COPRA - DataM Software GmbH

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Spiraled & lock
seamed tube / profile
R o l l f o r m i n g t h e F u t u r e®
Sheet metal levelling
COPRA
®
Shaped tubes
Worldwide used Software
Products for Rollforming
Chinese / 中文
Tube drawing
Tube making
In-line-curving
Wire Rolling
1.
关于 DATA M .................................................................................................................................. 1
2.
关于冷弯成型 ................................................................................................................................... 2
1.1
什么是冷弯成型? ..................................................................................................................................... 2
1.2
为什么用冷弯成型? ................................................................................................................................. 3
1.2.1 冷弯成型产品的应用 ........................................................................................................................... 3
1.2.1.1
航空工业 ...................................................................................................................................... 3
1.2.1.2
汽车工业 ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.2.1.3
铁路运输 ...................................................................................................................................... 4
1.2.1.4
建筑 .............................................................................................................................................. 5
1.2.1.5
石油天然气 .................................................................................................................................. 5
1.2.1.6
仓储 .............................................................................................................................................. 6
1.2.2 data M 助您成功 ................................................................................................................................... 6
1.2.3 成功的要素 ........................................................................................................................................... 7
1.2.4 data M 网络研讨会 ............................................................................................................................. 10
2
2.1
COPRA® RF 冷弯成型设计软件 .................................................................................................... 11
产品与解决途径 ..................................................................................................................................... 11
2.2
COPRA® RF 模块 .................................................................................................................................. 12
2.2.1 截型设计的模块 ................................................................................................................................. 13
2.2.1.1
M1 用于开口和闭口截型 .......................................................................................................... 13
2.2.1.2
M1 的功能 .................................................................................................................................. 14
2.2.1.3
H3 – COPRA® RF 辊花优化技术 – 包括在 M1 中 .................................................................. 14
2.2.1.4
M2 压型板.................................................................................................................................. 15
2.2.1.5
M2 特性 ...................................................................................................................................... 16
2.2.1.6
H8 SpreadSheet........................................................................................................................... 16
2.2.2 管成型的模块 ..................................................................................................................................... 17
2.2.2.1
管成型不同模块的概览 ............................................................................................................ 17
2.2.2.2
M4 – COPRA® RF 异型管 – 特性............................................................................................. 18
2.2.3 线缆拉拔模模块 ................................................................................................................................. 18
2.2.4 轧辊技术模块 ..................................................................................................................................... 19
2.2.4.1
H1 – COPRA® RF 轧辊设计– 特性........................................................................................... 20
2.2.4.2
H4 – COPRA® RF 轧辊设计技术– 包括在 H1......................................................................... 20
2.2.4.3
H6 COPRA® RF RLM (轧辊生命周期管理)............................................................................. 21
2.3
COPRA® RF 2011 / 2013 的新特性....................................................................................................... 22
2.3.1 2011 新特性概览 ................................................................................................................................ 22
2.3.2 COPRA® RF 2013 的特性................................................................................................................... 32
2.3.2.1
COPRA® RF RLM轧辊生命周期管理...................................................................................... 32
2.3.2.2
模块: COPRA® RF 管 ................................................................................................................ 36
2.3.2.3
COPRA® 在 Inventor中参数化的应用...................................................................................... 38
2.3.2.4
COPRA® RF 的自动更新 .......................................................................................................... 42
2.4
3
评价与鉴定 ............................................................................................................................................. 43
COPRA® FEA RF 冷弯成型分析软件 ............................................................................................ 44
COPRA® 简介
3.1
产品和解决方案 ..................................................................................................................................... 45
3.1.1 F1 – COPRA® FEA RF 专业分析 & F2 - COPRA® FEA RF 基础.................................................... 46
3.1.2 F1 和F2 的功能比较 ........................................................................................................................... 47
3.1.3 M10 + F3 COPRA® FEA RF 线缆型材.............................................................................................. 49
3.1.4 COPRA® FEA RF 2011 的新特性...................................................................................................... 50
3.1.5 COPRA® FEA RF 2013 的新特性...................................................................................................... 57
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附录: 文献与册子 ........................................................................................................................... 59
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Roll Formed components
are used in various industries namely:
冷弯成型的产品用于众多工业领域:
Aviation Industry 航空工业
Stiffeners for fuselage 机身加强件
Seat rails 座椅滑
Automobile industry 汽车工业
Car door frames 门窗
Seat rails 座椅滑轨
Bumper reinforcement 保险杠加强件
Crash bars (tube) 防撞杆(管)
Heat exchanger radiator tubes
换热器散热器管
Trims 饰件
Bumper Profile used in
Automotive Industry
用于汽车的保险杠截型
Construction industry 建筑业
Scaffoldings 棚架
Cable tray/laders 电缆桥架
Roofing/decking 屋顶/ 装饰
Purlins 檩条
Hand rails 扶手
Doors/ windows 门 / 窗
Hand rail sections in the
Construction Industry
建筑业的扶手
Oil and gas industry 石油天然气工
Deep sea oil extraction flexible tubes
深海抽油柔性管
Transportation pipes
输油管
Welded Tubes in the
Oil & Gas Industry
油气工业焊管
Furniture industry 家具行业
Table /chair structure 桌椅结构件
Partitions 分隔件
Trims 饰件
File storage 文件存储
Spiraled & lock seamed
tube / profile
螺旋和锁缝管/型材
Storage industry 存储业
Display shelves 展示货架
Storage racks 置物架
...and many more...
www.data-m.com
Simulating Stretch Bending
Operations 拉弯仿真
COPRA® 简介
1. 关于 data M
data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH 是一家专注于板金属成形的公司,开发和销售居于领导
地位的冷弯(辊压)设计软件COPRA® RF 以及仿真软件 COPRA® FEA RF。.
data M 软件是由具有软件和机械知识和技能的工程师开发的,他们不但有用现代语言编写复
杂程序的能力,同时还有机械和金属成形方面丰富的经验,从而保证用户可以得到领先的技术
支持。
目前世界上有数千家用户在使用COPRA® RF 软件。
除软件外我们还提供广泛的冷弯成型技术咨询和工程服务。
我们为工业界提供的包括:
•
COPRA® RF 和 COPRA® FEA RF 软件
•
轧辊设计服务
•
轧辊分析服务
•
成形仿真和优化模具设置
•
培训 & 热线支持
•
轧辊模具的质量控制
data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH 从 1982 开始就成为一个冷弯成型软件开发公司.
同时 data M SMS 在全球范围内树立了解决冷弯成型技术的良好声誉,来自世界各地的公司向
我们寻求帮助。随后 data M 开始在世界范围内寻找合作伙伴不但为客户提供软件,同时也提
供技术服务。
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COPRA® 简介
为此公司已经在美国、印度、巴西、波兰、瑞士和英国建立了分支机构。data M 的工程师了
解客户的需求以及市场的变化,这方面的需求和服务在不断增长。
2. 关于冷弯成型
1.1
什么是冷弯成型?
