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Islamization, Ethics and Values in Science and Technology

By

Islamic Value....· and Ethic.'i in Engineering Sciences Research Group

(IVEES-RG)

International Islamic l' nhel-sity 'lalaysia (II L 1\1)

Suleyman Aremu 'Iuyibi

Editors

]\Iohamed Elwathig Saeed 'Iirghani

Waleed Fckry Faris Abdi Omar Shul+iye

Jamal Ibmhim Daoud 'la'an Fahmi R. Alkhatib

.lalel Chebil

I I U;\l IJ ress

Published by:

IlLM Press

International Islamic University \1alaysia

First Edition. 2011

'£IlL\l Press, IIU:'v1

All rights resened. :\0 pan of this publication may be reproduced. stored in a retrie\al sY5lem, or transmitted. in any form or by any means. electronic, mechanical. photocopying, recording. or othef\\ise. without any prior \\Tillen permission of the publisher.

Perpustakaan :\ c'gara \Ialaysia Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

Suleyman Aremu Muyibi

Islamization. Ethics and Values in Science and Technology

Suleyman Aremu \luyibi ... let aL].

ISB~

978-967-022:'-S2-1

IS 8"\' :

9' x-lJ6 7-022:'-82-1

T'v1ember of\1ajlis Penerbitan llmiah 1\blaysia - \lAPI\l

(l'\'lalaysian Scholarly Publishing Council,

1\

IIV\} PRI"lTI'IG SD:\.RHD.

o.

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Islamic Values and Ethics in Engineering Sciences Research Group (IVEE-RG)

Members

Abdi Omar Shuriye

Ahmad Tariq Jameel

Jalel Chebil

Jamal Ibrahim Daoud

Ma'an Fahmi R. Alkhateeb

Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani (Secretary)

Mohammed Saedi Jami (Coordinator)

Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabashi

Parveen Jamal

Raed Kafafy

Shihab

A.

Hameed

Souad

A.

Mohamad Albat'hi

Suleyman Aremu Muyibi

Waleed Fekry Faris

Authors:

Abdelaziz Berghout

Abdi Omar Shuriye

Abdul Haseeb Ansari

Ahmad Tariq Jameel

Ibrahim M. Zain

Jalel Chebil

Jamal Ibrahim Daoud

Ma'an Fahmi R.

Alkhateeb

Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani

Mohammed Saedi Jami

Muaz Hawari

Nassereldeen Ahmed Kabashi

Omar H. J. Hajjaj

Othman Omran Khalifa

Parveen Jamal

Raed Kafafy

Sayed Desouky Hassan

Shihab

A.

Hameed

Souad A. Mohamad Albat'hi

Suleyman Aremu Muyibi

Waleed Fekry Faris v

Short Bio-data for Authors

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Shihah A. Hameed

Is currently Associate Professor in depal1ment of electrical and computer engineeling IlUI\I

University J\lalaysia. He is Senior \lemher

II::J:::r:

(Computer & Communications) and member of sewral Intemational and Local professional societies. He is a member of cuniculum committee and developing course outlines for many ne\v courses in Computer and soft\\are engineering. He obtained his PhD in Soft\\are Engineering tl'om UK\1. He has three decades of industrial and educational experiencc. His research interest is mainly in the software engineering. Professional

Ethics. Software quality. suneillance and monitoring systems. healthcare and Telemedicine. Dr.

Hameed supervising many PhD and \laster Students. Leading many funded research projects as well as leader or member of se\ eral research groups or unites. He published more than 100 papers in various intel1lational and national referred joumals and conferences. Dr Hameed obtains Tens of \ledals and re\\ards tbr his innovation and advanced research work. He is member of se\cral editorial boards for refened joumals as \\ell as membtT of several organizing committees t()r intemational conferences.

Assoc. Prof.

