIRGs
[14] http:/ / www. leg. state. co. us/ CLICS/ CLICS2008A/ commsumm. nsf/ 58e6d054c29cbe1287256e5f00670a70/
78f66284de2d10b28725740400734883?OpenDocument
[15] " Higher Education Opportunity Act (http:/ / thomas. loc. gov/ cgi-bin/ bdquery/ z?d110:h. r. 04137:)." H.R.4137, U.S. House of
Representatives, 110th Congress (2007-2008.) Public Law No. 110-315. Retrieved 7 October 2011.
[16] HB 2048 (http:/ / www. house. mo. gov/ billtracking/ bills081/ bills/ hb2048. htm). Missouri House of Representatives, 28 August 2008.
Retrieved 7 October 2011.
[17] Summarized History for Bill Number SB08-073 (http:/ / www. leg. state. co. us/ clics/ clics2008a/ csl. nsf/ billsummary/
6A69934AE701F1788725738C0065864E). Colorado General Assembly, 2008. Last updated 04 August 2008. Retrieved 07 October 2011.
[18] http:/ / www. insidehighered. com/ news/ 2007/ 04/ 13/ textbooks
[19] Zomer, Saffron. Exposing the Textbook Industry (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ textbooks/ reports/ exposing-the-textbook-industry), The
Student PIRGs (2007)
[20] (http:/ / thomas. loc. gov/ cgi-bin/ bdquery/ z?d110:h. r. 04137)
[21] http:/ / stingyscholar. blogspot. com/ 2008/ 02/ house-passes-legislation-to-make. html
[22] http:/ / www. cga. ct. gov/ 2006/ ACT/ PA/ 2006PA-00103-R00HB-05527-PA. htm
[23] http:/ / www. leg. state. or. us/ 07reg/ measpdf/ sb0300. dir/ sb0365. b. pdf
[24] Washington Governor Signs College Textbook Transparency Act (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ release/ news-releases/
washington-governor-signs-college-textbook-transparency-act2), The Student PIRGs (Press Release)
[25] http:/ / www. revisor. leg. state. mn. us/ revisor/ pages/ search_status/ status_detail. php?b=House& f=HF1063& ssn=0& y=2007
[26] http:/ / www. azleg. gov/ DocumentsForBill. asp?Bill_Number=1175
[27] http:/ / webserver1. lsb. state. ok. us/ 2007-08HB/ HB2103_int. rtf
[28] http:/ / chronicle. com/ daily/ 2008/ 01/ 1465n. htm
[29] http:/ / www. psychologicalscience. org/ observer/ getArticle. cfm?id=1712
[30] http:/ / www. kansascity. com/ 201/ story/ 501408. html
[31] Guide to Establishing Textbook Rental Services (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ textbooks/ reports/ rental-services-guide), The Student
PIRGs
[32] National Association of College Stores. (http:/ / www. nacs. org/ advocacynewsmedia/ faqs/ faqontextbookrentalprograms. aspx), "FAQ on
Textbook Rental Programs", accessed October 25, 2011.
[33] See PIRG's Catalog of Open Textbooks (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ open-textbooks/ catalog) for examples of open textbooks
[34] A Cover to Cover Solution (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ uploads/ 66/ 4d/ 664d09ba9bc97cc9138eda5faac5e061/
A-Cover-To-Cover-Solution. pdf) by Nicole Allen of the Student PIRGs. 2010.
[35] http:/ / www. leginfo. ca. gov/ pub/ 07-08/ bill/ asm/ ab_2251-2300/ ab_2261_bill_20080221_introduced. html
[36] Flat World Knowledge President Eric Frank Addresses Oregon Legislators on Solving Textbook Affordability. (http:/ / pressitt. com/ smnr/
Flat-World-Knowledge-President-Eric-Frank-Addresses-Oregon-Legislators-on-Solving-Textbook-Affordability-/ 3569/ ) Pressitt. February
21, 2011.