冷弯成型是将金属板带或带卷顺序通过机架上安装的逐步成形的轧辊,对板带进行横向弯曲变
形以达到要求的最终产品形状的成形工艺。冷弯成型是一种生产长度较长批量较大的等截面的
理想工艺,通常的生产率很高。
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COPRA® 简介
1.2
为什么用冷弯成型?
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大批量生产
•
质量稳定
•
材料利用率高
•
减少劳动力
•
高强材料成形
•
低模具成本高模具寿命
1.2.1 冷弯成型产品的应用
1.2.1.1 航空工业
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COPRA® 简介
1.2.1.2 汽车工业
1.2.1.3 铁路运输
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COPRA® 简介
1.2.1.4 建筑
1.2.1.5 石油天然气
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COPRA® 简介
1.2.1.6 仓储
还有许多…
1.2.2 data M 助您成功
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COPRA® 简介
1.2.3 成功的要素
成型机组
轧辊设计
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COPRA® 简介
轧辊制造
轧辊安装
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COPRA® 简介
板带材料
COPRA® 技术
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COPRA® 简介
1.2.4 data M 网络研讨会
在线学习!
从 2009 年起我们开始了定期的 data M “Webinars(网络研讨会)”,我们还将继续这样的培
训研讨会(免费) 。
网络研讨会由 data M 的专家主持,全体参与者形成了一个“虚拟教室”。每个参与者坐在他
自己的电脑前观看在屏幕上展示的课程内容。讲演者的介绍通过 Internet 连续播放,参与者可
以在对话框中提出自己的问题参与讨论。
在我们的网上也可以下载先前举办的网络研讨会
http://www.datam.de/en/training-support/demo-videos/
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COPRA® 简介
2 COPRA® RF 冷弯成型设计软件
产品与解决途径
2.1
COPRA® RF 可以提供如下的产品和解决途径
•
开口和闭口型材
•
压型板和波纹板
•
圆管、方管和异形钢管
•
线缆技术
•
轧辊的工程与制造技术
COPRA® RF:
•
是轧辊以及焊管轧辊的完整的设计、制造及优化的集成。
•
具有中心数据库,操作简单、进入和存储方便快捷
•
是市场上 100% 集成于 CAD 的设计软件
•
提供快速进入 data M 的工程和咨询服务
•
提供高效的功能,例如轧辊的组合、自动尺寸标注等
•
专业数据库管理轧辊的数量
•
允许通过COPRA® 轧辊轮廓扫描仪修复轧辊
•
变形技术模块 (DTM) 对成型过程进行仿真,为优化轧辊设计和提高设计质量提供了工
具
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当前有 7 种语言的版本
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COPRA® 简介
进一步:
由data M 开发的COPRA® FEA RF (冷弯成型分析软件) 是世界上首个冷弯成型的有限元分析
软件。(关于 COPRA® FEA RF 详见 44页: COPRA® FEA RF ).
2.2
COPRA® RF 模块
COPRA® RF 包含整个轧辊设
计工艺过程-计算、辊花设计、
轧辊设计、零件列表、轧辊生
产图。进一步还包括了集成了
截型和轧辊的数据库管理。所
有的模块都可以进入COPRA®
RF的中心数据库。COPRA®
RF 是采用模块结构的软件包。.
COPRA® RF 能够满足您的特
定需求。您可以从个别模块开
始,根据您的客户的需求一步
一步增加您需要的模块。
COPRA® RF 是完全集成在 AutoCAD中的。这使得使用者能够方便地同时使用全部 CAD和d
COPRA® RF 的功能。这可以提高操作效率快速方便地进行数据传输,避免数据和程序间转换
的时间浪费。
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.1 截型设计的模块
2.2.1.1 M1 用于开口和闭口截型
开口截型例子
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.1.2 M1 的功能
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集成的项目管理和数据归档
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用 COPRA® RF 和AutoCAD做截面设
计
•
集成的浏览器在机架间导航
•
用户定义各机架
•
定义不同类型的机架 (有动力机架,
中间机架,辅助机架 …)
•
定义材料特性
•
通过截面库或 CAD 设计截面
•
在辊花上定义翻边和冲凸
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3D-孔编辑截面上的孔,包括“在弯
曲圆角”上的孔
•
在 3D-模型或 2D-平板模型上放置冲
孔和冲切
•
依据中性线计算包括冲孔的板带
•
考虑最弱截面的截面特性计算
•
多种方法计算板宽
•
辊花工艺设计
•
交互式、动态和自动方式的 COPRA® RF 展开设计方法
•
组合轧辊的设计模式
•
管展开的交互功能
•
3D-线框模型用于计算纵向应变。 (“第二代仿真”)
•
表格式、全参数化的 COPRA® RF SpreadSheet 辊花设计,包括辊花设计修改的自动
更新。
2.2.1.3 H3 – COPRA® RF 辊花优化技术 – 包括在 M1 中
•
工程计算
•
由用户定义间距和选项的辊花观察
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Biswas 和 Oehler 的回弹计算方法
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COPRA® 简介
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重心不变和最小应变的下山法
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理论应变 3D 线框模型计算 (第二代仿真)
2.2.1.4 M2 压型板
包含有类似于 M1 的功能,另外增加了压型板的优化成型计算和材料的恒向移动计算。
与 H1 的组合提供了轧辊的半自动设计。
压型板例子
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.1.5 M2 特性
压型板包括开口和闭口截面设计功能:
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计算和优化压型板弯曲工艺
•
横向材料收缩计算
•
压型板轧辊的自动设计 (与模块 H1-Roll-Design-Husk 一起使用时)
2.2.1.6 H8 SpreadSheet
以前版本的各种展开方式都可以用新方法实现: 通过 spreadsheet 展开。这带来了很大的灵活
性,可以实现辊花设计后的修改 (改变半径,展开方法和截面尺寸)。
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.2 管成型的模块
管子实例
2.2.2.1 管成型不同模块的概览
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.2.2 M4 – COPRA® RF 异型管 – 特性
COPRA® RF 异型管设计模块可以快速和准确的设计出成型步骤
•
异型管设计通常 (不是必须) 是从圆管开始的。
•
计算机给出的每个成型步骤的计算和优化是轧辊设计的基础。
要获得更多信息请访问我们的网站!
2.2.3 线缆拉拔模模块
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.4
轧辊技术模块
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.4.1 H1 – COPRA® RF 轧辊设计– 特性
设计和尺寸标注:
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提高轧辊设计效率
•
交互式以及自动功能
•
自动轧辊尺寸标注
•
装配图自动尺寸标注
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组合辊的设计
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轧辊的克隆、关联辊的高效设计(特别是
压型板)
要获得更多信息请访问我们的网站!