DL

Waleed F. Faris

Waked F. FallS is the Deputy Dean in the Otticc of Corporate Strategy

&

Qualit\" Assurance in the Intemational Islamic Universit: .\lalaysia (IlU\II. and also holds an appointment as an

Associate Professor in the r-.1cchanical Engineeling Department and \Iechatronics Dcpal1ment of the same University since 2004. He obtained his SSe in \kchanieal Engineering ii'om Zagazig

Uni\ersily. Egypt. in

1989.

his .\ISc rrom the same uni\ersilY in

1996.

and his PhD from

Virginia Tech, USA. in 2003 in l\on-linear Dynamics. He has to his credit thrcc books and more than 90 tt'chnieal papers in reputed joumals and rett:'reed confert'nees in Vehicle. structuraL and

Systcm Dynamics and Control and ,\/VH and management and Islamization. He is a member of the Japanese Society of

~c\utomoti\t'

Engineers. and a technical committee mcmber and re\ ic\\er ofscvcral international joumals and conferences \\orld-\\ide.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. 'lohamed

Elwathig

Saeed \lirghani vi

A Sudanese. currently Associate Protessor in the Department of Biotechnology Engineering.

Kul1iyyah (Faculty) of Engineering.

IIUvI.

He obtained his firsl degree fi·om Cairo Lni\crsity,

Cairo, EgYVt: the

.:::nd degree Ii-om Lni\ersity of Gezira. \lcdani. Sudan and the PhD ti'om

Lnivcrsity Putra \lalaysia

(LJ

P\l). He is member of sc\(~ra1

Inte1l1ational and Local professional societies such as AOeS. AFOCS. SCS. etc. He is registered as consultant for Sudanese

Agricultural Engineers Lilian. He honoured mally awards locally and at inkmational level. Ife published more than 90 papers in various international and national rdelTed joumals and conte-rences proceedings. He is member of several editorial hoards and organizing committees t(H intemational conle-rences.

PI'of. Dr.

Abdul

Haseeb

Ansal-j

Prole-ssor Dr. ,'\bdul Hasceh Ansari ohtained his B.Sc. f)'om Gorakhpur Uniwrsity. India and

LL.I\L Ph.D. from Banaras Hindu Lniversity. India. He has special interest in re\'Cnue

!a\\.

emironmental law. inte1l1ational la\\ and comparative jurispmdenee. He has C\:tensively contributed on different aspects or environmental Ll\\. He has a long C\:perienee of teaching and guiding research in these subjects. lIe has extensively contributed to the knowledge by publishing eighty O\er articles and a book. He is Editor-in-Chief of Jouma1 of Islamic La\\

Review. Prolessor Ansari has membership of sOl11e of the intemational institutions of high repute. He is presently \\orking as a Prolessor at the lntemational Islamic Lniversity, \lalaysia.

In

':::005, he got the best researcher award of the university. In

2008.

was honored \\-ith the outstanding researcher a\\'ard of the university'.

Assoc. Prof. Dr-. Paneen Jamal

Associate Professor Dr. Paneen Jmal obtained her degrees fi'om /\.ligarh lvluslim Lniversity.

India. She joined lntemational Islamic University in

1997_

Her areas of expertise are: natural product processing. optimization for bioactive compounds. secondary metabolites and their applications. biocomersions of natural product and organic residues to value-added products. In these areas. she has completed se\eral projects and has published a large number of articles in various national and intemationaljoumals.

Prof. Dr.

Abdelaziz Berghout vii

Abdelaziz Berghout. an Algelian. is a Professor of Civilization. Islamic Studies and Creative

Thinking.

Faculty of Re\ealed Knowledge and Human Sciences. International Islamic

Cniversity. \lalaysia. He has obtained the Best Lecturer A\\ard

(2003),

Best Researcher Award

(2006) and Outstanding Researcher A\\ard (200f). Currently. serves as the Dean. (Corporate

Strategy and Quality Assurance), International Islamic Uni\ersity l\falaysia. He also served as

Director of Co-cunicular Activity Centre Covering Director of Student Developmenl Di\ision.

He senes as advisor and consltant to many organisations in \1alaysia.

LSA.

Jl,.1orocco. Turkey.

Australia and Singapore ... etc.

He published many books, among which are. Prophetic

.\ltthodology and

Social

Change

(1995) .