[37] Open-source textbook co. Flat World goes back to school with 40,000 new customers (http:/ / digital. venturebeat. com/ 2009/ 08/ 20/
open-source-textbook-co-flat-world-blasts-goes-back-to-school-with-40000-new-customers) - Venture Beat 8/20/09
[38] 150,000 College Students Save $12 Million Using Flat World Knowledge Open Textbooks. (http:/ / www. marketwire. com/ press-release/
150000-College-Students-Save-12-Million-Using-Flat-World-Knowledge-Open-Textbooks-2010-1307980. htm) Marketwire. August 23,
2010.
[39] Flat World Knowledge: Open College Textbooks (http:/ / opensource. com/ education/ 10/ 2/
flat-world-knowledge-open-college-textbooks-disrupting-traditional-textbook-publishin) by Sanford Forte. Opensource.com. February 23,
2010.
[40] Organizational Behavior v1.1 (http:/ / www. flatworldknowledge. com/ pub/ organizational-behavior-v1. 1/ 141350#pdf-1) by Talya Bauer
& Berrin Erdogan. Irvington, NY: Flat World Knowledge. 2010. (Free online open textbook format sample - PDF view)
[41] Introduction to Psychology (http:/ / www. flatworldknowledge. com/ pub/ introduction-psychology/ 296056#web-296056) by Charles
Stangor. Irvington, NY: Flat World Knowledge. 2010. (Free online open textbook format sample - web view)
[42] See Flat World Knowledge's website (http:/ / www. flatworldknowledge. com/ authors)
[43] Flat World Knowledge gets $15 million in Funding. (http:/ / www. publishersweekly. com/ pw/ by-topic/ industry-news/ financial-reporting/
article/ 45842-flat-world-knowledge-gets-15-million-in-funding. html) Publishers Weekly. January 20, 2011.
[44] CK-12 FlexBooks. (http:/ / www. ck12. org/ flexbook/ ) Homepage.
[45] Carl Stitz/Jeff Zeager on Ohio Textbook HQ (http:/ / ohiotextbookhq. ning. com/ page/ carl-stitzjeff-zeager) 2010.
[46] CK-12 - Standards Correlations (http:/ / www. ck12. org/ about/ standards) United States.
[47] Human Biology - Genetics (http:/ / www. ck12. org/ flexbook/ flexbook/ 4925) CK-12 FlexBook by The Program in Human Biology,
Stanford University. (sample of free web access format)
[48] About CK-12 Foundation (http:/ / www. ck12. org/ about/ )
[49] Curriki.org (http:/ / www. curriki. org/ ) Homepage.
76
Textbook
[50] Lewin, Tamar (21 October 2003). "Students Find $100 Textbooks Cost $50, Purchased Overseas" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2003/ 10/
21/ us/ students-find-100-textbooks-cost-50-purchased-overseas. html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 24 September 2009.
[51] "Testimony of Marc L. Fleischaker, Counsel, National Association of College Stores" (http:/ / purl. access. gpo. gov/ GPO/ LPS56745).
Hearing on "Are College Textbooks Priced Fairly?". U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Education and the Workforce,
Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness. 20 July 2004. Archived from the original (http:/ / republicans. edlabor. house. gov/ archive/
hearings/ 108th/ 21st/ textbooks072004/ fleischaker. htm) on 07 October 2011. . Retrieved 24 September 2009.
[52] http:/ / www. redshift. com/ ~jmichael/ html/ feynman. html
[53] Rip-off 101: Second Edition (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ textbooks/ reports/ ripoff-101-2nd-edition), The Student PIRGs (2005)
[54] http:/ / www. ed. gov/ about/ bdscomm/ list/ acsfa/ edlite-txtbkstudy. html
Further reading
• Slatalla, Michelle (August 30, 2007), "Knowledge Is Priceless but Textbooks Are Not" (http://www.nytimes.
com/2007/08/30/fashion/30Cyber.html), New York Times.
Open textbook
An open textbook is an openly-licensed textbook offered online by its author(s) or through a non-profit or
commercial open-licensed publisher. The open license sets open textbooks apart from traditional textbooks by
allowing users to read online, download, or sometimes print the book at no additional cost.[1] Some open textbook
models allow users the choice to use free online access or low-cost alternate formats such as print, audio, or e-book
as a means to pay authors modest royalties and fund publication expenses.