2.2.4.2 H4 – COPRA® RF 轧辊设计技术– 包括在 H1
轧辊制造:
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轧辊净重计算
•
原料 / 辊坯 / 下料表
•
NC 数控码
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数据库管理界面, FEA 仿真和分析工具, QA
问答系统 (例如. COPRA® RollScanner轧辊
轮廓扫描仪)
要获得更多信息请访问我们的网站!
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COPRA® 简介
2.2.4.3 H6 COPRA® RF RLM (轧辊生命周期管理)
RLM-模块:
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MS-WIN-版本
•
轧辊管理基于 SQL 数据库
•
项目可以存储和删除
•
依据适当的准则搜索相同的轧辊
•
依据类似的准则搜索同类的轧辊
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依据几何特征搜索轧辊
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不同的搜索准则 (轧辊特性, 轧辊编号, 材料, 订单号, 轧辊类型, 图号等)
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建立零件表时考虑库存的轧辊
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扫描轧辊输入
关于COPRA® RF RLM更多信息请件P32 和访问我们的网站!
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COPRA® 简介
COPRA® RF 2011 / 2013 的新特性
2.3
2.3.1 2011 新特性概览
•
COPRA® RF 2011 的新用户界面
•
CADFinder “新面孔”
•
完全集成在 COPRA® RF SpreadSheet
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SpreadSheet-浏览 (表格浏览+ 体素浏览)
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COPRA® 简介
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字体菜单 (截面, 道次, 体素,辊花)
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特设的命令
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3D-选项
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新的可变的 BOM 界面 (Bill Of Material)
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COPRA® 简介
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完美地集成于 COPRA® RF 软件 AutoCAD和 AutoCAD Mechanical。用户在一个项目
中使用的环境是一样的,不需要在不同的窗口和应用环境中切换。
•
支持最新的 “Ribbon”(大图标)技术 ,使用更加友好。下拉式菜单和大图标的结合让
使用者感觉更简单有效。
•
COPRA® RF CADFinder – 周到的项目管理系统基于工作环境
•
任一个文件可以直接用“drag & drop” (拖放)功能直接输入到 CADFinder
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文件版本控制系统包含在 CADFinder 中
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COPRA® 简介
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建立参数化或经典的 COPRA® RF 项目
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截面直接从 AutoCAD 多线和产品/客户图纸转化而来 – 也支持 3D-图形
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由定制的展开方法实现辊花的参数化生成
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COPRA® 简介
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冲缺和凸台设计工具 (不会再将这些凸起“压扁”)。只需画出轮廓, COPRA® RF 将
自动处理所有机架的轧辊绘图。在轧辊设计中使用 “Cut Contour(切割轮廓)” 就可以
方便地处理轧辊轮廓。
带有孔和过渡体素的辊花
在过渡位置轧辊的切槽处理
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COPRA® 简介
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3D-模型-自动建立 “切口” 部件,这是在COPRA® FEA RF 中自动划分孔网格的基础特
性。
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提供完整的“通用”孔的样式,可以采用定制的细节。
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提供完全的 3D 辊花和轧辊-设计-支持
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对初始辊花优化和报价的变形技术模块
可以帮助改善材料的流动确认报价所需要的机架数。给出参数;材料, “成形长度”,
轧辊直径和成型辊的类型
小直径侧辊的影响可以在 3D-模型以及对应的图中观察到。
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截面项目继承的可能性– 将辊花和轴线数据从原来的项目中遗传到一个新项目中使用。
•
支持多位置的 “展开平面”
•
定制的带有“变形技术”的 “成型机”的图,可以从工厂设备的文件夹中选出“合适的成
型机”
•
压型板的自动成型工艺能解决材料的横向收缩和机架间的应变。
•
SpreadSheet 中的 “拷贝 & 粘贴”功能:可以拷贝多行和多列,在设计压型板时很方
便。
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在AutoCAD 中用 “多线”实现的“自由设计”功能,在生成制造文件(尺寸标注、锯切列
表等)时会感到应用 COPRA® Database 的好处。
•
“1-Click 点击” 轧辊轮廓的修改 – 可以增加轧辊的新公差或特性。
•
“克隆轧辊” 用于波纹板压型板截面的高效轧辊设计。
•
轧辊的材料、标记槽、轴承等通过“属性”定义在轧辊上 (不再需要手工绘图)
•
轧辊的净重、毛重计算,帮助了解材料和热处理的成本价格。
•
灵活建立材料列表的功能 (不需要书写采购订单)
•
轧辊 – “回用” 有助于减少碳排放!
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2.3.2
COPRA® RF 2013 的特性
2.3.2.1 COPRA® RF RLM轧辊生命周期管理
如同其他行业一样,冷弯厂需要降低成本,以保证他们的产品价格有竞争性。
因而data M 在冷弯成型设计软件COPRA® 中开发了灵活使用已有轧辊的功能,以降低成本。
COPRA® RF RLM 数据库可以保存全部轧辊信息,设计者可以方便地查询和使用其他项目中
用的轧辊。数据库基于Microsoft SQL Server 2008 的工业标准,可以在很大的轧辊数量中快
速查找。轧辊生命周期管理的数据库完全集成于 COPRA® 的设计工作流程中,只需付出很少
的努力就可以实现。
COPRA® RF RLM 数据库提供了按照一定搜索标准查找已有轧辊的功能,并将其用于要实施
的项目。考虑现有轧辊库存的情况,还可以完成轧辊订单的材料列表,只有库存中需要增加的
轧辊才是需要订货和生产的。
还可以管理公司的所有轧辊,例如检验有缺陷的轧辊,安排需要修复的轧辊等。
By integrating measuring data from the 从COPRA® RollScanner轧辊轮廓扫描仪得到的轧辊
数据, 可以检测使用一段时间后轧辊的磨损情况,以便决定这些特定的轧辊下一步是否可以使
用。
另一种应用是COPRA® RLM数据库提供的 “回用”-模式,需要将轧辊修复后再使用。
不是按照通常的方式从毛坯开始制造,而是将它们用于新的截面生产,只要轮廓能满足要求
即可。
只要选定一个按钮,系统就可以快速搜索适于当前项目的修复回用的轧辊。
与通常的从毛坯制造轧辊的过程相比,修复回用的轧辊可以减少材料的成本,免去一些例如下
料、孔加工、键槽加工等工序。
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1) 总体信息
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数据库引擎: Microsoft SQL Server 2008
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功能完整集成于 COPRA® RF 的工作流程
2) 管理库中的轧辊
•
考虑实际库存自动建立订单的材料列表。
•
将轧辊合并用于 " Combi Rollsets 组合轧辊"
•
库存管理功能: 检出有缺陷的轧辊,生成修复轧辊的列表等。.