Ci\ ilizational Thought: 1\eed for Transftmnation of

.\l3n, Thought, Educ.lt

ion

and Culture (2003 j,

Islamic Discourse in a !\1u Iti -Re ligious and \1 uhi-

Cultural Society

(2005

2008). Foundations of Civilizational Renewal and its lniversal

Dimensions: A Study on Malik Bennabi·s Thought (1006), The Islamic WorIdvie\\ and

Renewal: A Civilizalional Approach

(2006),

To\\ards an Islamic Theory ttlr Ci\'ilizational

Dewlopmenl: the Contribution of Said :\ursi (20U6).

Islam and the Ci\'iliztional Project in contemporary World,

(20C)7).

Strategic Thinkjng to

Enhance Human Capital De\elopment. Coauthor, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia,

2009.

He also published many al1ic1es in local and

International Journals. He Lecutred e.\.tensively throughout the world. among other places. the

UK. Holland, Australia. Algeria. I\lalaysia. Singapore. Turkey, the Phillipiccns, Brunie-. Saudi

Arabia. Qatar. K3\vait Syria. United Arab Emarates, Bahrin, Oman. Jordan ... etc. The scope of his lectures cover area such

3..<;,

Islamic thought, culture. civilisation. globalisation. cducation, quality . strategic planning

Il1 higher education. world view.

creati\'t~ and critical thinking.

ci\ilisational dialogue ... etc.

Assist. Prof. Dr. Jamal

I.

Daoud

Dr. Jamal

I.

Daoud obtained his B.Sc.

(1981) degree from lniversity or Baghdad. Iraq. PhD

(1992) ii'om State Academy of J\1anagcl11cnt. \loscow, Russia. His interests arc in Regression

Analysis. Experimental Design and Statistical Inference. He has published a number of papers on the application of regression and cxpclimental design and many other papers in statistics and mathcmatics as \vell. Dr Jamal is co-author of four books in experimental design. intercntial viii

statistics and regression analysis, He has presented papers at several intemational conte-rences,

He is presently working at the Intemational Islamic Lni\ersity I\lala\'sia.

Professor Eng... Dr. Suleyman Aremu 'luyibi

He eamed his BS Engineering

(cum laude)

with maJor

In environmental control from the

University of Central Florida LSA. l'vIEng (Civil Engineering) majoring in Water Resources and

Environmental Engineering from the University of Benin. '\igeria PhD in Environmental

Engineering II"om the Uniwrsity of\lewcastk. UK and Diploma in Islamic Studies (DIS) from the Intcmational Islamic University \Ialaysia, He is a member of Islamic Values in Engineering and Ethics in Engineering Research Group. a member of the ;\igerian Society of Engineers

(NSE).

a Registered Civil Engineer (CORE'\. 1'\igeria), a member of the \Jalaysian \lational

Committee on lITigation and Drainage (!\IA'\CID), a member of1'\igcrians in Diaspora Science and Technology Committce(DI1'\ISA n, member of \Ioringa ]\e\\s Network. Coordinator of the

Bioel1\ironmental Engineering Research Unit (BERL) at the International Islamic University

\lalaysia and member of \Ialaysian Water Association

(1\'1\\'.\),

His area of expel1ise and interest is in water resources and environmental management with special emphasis on Islamic perspectives. He have authored and co-authored morc than 150 publications in joul11als.

conferences, technical reports. and a book.

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Harnzah 'Iohd. Salleh

Hal11zah .\lohd. Salleh received his tertiary education from the Lniverslly of Waterloo. Canada from

1982-1986

(BSc),

1986-1988

(\lSc) and

1989-1994

(PhD). He completed his postdoctoral training at the Lniversity of\'1ichigan. USA in 1995.