Open textbooks are increasingly seen as a potential solution to some of the challenges with the traditional textbook
publishing model.[2] Open textbooks were identified in the New Media Consortium's 2010 Horizon Report as a
component of the rapidly progressing adoption of open content in higher education.[3] Open textbooks are a
component of open educational resources.[4][5]
Definition
For a textbook to be considered open, it must be licensed in a way that grants a baseline set of rights to users that are
less restrictive than its standard copyright.[6][7] A license or list of permissions must be clearly stated by the author.[8]
Generally, the minimum baseline rights allow users at least the following:
•
•
•
•
to use the textbook without compensating the author
to copy the textbook, with appropriate credit to the author
to distribute the textbook non-commercially
to shift the textbook into another format (such as digital or print)
Many authors also grant rights such as:
• to add, remove or alter content in the textbook, often on the condition that derivative works must have the same
license
• to copy and distribute the textbook without giving credit to the author
• to use the textbook commercially
An example from The Community College Open Textbook Collaborative, a leading force in the field, describes the
requirements of an open text book as: free, or very nearly free; easy to use, get and pass around; editable so
instructors can customize content; printable; and accessible so it works with adaptive technologies that serve the
needs of disabled students, including those with learning disabilities.[9]
The CK-12 Foundation uses similar standards but also must assure offerings are in harmony with state requirements.
From their website, "FlexBooks conform to national and state textbook standards [for K-12 educational textbooks
and materials]. They are free, easy to update and easy to customize. With FlexBooks, you can customize your
77
Open textbook
textbooks to support your innovative work in the classroom. The CK-12 Foundation provides FlexBooks free to
anyone who wants to use them."[10]
Affordability
Since open textbooks can be used at no cost with technology mediation and printed at the cost of production, the use
of open textbooks would reduce the cost of education significantly.[11]
Open textbooks are also seen by advocates as potential competition in the textbooks market.[12] Nicole Allen of
Make Textbooks Affordable told USA Today:[13]
"The open textbooks that are out there serve as proof that it is possible to have a high-quality open
textbook that is being used in classrooms. They might just be the thing that will change the textbook
industry for the better."
Overall, open textbooks have been found by the Student PIRGs to offer 80% or more savings to higher education
students over traditional textbook publishers.[14][15][16] Research commissioned by the Florida State Legislature
found similarly high savings and the state has since implemented a system to facilitate adoption of open
textbooks.[17]
In the Florida legislative report, the governmental panel found after substantial consultation with educators, students,
and administrators that "there are compelling academic reasons to use open access textbooks such as: improved
quality, flexibility and access to resources, interactive and active learning experiences, currency of textbook
information, broader professional collaboration, and the use of teaching and learning technology to enhance
educational experiences." (OATTF, p. i) Similar state-backed initiatives are underway in Washington,[18] Ohio,[19]
California,[20] and Texas.[21]
K-12 Affordability
Research at Brigham Young University has produced a web-based cost comparison calculator for traditional and
open K-12 textbooks. To use the calculator the inputs commercial textbook cost, planned replacement frequency,
and number of annual textbook user count are required. A section is provided to input time requirements for
adaptation to local needs, annual updating hours, labor rate, and an approximation of pages. The summary section
applies an industry standard cost for print-on-demand of the adapted open textbook to provide a cost per student per
year for both textbook options. A summed cost differential over the planned period of use is also calculated.[22]
Milestones
In November 2010, Dr. Anthony Brandt was awarded an "Access to Artistic Excellence" grant from the National
Endowment for the Arts for his innovative music appreciation course in Connexions.[23] "Sound Reasoning"[24]
"takes a new approach [to teaching music appreciation]: It presents style-transcendent principles, illustrated by
side-by-side examples from both traditional and contemporary music. The goal is to empower listeners to be able to
listen attentively and think intelligently about any kind of music, no matter its style. Everything is listening based; no
ability to read music is required." The module being completed with grant funds is entitled "Hearing Harmony." Dr.