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3) 将已有轧辊用于新设计
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方便地按照轧辊几何轮廓搜寻的功能
•
按照相对轮廓实体的方法搜寻轧辊
•
可自定义的轧辊列表
•
将已有轧辊插入新设计图,可以预览
•
基准截面的轧辊列表
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4) 材料列表
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可自定义的材料列表
•
考虑当前库存的轧辊订单表
•
考虑装配位置的项目材料列表
5) 轧辊回用搜索
•
在新的设计中搜索不合格的辊用于修复加工
•
将COPRA® Roll Scanner 轧辊轮廓扫描仪的检测数据导入数据库
•
定制搜索 (考虑孔、轧辊宽度的最大偏差、最小的修复加工量等)
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2.3.2.2 模块: COPRA® RF 管
功能: 变壁厚
新版本的 COPRA® RF 2013 提供了建立和维护焊管项目的功能。这些在各COPRA® RF独自
的设计项目下的 COPRA® 功能,例如自动注尺寸、装配平面图、Inventor 界面, DTM 和 FEA
等都是可用的。
改变设计是常见的事情,例如在不同壁厚时能高效、直接地修改基本轧辊设计。Inside a
COPRA® RF 项目中可以按照名义厚度修改基本轧辊。其余壁厚的轧辊依据基本轧辊和变量作
出修改。
当壁厚改变时,按照基本轧辊,自动传递数据创建新变量的项目参数。用户可以自动或人工选
择基本轧辊的变量 。通过变量选择能实现这样的功能,结果是基于基本轧辊采用不同的壁厚
的设计,事实上是对基本轧辊中的部分轧辊作了修改。
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2.3.2.3 COPRA® 在 Inventor中参数化的应用
在 COPRA® 项目中, 只需按下一个按钮就能实现整个设计。
全部轧辊按照参数化置于最终的装配图中。在COPRA® RF 2013 中 2D-制造图是自动生成
的,耗时的手工建立图纸不再是必须的了。
绘图的模版可以依据公司的标准以及要求的标注格式设定。
每种类型的轧辊尺寸只需标注一次,而在先前的每个项目中每一个轧辊都需要单独标注。在全
部项目中,使用轧辊类型,使得标注的时间由于图纸的自动建立而减少了操作时间。
在装配图中,单个轧辊以及每张图纸都是参数化的。The assembly, each single roll and each
drawing is completely parametric. 在 COPRA® 设计中需要作出修改 (改变轧辊数据、机架间
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距等)都可以自动更新而不需要新建图纸。图中的修改可以自适应变化,可以保存而不会遗
失。
智能化的 COPRA® - Inventor – 界面
•
预定义轧辊类型
•
参数化的 3D-轧辊图
•
孔的细节具有参数化特性
•
自动建立 2D-轧辊图
•
自动标注 2D-轧辊图
•
2D-制造装配图 (公司标准)
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截面显示,轴承以及保持环
•
开/关截面显示,轴承以及保持环
•
在 CAD 系统中改变调整基准
•
机架旋转 (定义成型机的左右侧切换)
•
改变成型方向
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截面、轴承、保持环的可视化定制 (上、下、左、右)
•
易于选择截面、轴承、保持环(上、下、左、右)
•
多位置的碰撞检测 (每个机架、多机架、单个辊、有轴承的辊、机架-机架 …)
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2.3.2.4 COPRA® RF 的自动更新
在 COPRA® RF 2013 中提供了一个新功能,在应用加载时可以自动检测软件的版本。在菜单
中分别显示版本信息。
由使用者决定 COPRA® RF 是否需要新版本或更新。
版本信息:
想要了解是否有新的版本,用户可以选
择与 data M 网页的自动链接。在此网
页上可以获得新版本的改进以及漏洞解
决的信息。
更新 /服务包 /补丁
如果有新的服务包或补丁, COPRA®
RF 会自动加载和更新。再下来的步骤
中显示最新的版本以及当前安装的版
本。在表格中列出与现有版本比较的全部改变、改进以及漏洞解决信息。当决定使用这些升级
过程时,会自动进行。 COPRA® RF 会自动下载必要文件以及对 COPRA® RF 自动升级和安
装。
可以对服务包和补丁经常自动更新。
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2.4
评价与鉴定
voestalpine 奥钢联Krems 对 COPRA® RF的评价:
在奥地利的奥钢联的“型材公司”有3000员工,是世界上居于领导地位的管材和型材
供应商。为满足不断增长的复杂截面和减少交货期的需求,公司寄希望于采用从data
M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH 获得的CAD/CAM-系统 COPRA® 。
“感谢这一解决方案 –我们能够取得过程的显著优化以及减少交货期”
Franz Koller, voestalpine Krems GmbH
Matjas Knez 对模具成本的评价:
“由于我们采用了COPRA® DTM (变形技术模块),我们能显著地优化设计,减少模具的
成本”
Matjas Knez, Alpos, 斯洛文尼亚
来自 Bosal的 Johann Breytenbach说:
“由 data M 提供的轧辊设计软件,告诉我们如何做轧辊设计!”
Johann Breytenbach, Bosal, 非洲
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3 COPRA® FEA RF 冷弯成型分析软件
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3.1
产品和解决方案
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®
®
3.1.1 F1 – COPRA FEA RF 专业分析 & F2 - COPRA FEA RF 基础
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3.1.2
F1 和 F2 的功能比较
功能表
F1
•
预冲孔材料的网格划分
x
•
采用旋转轧辊和摩擦力计算
x
F2
•
从COPRA 设计数据自动准备FE模型
x
x
•
边界条件的自动定义
x
x
•
成形力和驱动扭矩的计算
x
x
•
驱动扭矩的计算
x
•
仿真结果的分析工具 (不需要成为 FEA 的专家,能够做结果的分析)
x
x
•
按照用户定义的位置切断型材以便分析切断面的偏差– 例如在给定的道次上
x
x
•
动态冷弯成型特性分析的动画
x
x
•
分析纵向以及永久塑性应变值以及实际成形长度
x
x
®
•
将COPRA 设计的每个道次的辊花与有限元仿真的截面自动进行对比,以便比
较几何与板厚误差。
x
x
•
板带边缘位移固定,这可以分析袋形波的发生趋势。
x
x
•
对在轧机上的型材虚拟切断,进行内部残余应力和最终型材形状分析。
x
x
•
显示最后成形的截面形状,分析设计可能产生的缺陷 。
x
x
•
在图中显示成形长度、纵向和横向应变值。
x
x
•
重新启动功能:轧辊设计若有缺陷,计算可能会中断。修改轧辊设计后,可以从
中断的机架处继续仿真计算,不需要从开始重新计算,可节省大量计算时间。.
x
x
•
基于 MSC.MARC / MENTAT
x
x
®
•
COPRA FEA RF 项目管理对用户定义的项目进项管理
x
x
•
显示功能扩展
x
x
•
在线帮助
x
x
•
在动画中做镜像
x
x
•
自动准备 MS Word 格式的报告
x
x
•
可以处理任意数量和位置的辅助辊
x
x
•
非对称截面焊接仿真(不包括热分析)
x
x
•
旋转轧辊和摩擦力仿真
x
•
预冲孔板带网格的自动划分
x
•
成型机参数的设定(轴是否驱动、传动比、摩擦特性等)
x
•
决定上下辊是否为驱动辊.