He has c:\lensively contributed in the dewlopment of the Faculty of Engineering by' serving in different committees and holding administrative positions from

1995 to 2008. Ilis CU1Tent interests inc 1ude biological and cataly-tic properties of enzymes including enzyme technology and engineeling~ biotransfi..,mlation; values and ethics in science and tcchnology~ and

halal

science.

ix

Associate P"ofessor Dr. '\assereldeen Ahmed Kabbashi Abuelfutouh

Dr. i\assereldccn Ahmed Kabbashi Abuelfutouh obtained his PhD from Lniversity of Putra

\lalaysia 2002 in Em iron mental Engineering. Dr. Kabbashi area of interest is in Composting;

Process C(11ltrol: Strategic planning and \lanagemenL Biocthaonol and Biodiesel production and

\lanagcment; Environmental Engineering: Technology \lanagemcnt: Solid Waste Management:

Production & Application of '\anotechnology f()r \\aste\\-ater treatment; and Water and

Waste\\ater Treatment and \lanagement.

Dr Kabbashi is a member of Biotechnology

Engineering Research Cnit ill the Biotechnology Engineering Depal1ment under Kulliyyah

Engineering IlU\l.

Assistant Prof. DL Souad A. \'lohamad

Assistant Prof. Dr. Souad A. \lohamad

IS currently an academic staff at department of manufacturing and materials engineering. faculty or engineering. IILI\1. She obtained her SSe.

from Basra Uni\Crsity. Iraq. \1.Se. Baghdad Lniversity. Iraq and PhD. \lala)a Lniversity. Kuala

Lumpur. \lalaysia. in materials science. Her area of interest is solar energy and Solar Cells.

green technology. thin tilms, semiconductors and polymers, electro-photochemical sensitization.

food science and islamizatiol1 of knowledge. She has a long experience of teaching and supenising students in these subjects.

In 2005 and 2007 she got the best teacher awards at center for fiJundation studies of IIU\1. In '::010 she has been selected as a revie\\er for Asia-

Pacitic Journal of Chemical Engineering and nU\1

Engineering Journal.

Assistant Prof. Dr. ']a'an Fahmi R. Alkhatib

Dr. \la'an Alkllatib obtained his B.Se. in chemical engineering from University of Jordan and

\1.Sc. in chemical and process engineering from the '-Jational Lniversity of \lalaysia. \,hile his

Ph 0

\\3S obtained from L niversi ty Putra \1 alaysia in El1\ironmental Engineering. In 2007. he joined the International Islamic Lni\Crsity !\lalaysia as a lecturer in the Department of

Biotechnology Engineering. His research interest is on aeti\ated carbon. nanom3terials.

bioadsorbents and alternatiw fuels. Dr. 1\la'an has published many papers in journals and conferences. He also won many a\\ards in local and international exhibitions.

x

CO'\TE'\TS

Short Bio-data for Authors

Preface

Synopsis

Chapter 1

VALUES Ai\D EDL"C\TIOI\ WITHIN THE FRA\lE\\ORK OF

ISLA\HSATIOI\ OF KNOWLEDGE

Abdelaziz Bcrghout

Chapter 2

ETHICAL

ISSl~ES l:'-J

E~VIRO:'-JrvlENTAL

\IA:--.JAGEIVIE\lT A\JD RESOLRCE

CONSERVATIO\; FRO\lISLAT\IIC PERSPECTIVE

Sulcyman .\remu \luyibi & Hamzah \lohd SalJeh

Chapte," 3

RELlCiIOUS TOLERANCE AND DIALOCJUE E\ VIEW OF GOLEN'S

CiLOBALlZED WEL TA:\SCHALU\G

Abdi O. Shuriye

Chapter 4

TOWARDS AN ISLA\lIC THEORY OF DEVELOP\lENT BASED

O~

QLRA:\IC

APPROACH: SUR.AH QLRAISH A.S A CASE STLDY

Sayed Desouky Hassan, Waked F. Faris & Racd Kafafy

Chapter 5

RIGHT TO A HEALTHFUL E'\IVIRON\lENT IN ISLA!\1: AN EXPOSITORY

STLDY

Abdul Haseeb Ansari & Paneen Jamal

Chapter 6

EARL Y \lLTSLlM CO'\lTRIBUTIO:\S TO ASTRONO.\I'l·

Abdi O. Shuriye

8:

:\~iSI'eldeen

Kabashi

Chapter 7

ETHICS OF THE STLDE:\T AND PROFESSOR: ABOLT THE CHARTER OF

THE \'IOR../\L

FRO~vIISLA\IIC

PROSPECTIVE

\Iohamcd Ehvathig Saeed \lirghani 8.: \'la'al1 Fahmi R. Alkhatib

Chapter 8

\ILSLl\l CONTRIBUTlO"lS TO PHYSICS

Abdi O. Shuriye

8:

Waked Faris

3-15

16-26

n-45

46-54

55-76

78-91

92-99

100-110

Chapter 9

E-WASTE: PROBLPdS, ISLA\IlC PERSPECTIVE AND SOLUTlOl\S

Waleed r.

Faris. Othman O. Khalifa and \luaz Hawari

Chapter 10

HARf\IFL'L DATA THAT AFFECT ETHICAL, RELIGIOUS. A:'\D SOCIAL

VALUES OF INTERT\ET CSERS N EOLCA TIOT\ PROCESS

5hihab A. Hameed

CHAPTER 11

LSE A'..JD ABLSE Of TECHI\OLOGY: Il\TERl\ET AS A CASE STUD)'

Waleed F. Faris

&

Jamal

1.

Daoud

Chapter 12

ISSCES O\l ETIIICS Ai\D VALUES 11\ E:\!GI.'\EERIl\G PR...-\CTlCES

.-\bdi . O. Simriye

Chapter 13

CA\lISLA\llC BA'..JKf.'\G INDLSTR\' ETIHCAL FRA\IE SAVE THE FI:"JA'..JCIAL

SAVE THE WORLD FI:-JAI\CIAL S\'STEI\1: THE RESPO,\SE OF ISLAf\IIC

B·\'\IKS I'\J 2001< FI'\A.'\CL-\L CRISIS

Hassanuddeen A. Aziz

112-124

125-142

143-156

157-165

166-176

EARLY .'\'IUSLIM CONTRIBUTIONS TO ASTRONOMY

Abdi O. Shuriye

&

Nasreldeen Kabashi

ASTRONOMY: AN

I:\TRODUCTIO~

This chapter tries to bring some ofthe input of Muslims to the early development of some scientific fields especially in Astronomy. The efforts and contributions of AI-Biruni and AI-Battani

\vere realized by the guidance and knowledge they acquired of AI-Qur'an al-karim. Also, step by step discussion of the concept; which involves definition, properties, characteristics and challenges associated \vith the field; as \vell as the immortalization of these scientists in the field of

Astronomy.

Astronomy is one of the most ancient sciences that have existed since the da\vn of recorded civilization.

It has been called the queen of sciences and it incorporates many disciplines such as physics, optics in particular, and mathematics, as well as celestial mechanics.

Astronomy is that branch of engineering sciences that deals \vith the ongm, evolution, composition, distance and the motion of all bodies and scattered matter in the universe. Shaharir

Mohd Zain indicated that the word

Astra is a Greek word which brings into mind the meaning of

stars - astronomy can thus be regarded as the science that investigates all matter--energy in the universe, v"hich includes its distribution, composition, physical states, movements and evo lution.

149

According to Sharma astronomy in the etymological level denotes the

law of the stars -

from the Greek \vord acrrpovoJ..lia- is a science involving the observation and the explanation of events occurring outside earth and its atmosphere. Astronomy studies the origins, evolution, physical and chemical properties of objects that can be observed in the sky as well as the processes involving them.

150

Astrophysics, which discusses the physical properties and structure of all cosmic matter, is thus, a branch of this field.

In the Arabic peninsular before the advent ofIslam, there \vas an intimate knowledge of the sun and the moon as well as the night sky whereby meteorological phenomena were associated with the changing patterns of these celestial objects throughout the year with reasons.

149Shaharir rv10hd Zain, Pengenalan Tamadun Islam Dalam Sains Dan Teknologi, (Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan

Pustaka, 1985), 177

150Arvind Shanna, Sludies in Alberuni's India, (\Viesbaden: Orlo Harrassowitz. 1983). 47

79

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