Brandt cites choosing the Connexions open content publishing platform because "it was an opportunity to present an
innovative approach in an innovative format, with the musical examples interpolated directly into the text."
In December 2010, open textbook publisher Flat World Knowledge was recognized by the American Library
Association's Business Reference and Services Section (ALA BRASS)[25] by being named to the association's list of
"Outstanding Business Reference Sources: The 2010 Selection of Recent Titles." The categories of business and
economics open textbooks from Flat World Knowledge's catalog were selected for this award and referenced as "an
innovative new vehicle for affordable (or free) online access to premier instructional resources in business and
economics."[26] Specific criteria used by the American Library Association BRASS when evaluating titles for
78
Open textbook
selection were:
"A resource compiled specifically to supply information on a certain subject or group of subjects in a
form that will facilitate its ease of use. The works are examined for authority and reputation of the
publisher, author, or editor; accuracy; appropriate bibliography; organization, comprehensiveness, and
value of the content; currency and unique addition to the field; ease of use for intended purpose; quality
and accuracy of indexing; and quality and usefulness of graphics and illustrations. Each year more
electronic reference titles are published, and additional criteria by which these resources are evaluated
include search features, stability of content, graphic design quality, and accuracy of links. Works
selected are intended to be suitable for medium to large academic and public libraries."
Connexions announced a series of two grants in early 2011 that will allow them to produce a total of 20 open
textbooks. The first five titles will be produced over an 18 month time frame for Anatomy & Physiology, Sociology,
Biology, Biology for non-majors, and Physics. The second phase will produce and additional 15 titles with as of yet
indeterminate subjects. It is noted the most expensive part of producing an open textbook is image rights clearing. As
images are cleared for this project, they will be available for resuse in even more titles.[27]
The Text and Academic Author's Association awarded a 2011 Textbook Excellence Award ("Texty")[28] to the first
open textbook to ever win such recognition this year. A maximum of eight academic titles can earn this award each
year. The title "Organizational Behavior"[29] by Talya Bauer and Berrin Erdogan earned one of seven 2011 Textbook
Excellence Awards granted. Bauer & Erdogan's "Organizational Behavior" open textbook is published by Flat World
Knowledge.
Instruction
Open textbooks are flexible in ways that traditional textbooks are not,[30] which gives instructors more freedom to
use them in the way that best meets their instructional needs.[31][32]
One common frustration with traditional textbooks is the frequency of new editions, which force the instructor to
modify the curriculum to the new book. Any open textbook can be used indefinitely, so instructors need only change
editions when they think it is necessary.
Many open textbooks are licensed to allow modification. This means that instructors can add, remove or alter the
content to better fit a course's needs. Furthermore, the cost of textbooks can in some cases contribute to the quality of
instruction when students are not able to purchase required materials. A Florida governmental panel found after
substantial consultation with educators, students, and administrators that "there are compelling academic reasons to
use open access textbooks such as: improved quality, flexibility and access to resources, interactive and active
learning experiences, currency of textbook information, broader professional collaboration, and the use of teaching
and learning technology to enhance educational experiences."[33] (OATTF, p. i)
Authorizations
The most common open licenses are:
•
•
•
•
Creative Commons Attribution[34]
Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike[34]
Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike[34]
GNU Free Documentation License [35]
Waivers [36] of copyright include:
• Creative Commons Public Domain Certification [37]
79
Open textbook
Authorship
Author compensation for open textbooks works differently than traditional textbook publishing. By definition, the
author of an open textbook grants the public the right to use the textbook for free, so charging for access is no longer
possible. However, numerous models for supporting authors are developing. For example, a startup open textbook
publisher called Flat World Knowledge pays its authors royalties on the sale of print copies and study aids.[38] Other
proposed models include grants, institutional support and advertising.[39]
Legislation
Legislation "to authorize grants for the creation, update, or adaption of open textbooks" and assure those developed
would be made available under favorable licenses was introduced into the 111th United States Congress, both in the
Senate[40][41][42] and the House of Representatives.[43] Findings specific to open textbooks detailed in the bill text
are:
1. The growth of the Internet has enabled the creation and sharing of open content, including open educational
resources.