x
®
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功能表(续)
F1
F2
•
非驱动辊的锁紧控制
x
•
当轧辊直径增加时,显示管材的成形以及定径时的纵向延伸情况
x
•
显示驱动辊的推或拉性能,仿真分析型材是否会在成型机中卡料。
x
•
预冲孔在平板上网格自动划分。
x
•
由驱动辊不同位置引起的缺陷的可视化.
x
•
由轧辊转速和摩擦力确定成形速度
x
•
决定非驱动辊的圆周速度
x
•
决定驱动轴的力矩
x
•
轧辊的旋转和摩擦力仿真对薄壁材料更应关注,机架间过大的推力或拉力会造
成成形问题而不能取得预期的结果。
x
•
在驱动和非驱动机架上确定力的分布,在导向片机架和定径机架上用箭头表示
力。箭头的长度、颜色、方向清楚地表示了力沿圆周的分布。
x
x
•
支持并行计算将作业分配在 2 个处理器上节省 40%的计算时间,分配在 4 个处
理器上可以节省 65%的计算时间。
x
x
•
支持 IGES 和 DXF 的 3D CAD 系统的输出界面,例如 Autodesk Inventor 或
SolidWorks
x
x
•
升级至 MSC.MARC/MENTAT 2010
x
x
•
平台及通用软件升级
x
x
•
显示 "驱动" 仿真
x
•
前处理 COPRA2FEA
x
x
•
输出 "位置"
x
x
•
编辑 IGES 输出
x
x
•
网格输入
x
x
•
成形力与轴的类型匹配
x
x
•
摩擦力与轴的类型匹配
x
•
驱动轴上有轴承的辊
x
•
从 "驱动"机架开始仿真
x
•
COPRA® RF 机架编号
x
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3.1.3 M10 + F3 COPRA® FEA RF 线缆型材
The COPRA® RF Wire Rolling 线缆型材轧制追求的 3 个目标:
依据经验交互式建立轧制模型: 设计者画出成形步骤,软件自动将各个部分转换为需要的比
例。
给定起始和最终截面后自动算出中间步骤,能给出变形度数和横截面的缩减量。
用 COPRA® FEA RF (有限元分析)验证分析轧辊设计。依据轧辊的几何形状和初始截面仿真每
个成型步骤。仿真分析给出最终的几何形状以及偏差,材料的改变也可作出分析。
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3.1.4 COPRA® FEA RF 2011 的新特性
•
升级至 MSC.MARC/MENTAT 2010
•
平台软件和通用软件升级 e
•
支持 64 为的操作系统
•
显示 "驱动" 模式仿真
•
前处理 COPRA2FEA
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"位置"输出
•
在 IGES 输出中编辑模型 t
•
网格输入
•
成形力与轴的类型匹配
•
摩擦力与轴的类型匹配
•
驱动轴上的安装轴承的辊
•
从 "驱动" 机架开始仿真
•
COPRA® RF 机架编号
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自动模型准备和材料定义
•
COPRA® FEA RF 项目管理易于做系统的维护
•
将 FEA 模型准备与设计流程无缝集成
•
不再需要设计者是 FEA 的专家。FEA 的模型可以直接由 COPRA® RF 设计数据转换而
来。
•
一个完整的 FEA 模型的准备只需几分钟。
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按照冷弯成型工艺需求设置前后处理。
•
包括带孔的板带网格划分预览。
•
在前处理时检测孔的位置,依据不同需求采用网格划分。
•
经 3D 冲孔编辑后自动建立孔的网格划分,上例的网格的划分和计算只需 2 分钟。
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•
•
驱动机架的 FEA-模型
摩擦力和旋转轧辊的模型图包括:
•
•
•
•
按照给定旋转速度的驱动辊 (紫色箭头)
被动轧辊,由板带速度驱动 (绿色条带)
焊接以及去除的焊接补偿量
有摩擦力的拉拔模改进了成形过程
•
成型机的设定简单方便,例如驱动、非驱动轴,传动比以及摩擦特性等。
•
使用上下辊是否驱动决定其特性
•
非驱动辊制动特性的控制
•
轧辊直径增加时管成型和定径工艺造成的纵向延伸分析
•
显示驱动辊的推或拉的特性,通过仿真显示型材是否有在机器中卡住的可能性。
•
计算驱动轴上的驱动力矩
•
旋转轧辊和摩擦力的仿真特别适合与薄壁材料分析,机架间太大或太小拉力或推力差
都会造成问题,可能会引起生产线不能连续稳定运行的情况。
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在驱动和非驱动机架上确定力的分布,在导向片机架和定径机架上用箭头表示力。箭头的长
度、颜色、方向清楚地表示了力沿圆周的分布。
•
驱动辊和摩擦力的定义
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由不同位置的驱动直径造成的缺陷的可视化。
•
由摩擦力和轧辊的旋转速度决定成形速度。
•
计算非驱动辊的圆周速度。
•
计算驱动轴的转矩。
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3.1.5 COPRA® FEA RF 2013 的新特性
FEA的开发工作主要集中于网格重划分功能和完善用户使用环境。现在网格的自动重划分功能
可以被每个操作者使用。智能化的功能已经完成并可以在COPRA® RF 2013 中应用。.
板带材料的网格自动重划分
将已有结果导入和映射到新的网格,在一个新的弯角开始成形时,需要时可以在横截面上再次
划分某个实体,将这部分的网格划得更细一些,这可以节省大量的计算时间,不再需要网格从
头到尾都是一样的。
网格重划分 – 改进分析质量和减少运算时间
除了能减少计算时间(对典型的冷弯成型为 30-40%)网格重划分也能提高分析质量。:
弯曲单元在开始弯曲时生成,这与板带的实际变形一致,随后使其逐渐弯曲,这就精确地描述
了在机架中成形的情况,将单元数减到最小,不需要使用者用试错法干预。.
网格重划分与多处理器功能
网格重划分的任务需要多处理器仿真的技术。如果采用 4 核处理器可以减少 65%,而 8 核可
以减少 80% 的计算时间。全部的仿真时间采用 4 核处理器可以加快 79%,而 8 核可以加快
89% 。实际的效果需要根据不同的运算问题来测试。
COPRA® FEA RF 2013 的新的用户环境
在 2011 版本前的界面对编程者来说很方便,但不符合最新标准的编译结果。在 2013 版本中
用户可以做出选择, 可以采用传统模式也可切换到 Windows-格式的模式。
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Windows 格式:
使用图标,视窗,下拉菜单,文件浏览器,拷贝粘贴目标
•
可以并行地采用多视窗显示模型与结果
•
构建合理的菜单历史,高效地分析结果
•
工具条的功能,例如机架观察显示的菜单
•
帮助菜单的激活
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4 附录: 文献与册子
这些文件很大,如有需要请和我们联系。
本文翻译由刘继英完成,若需帮助请联系:
13911780553
jiyingliu@vip.sohu.com
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Attention!
Dear reader, please note:
all brochures and articles on the
following pages (until the end
of the book) are available as a
single document in a bigger size
(DIN A4, printed or digital).
Please feel free to contact us
here at data M. We would be
glad to hear from you!
The data M team
3.
Literature & brochures
Literature 2011-2001
& brochures
list of literature
Publications on roll forming and sheet metal bending
by data M
Roland Hennig, Albert Sedlmaier, André Abee: Finite Element Analysis of 3D Profiles with Changing Cross
th
Sections. 10 International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, ICTP 2011; September 25-30, 2011, Aachen
Germany; Institute of Metal Forming (IBF), RWTH Aachen & Institute of Forming Technology and Lightweight
Construction (IUL), TU Dortmund.
Albert Sedlmaier, Roland Hennig: Curvature Optimized 3D-Profiles to improve the Line Speed of Flexible Roll
Formed High Strength Steels. TTP 2011 Tools and technologies for Processing Ultra High Strength Materials; 2011
September 19-21, Graz, Austria; Editor Ralf Kolleck; Verlag der Technischen Universität Graz;
Roland Hennig, Albert Sedlmaier, André Abee: Fabrication of load optimized truck members with variable cross
rd
sections by flexible roll forming. SCT2011 The 3 International Conference on Steels in Cars and Trucks, 2011 Future trends in steel development, processing technologies and applications, June 5-9, Salzburg, Austria, Verlag
Stahleisen GmbH, Düsseldorf;
Albert Sedlmaier: Making Tubes with Discontinuous Cross Sections by means of 3D Roll Forming; Yokohama
Tube & Pipe 2011 in Osaka; June 13-14, 2011; Osaka International Convention Center, Osaka, Japan; Japanese
Society for Technology of Plasticity (JSTP) – Roll Forming Research Committee.
Albert Sedlmaier, Roland Hennig, Adré Abee: Fabrication of load optimized truck members with variable cross
sections by flexible roll forming. SCT2011 The 3rd International Conference on Steels in Cars and Trucks, 2011 Future trends in steel development, processing technologies and applications, June 5-9, Salzburg, Austria, Verlag
Stahleisen GmbH, Düsseldorf;
Albert Sedlmaier, Roland Hennig, André Abee: Flexible Roll Forming of 3D-Profiles with Continuous Changing
Cross Sections; Great Designs in Steel International Conference; May 18, 2011, Laurel Manor Conference Center,
Livonia, Michigan, USA; Steel Market Development Institute, American Institute of Iron and Steel;
th
Albert Sedlmaier: Irregular profiles. Metal Matters 20 issue, Winter 2011; Confederation of British Metalforming;
Roland Hennig, Albert Sedlmaier. Henry Wolfkamp, Bernard Rolfe, Matthias Weiss: Understanding the shape
th
defects in roll forming using a novel material characterising method. The 17 International Symposium on
Plasticity and Its Current Applications; CasaMagna Marriot Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, January 3-8, 2011;
A. Sedlmaier, Roland Hennig, André Abee: Making Tubes with Discontinuous Cross Sections by Means of 3D
Roll Forming. Beijing Tube International Technical Conference 2010, 6-7 November 2010, Beijing North China
University of Technology, China;
A. Sedlmaier: Irregular Profiles. Special edition of bbr (Bänder Bleche Rohre) Oktober 2010; Henrich Publikationen
GmbH, Gilching, Germany;
A. Sedlmaier: Unregelmäßige Profile. bbr (Bänder Bleche Rohre) Oktober 2010; Henrich Publikationen GmbH,
Gilching, Germany;
A. Sedlmaier, Roland Hennig, André Abee: Making Tubes with Discontinuous Cross Sections by Means of 3D
Roll Forming. Pipe & Tube Pittsburgh 2010; Technology for Profitable Production; TPA and ITA conference; 3-5
October 2010; Holiday Inn Pittsburgh Airport, USA;
1
list of literature
Publications on roll forming and sheet metal bending
by data M
A. Sedlmaier: How to optimize a so-called cage forming system? Designing tube mill rolls: turning art into
science. Intl. Tube & Pipe Conference 2010; 19-21 September 2010; Metallurgical Council of CCPIT; Plaza Royale
Oriental Shanghai, China;
Roland Hennig: Belastungsoptimierte 3D-Walzprofile für den automobilen Leichtbau. Blechnet 6/2010; Vogel
Business Media;
A. Sedlmaier: Development of Roll Forming Applications by means of Numerical Analysis as a part of Quality
rd
Control. Cold Rolled Event by Confederation of British Metal Forming; 23 June 2010; Birmingham, UK;
A. Sedlmaier: Flexible Roll Forming of High Strength Parts with variable Cross Sections. Roll Forming Industry
Collaborative Conference, 13 – 14 May 2010, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia;
M.A. Guitierrez (Proform Coordinator) Labein-Tecnalia, I. Eguia (Proform EMF Leader) Labein-Tecnalia, S.Berner
(Proform Roll Forming Leader) PtU, C. Hennigs (Proform Laser Leader) LZH, A. Sedlmaier (Proform Control Leader)
data M Sheet Metal Solutions, A. Agnello (Proform Validation Leader) Centro Ricerche Fiat, J. Bahillo (Proform
Integration Leader) Ingemat: PROFORM: Profile Forming Innovation. IDDRG 50th Anniversary Conference "Tools
and Technologies for the Processing of Ultra High Strength Steels”; 2010 May 31 - June 02, Graz, Austria; ISBN 978-385125-108-1
Sedlmaier, Albert: Entwicklung neuer walzprofilierter Bauteile mit Hilfe von numerischer Simulation als Teil
der Qualitätssicherung - Bauteile der Zukunft - Methoden und Prozesse, 30. EFB-Kolloquium Blechverarbeitung am
2. und 3. März 2010 in Bad Boll
Abee, André; Sedlmaier, Albert: Development of Roll Forming Applications by means of Numerical Analysis as
st
a part of Quality Control - 1 International Congress on Roll Forming, Bilbao, October 14-15, 2009;
ISBN 978-84-88734-03-7
Poks, Bernard; Dietl, Thomas; Sedlmaier, Albert: Computer Control for Roll Forming of Profiles with
Discontinuous Cross Sections - 1st International Congress on Roll Forming, Bilbao, October 14-15, 2009;
ISBN 978-84-88734-03-7
Sedlmaier, Albert; Abee, André: ON THE QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF ROLL FORMED PROFILES WITH
VARIABLE CROSS SECTIONS - PLASTICITY 2009 - International Symposium on Plasticity, Frenchman's Reef
and Morning Star Marriott Beach Resort, January 3-8, 2009
Sedlmaier, Albert; Skriptin, Anton: Designing tube mill rolls: state-of-the-art software technology for
optimization of cage forming systems - Tube & Pipe Technology, January 2009, page(s) 99-103
Corban, Michael: Zugriff auf den Schatz im Rollenlager - Interview mit data M Geschäftsführer Albert Sedlmaier;
@blechnet.com 6-2008, page(s) 22-23.