2. The President has proposed a new, significant Federal investment in the creation of online open-source courses
for community colleges that will make learning more accessible, adaptable, and affordable for students.
3. The President has challenged the United States with a goal of having the highest college graduation rate in the
world by 2020.
4. More than 80 percent of the 23,000,000 jobs that will be created in the next 10 years will require postsecondary
education, but only 36 percent of all 18- to 24-year-olds are currently enrolled in postsecondary education.
5. The high cost of college textbooks continues to be a barrier for many students in achieving higher education, and
according to the Advisory Committee on Student Financial Assistance, 200,000 qualified students fail to enroll in
college each year due to cost.
6. The College Board reported that for the 2007-2008 academic year an average student spent an estimated $805 to
$1,229 on college books and supplies.
7. Making high quality open textbooks freely available to the general public could significantly lower college
textbook costs and increase accessibility to such education materials.
8. Open textbooks can improve learning and teaching by creating course materials that are more flexible, adaptable,
and accessible through the use of technology.
This legislation did not reach the floor of either chamber for debate or vote prior to the conclusion of the 111th
Congress.
Industry Opposition
The current higher education textbook industry has voiced stiff opposition to creation and adoption of open
textbooks, actively seeking to thwart competition through aggressive lobbying and spreading disinformation.[44] The
industry is represented by Bruce Hildebrand, a former Senior Vice President from the controversial firm Hill &
Knowlton International Public Relations, who is now acting as Executive Director for Higher Education for the
Association of American Publishers.[45]
80
Open textbook
Projects
A number of projects seek to develop, support and promote open textbooks. Two very notable advocates and
supporters of open textbook and related open education projects include the William and Flora Hewlett
Foundation[46] and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.[47]
Higher Ed
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Make Textbooks Affordable [48]
Open Textbook Catalog [49]
Faculty Statement on Open Textbooks [50]
The Community College Consortium for Open Educational Resources [51]
The Open Textbook Project [52]
Flat World Knowledge [53]
Rice University Press [54]
Community College Open Textbook Collaborative [55]
Einstein University [56]
K-12
•
•
•
•
•
California Open Source Textbook Project
Global Text
Free Textbooks Poland [57]
CK-12 Foundation FlexBooks [58]
Free High School Science Texts - South Africa
General
•
•
•
•
•
Connexions [59]
Wikibooks
The Collaborative Books [60]
MERLOT - Multimedia Educational Resources for Learning and Online Teaching [61]
Saylor Foundation Open Textbook Initiative [62]
References
[1] Learn More About Open Textbooks (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ open-textbooks?id=wi), the Student PIRGs
[2] Open Education Conference 2009. (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=ikWU6H-AqMA) Interactive Open Textbook Panel Discussion.
(Video, 1:02:08) Murugan Pal, CK12 Foundation; Eric Frank, Flat World Knowledge; Cable Green, WA State Board for Community and
Technical Colleges; Barbara Illowsky, De Anza College; Steve Acker, Ohio State University.
[3] 2010 Horizon Report, Chapter 7 (http:/ / wp. nmc. org/ horizon2010/ chapters/ open-content/ ) Johnson, L., Levine, A., Smith, R., & Stone, S.
(2010) for the New Media Consortium and the EDUCAUSE Learning Initiative. Accessed Dec 23, 2010.
[4] Open Educational Resources. (http:/ / www. arl. org/ sparc/ oer/ ) SPARC.
[5] Free to Learn Guide (http:/ / wiki. creativecommons. org/ images/ 6/ 67/ FreetoLearnGuide. pdf) by Hal Plotkin. "An Open Educational
Resources Policy Development Guidebook for Community College Governance Officials." (Funded by The William and Flora Hewlett
Foundation) Living document is open-licensed for iterative improvement. Creative Commons. 2010.
[6] Considerations for Creative Commons Licensing of Open Educational Resources: The Value of Copyleft (http:/ / www. bgsu. edu/ cconline/
open/ introduction. html) by Charles Lowe, Bowling Green State University. Computers and Composition Online. September, 2010.
[7] Open Knowledge Definition (OKD) (http:/ / www. opendefinition. org/ okd/ ) Open Knowledge Foundation.
[8] TEDxNYED: (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=Rb0syrgsH6M) Open Education and the Future presentation by David A. Wiley. March
6, 2010.
[9] Welcome to College Open Textbooks! (http:/ / www. collegeopentextbooks. org/ ) College Open Textbooks. (Funded by The William and
Flora Hewlett Foundation)
[10] CK-12 FlexBooks (http:/ / ck-12. org/ flexbook/ ) customizable, standards-aligned, free digital textbooks for K-12.
81
Open textbook
[11] Huffington Post, (http:/ / www. huffingtonpost. com/ sarah-sather/ i-in-the-public-interest_b_745672. html) In The Public Interest : Open
Textbooks and the Tech-Friendly Generation by Sarah Sather. Sep 30, 2010.
[12] Connexions. (http:/ / cnx. org/ content/ m15226/ latest/ ) What are open textbooks? February 26, 2009. Accessed December 29, 2010.
[13] Online 'open textbooks' save students cash (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ news/ education/ 2008-07-09-open-textbooks_N. htm), USA
Today, July 10, 2008
[14] New Report Finds Switching To Open Textbooks Saves Students Thousands (http:/ / www. studentpirgs. org/ release/ news-releases/
textbooks/ new-report-finds-switching-to-open-textbooks-saves-students-thousands) by Nicole Allen. September 30, 2010
[15] A Call for Open Textbooks (http:/ / www. insidehighered. com/ news/ 2010/ 10/ 01/ textbooks) by Steve Kolowich. Inside Higher Ed.
October 1, 2010.
[16] The Textbook Alternative That Could Save Students $700 Per Year (http:/ / www. ecampusnews. com/ top-news/
the-textbook-alternative-that-could-save-students-700-per-year/ ) by Dennis Carter. eCampus News. October 7, 2010
[17] Florida Open Access Textbook Task Force Final Report (http:/ / www. theorangegrove. org/ pdf/ OATTF_Final_Report_All_sections. pdf)
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[21] Governor: Texas Should Move to Online Textbooks (http:/ / www. businessweek. com/ ap/ financialnews/ D9EUFAVG0. htm) by Kelley
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82
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External links
• Open Textbooks: Bringing Innovation to Business Programs (https://www2.gotomeeting.com/register/
762282290) Open textbooks are gaining momentum. But what exactly is an open textbook? How do new,
disruptive business models harness technology and drive innovation at schools like Virginia State University and
Boston College? And what does this mean for you—how can you leverage open textbooks to increase innovation
and lower costs for your course, department and/or school? Watch this one-hour webcast to learn more. This
webcast includes commentary by Virginia State University professor, Andrew Feldstein, and Boston College
professor and Flat World Author, John Gallaugher. Originally recorded 2010.
• Shining a Light on Textbook Affordability: Emerging Solutions in Ohio (https://www2.gotomeeting.com/
register/304295835) The University System of Ohio has been a national leader in supporting innovations that
help eliminate textbook costs as a financial barrier to college. Listen to Darlene McCoy, Associate Vice
Chancellor, Division of Affordability and Efficiency, the University System of Ohio; Steve Acker, Research
Director, eTextOhio Project; and Eric Frank, President and Co-Founder, Flat World Knowledge, for a one-hour
webcast to discuss solutions and innovations for Ohio. Originally recorded 2010.
• How to Drive College Costs Down and Quality Up in TX and CA: Emerging Textbook Solutions (https://www2.
gotomeeting.com/register/399352082) California and Texas are poised to be national leaders in efforts to reduce
barriers to higher education and combat escalating textbook prices. Join CA Senate Majority Leader Dean Florez;
Dr. Charles Cook, Vice Chancellor, Houston Community College System; Eric Frank, President, Flat World
Knowledge; and Dennis Passovoy of The University of Texas at Austin for this webcast on new textbook
affordability initiatives and the rise of open textbooks. One-hour webcast. Originally recorded 2010.
83
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