Sedlmaier, Albert: Moderne Planungsmethoden für den Walzprofilierprozess - 6. Fachtagung Walzprofilieren
2008, Maritim Rhein-Main Hotel Darmstadt, PtU der TU Darmstadt, 12. November 2008
2
list of literature
Publications on roll forming and sheet metal bending
by data M
Sedlmaier, Albert: How to make high quality longitudinally welded tubes and improving the production
process by means of simulation technology - Steeltube Partnership Summit 2008; Confederation of Indian Industry;
September 12, 2008; New Delhi
Abee, A.; Berner, S.; Sedlmaier, A.: Accuracy improvement of roll formed profiles with variable cross sections
ICTP 2008 - 9th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, September 7-11, 2008; Hotel Hyundai, Gyeongju,
Korea
N.N.: Anwender verlangen für den CAD/CAM-Bereich durchgängige Lösungen ohne Datenverlust - Interview
mit data M Geschäftsführer Albert Sedlmaier; @blechnet.com 5-2008, page(s) 122-123
N.N.: Das virtuelle Walzprofilieren ist bereits Realität - Interview mit data M Geschäftsführer Stefan Freitag;
@blechnet.com 4-2008, page(s) 40-41
Sedlmaier, Albert; Skripkin, Anton: Tube mill roll tool design using state of the art software technology; “How
to optimize a so-called cage forming system?” - Technical Conference “Modern trends in production of welded and
seamless tubes and pipes: technologies and equipment”, June 18-19, 2008; KyivExpoPlaza, Kiev, Ukraine
A. Sedlmaier: High Quality Tubes Require High Quality Tooling - ways to optimize a Roll Tool Design Pipe Dream 2008 India - Intl. Conference organised by the International Tube Association ITA, February 13, 2008;
New Delhi, India
A. Sedlmaier: Schneller zum Profil - BLECH InForm, Carl Hanser Verlag, Februar 2008; page(s) 48-50
A. Sedlmaier: Roll Tool Design and Simulation of Forming process for Welded Tubes and Shaped Wire Non-Ferrous Bangkok International Conference, organised by IWMA (International Wire & Machinery Association)
and ITA (International Tube Association), October 17, 2007; Bangkok, Thailand
A. Sedlmaier: Computer Aided Process Simulation for the Design and Manufacture of High Quality Tube Mill
Rolls - PIPE & TUBE Houston Intl. Conference organised by TPA (Tube & Pipe Association, International),
September 9-12, 2007; The Woodlands, TX, USA
A. Sedlmaier, A. Kovalenko: Computer Aided Process Simulation fort he Design and manufacturing of High
Quality Tube Mill Rolls AND Practical Results of Simulation Data Application at HF ERW Mill - ITA Tube Ukraine
International Conference, September 24-26, 2007; Dniepropetrovsk, Ukraine
Stefan Freitag, Albert Sedlmaier: Untersuchung der Materialeigenschaften und Prozessoptimierung von
rollgeformten Rohren mit Hilfe der Finite Elemente Analyse - Seminar Rohrherstellung und Verarbeitung,
1. bis 3. Juli 2007, Lehrstuhl für Umformtechnik der Montanuniversität Leoben, Österreich
A. Sedlmaier, Ulrich Semmler, Gerrit von Breitenbach: FE Simulation of Roll Forming and HF Welding Process in
the Production of Welded Tubes - Nogoya Tube 2007 International Symposium on Advanced Materials and
processes for Innovative Tube & Pipe Making & Forming, June 18-20, 2007; organised by Japan Society for
Technology of Plasticity (JSTP), Nagoya University, Noyori Memorial Hall, Nogoya, Japan
E. Gülçeken, A. Abeé, A. Sedlmaier, H. Livatyali: Finite Element Simulation of Flexible Roll Forming: A Case
Study on Variable Width U Channel - 4th International Conference and Exhibition on Design and Production of
3
list of literature
Publications on roll forming and sheet metal bending
by data M
Machines and Dies / Molds, June 21-23, 2007; Cesme, Turkey
Sedlmaier, Albert: Predicting the properties of welded rollformed tubes for subsequent processes using the
Finite Element Method - Tube & Pipe Technology January, February 2007; page(s) 114ff
Freitag, Stefan; Sedlmaier, Albert; Ruess Stefan: Computer-aided tool design and simulation of the wire rolling
process - Wire Journal International, January 2007, page(s) 106-109
Semmler, U.; von Breitenbach, G.; Sedlmaier, A.: Finite Element Simulation of the Continuous Roll Forming and
th
the HF Welding Process of Internal High-Pressure Tubes - Proc. of the Joint Int. Conference: 16 Int. Conf.
“Computer Technology in Welding and Manufacturing” & 3rd Int. Conf. “Mathematical Modelling and Information
Technologies in Welding and Related Processes”, June 6-8, 2006; Kiev, 2006, E.O. Paton Welding Institute,
pp. 279-285, ISBN 966-8872-05-3
Sedlmaier, Albert: Predicting the Properties of Welded Roll Formed Tubes for Subsequent Processes Using
the Finite Element Method - Tube 05, New Technologies for Tube & Pipe Production; (ITA - International Tube
Association) Prague, October 24-25, 2005; (Paper was awarded with ITA’s “Professor Hugh Sansome Trophy” as the
best technical paper of the year)
Freitag, Stefan; Sedlmaier, Albert; Ruess, Stefan: Computer-aided tool design and simulation in the wire
forming process - Wire 05, ITA Technical Conference (ITA - International Tube Association) Prague,
October 24-25, 2005
Freitag, Stefan; Sedlmaier, Albert; v. Breitenbach, G.: Prediction of Logitudinally Welded Tube- and Profile
Properties by Using FE Simulation - proceedings of roll forming workshop at data M Software GmbH
PtU Darmstadt; Oberlaindern, 10.-12.05.2005
Freitag, Stefan; Sedlmaier, Albert; v. Breitenbach, G.: Simulation von Walzprofilierprozessen mit der FEM am
Beispiel längsnahtgeschweißter Rohre - proceedings of roll forming workshop at data M Software GmbH
PtU Darmstadt; Oberlaindern, 10.-12.05.2005
Sears, Rich: Evolutionary progress with design and optimisation software for tube mill rolls - Tube & Pipe
Technology 06/2005; page(s) 30-31
Lerch, Manfred: Finished form, flowing and fast - wire 04/2005; page(s) 28-30
Lerch, Manfred; Fließend rasante Formvollendung - Umformtechnik 02/2005; page(s) 14-16
N.N.: Wir fangen erst richtig an - Interview mit Albert Sedlmaier zum Thema Rohre und Profile;
Blech in Form 01/2005; page(s) 24-26
®
Anwenderreportage: Durchlaufzeiten halbiert - Anwendung des COPRA Softwaresystems bei voestalpine Newsletter der data M Software + Engineering GmbH; Oberlaindern, 01/2005
4
list of literature
Publications on roll forming and sheet metal bending
by data M
Heimann, Thomas: Bleche einfach besser biegen - Nur ein PC für Steuerung, Winkelmessung, Bedienung und
CAD; Newsletter der data M Software + Engineering GmbH; Oberlaindern, 01/2005
®
®
N.N.: COPRA Wire Rolling - COPRA WR Softwarelösung für das Drahtwalzen von Profilen; data M Software
GmbH; Valley, 2005; page(s) 2
N.N.: COPRA® Wire Rolling - COPRA® WR Software Solution for Rolling of Wire Profiles; data M Software GmbH
Valley, 2005; page(s) 2
N.N.: data M Engineering stellt BendingOffice vor - stahlmarkt 10/2004; page(s) 42
Miller, Mirko; Staudinger, Sandra: Reine Formsache - data M-Blechlösung für AIS 9; Inventor 06/2004; page(s) 19
Sedlmaier, Albert: FEM gestützte Auslegung von Rollensätzen - VDI Wissensforum Walzprofilieren; VDIWissensforum GmbH; Darmstadt, 12. und 13. Mai 2004; page(s) 1-7
Sedlmaier, Albert: Konstruktion und Auslegung von Rollensätzen mit geometriebasierten Methoden VDI Wissensforum Walzprofilieren; VDI-Wissensforum GmbH; Darmstadt, 12. und 13. Mai 2004; page(s) 1-7
Pennington, Neiland J.: Software module simulates tube welding. Roll form tooling design program is
enhanced by an addition to its finite - Modern Metals May, 2004; page(s) 27-29
Pennington, Neiland J.: Software module simulates tube welding - Roll form tooling design program is enhanced
by an addition to its finite element analysis capability; Modern Metals May, 2004; page(s) 27-29
N.N.: Mehr Software fürs Blech - Anbieter gestalten Komplettlösungen für die gesamte Prozesskette
Blech in Form 05/2004; page(s) 53-55
N.N.: Viel neue Software von data M - Im Mittelpunkt: die Werkzeuggestaltung und die Beschreibung von
Umformvorgängen - Stahlmarkt 04/2004; page(s) 62
N.N.: Virtual Mill Installed on Roll-Forming Line - Tube & Pipe Technology; March/April, 2004; page(s) 151
N.N.: Simulation längsnahtgeschweißter Rohre und Profile - Blech Rohre Profile; März, 2004; page(s) 66
N.N.: New Versions of Roll Tool Design Software - ITAN; March, 2004; page(s) 16
®
Seravkin, Andrei: COPRA Rollform III (russisch) - CADmaster 01/2004; page(s) 16-21
N.N.: Software für Rollenwerkzeuge verbessert - Blech 01/2004; page(s) 122
5
list of literature
Publications on roll forming and sheet metal bending
by data M
Sedlmaier, Albert: Rolling of Wire Profiles - Wire Forming Technology Int.; Fall, 2004; page(s) 16-17
Sedlmaier, Albert: How to Use Computers for Optimized Roll Design for Open or Closed Formed Profiles ®
Custom Roll Forming Institute Division Meeting - Program on COPRA Tooling Design Software; Custom Roll Forming
Institute - A Division of Precision Metalforming Association; Chicago, November 18, 2003
Sedlmaier, Albert: COPRA® Tooling Design Software - Member meeting at Custom Roll Forming Institute
(a division of PMA), Chicago, November 18, 2003; PMA, Custom Roll Forming Institute
Sedlmaier, Albert: 'Administración de Calidad Integrada en el Proceso de Diseño y Producción de Tubos con
Soldadura Longitudinal' - Tecnología De Valor Añadido - Soluciones Para La Producción Rentable De Tubos;
Tube Veracruz 2003 Conferecia 8-10 October; Conferencia Internacional de ITA; Veracruz, 2003
Sedlmaier, Albert: Integrated Quality Management in the Design and production Process of Longitudinal
Welded Tubes - Added value Technology - Solutions for Profitable Tube Production; Tube Veracruz 2003 Conference
8-10 October; International Tube Association; Veracruz, 2003
Sedlmaier, Albert: Gut profiliert - MM Maschinenmarkt 10/2003; page(s) 30-32
N.N.: Autodesk Inventor bei Reis - „Bei uns wird Bares gezählt“ - CAD/CAM Report 10/2003; page(s) 42-45
Pennington, Neiland J.: FEA RF replicates roll forming dynamics - Modern Metals August/2003; page(s) 30-31
Seravkin, Andrei: COPRA® Rollform II (russisch) - CADmaster 05/2003; page(s) 18-23
Abee, André: Increasing Roll Forming Know-How for practical verification and improving production quality
th
by use of numerical simulation - ICIT 2003 4 International Conference on Industrial Tools; Slovenia, Bled, Celje,
April 2003
Cole, Kevin L.: Software aids analysis of roll forming process - The FABRICATOR 04/2003; page(s) 70
Sedlmaier, Albert: Development and Optimization of Cold Roll Forming - EFB Kolloquium; 19. März 2003
Fellbach bei Stuttgart, 2003; page(s) 3
Sedlmaier, Albert: Qualitätsmanagement in der Konstruktion und Fertigung von Kaltwalzprofilen - EFBKolloqium 19. März 2003; Fellbach bei Stuttgart, 2003; page(s) 3
Freitag, Stefan; Quality Management for Roll Form Tooling - Svensk Verktygsteknik AB / Conference Research &
Development within the tool & die industry; March 18-19, 2003; Svensk Verktygsteknik AB; LULEÅ / Schweden,
page(s) 6
®
Kögel, Günter: Neue Funktionen im COPRA MetalBender - Blech 03/2003; page(s) 79
6
list of literature
Publications on roll forming and sheet metal bending
by data M
Seravkin, Andrei: COPRA® I (russisch) - CADmaster 03/2003; page(s) 16-21
Pfeiffer, Frank: Neue Funktion für >Inventor 6.0< - Blech in Form 02/2003; page(s) 59
Sedlmaier, Albert: Die neue virtuelle Prozesskette für das Walzprofilieren - Stahl Markt 02/2003; page(s) 68-69
Albrecht, Volker: Qualität beginnt am Bildschirm - Qualitätsmanagement in der Konstruktion und Fertigung von
Kaltwalzprofilen; Blech Rohre Profile 01/2003; page(s) 34-35
N.N.: Machine d'application de décalcomanies - Decal application machine - L'INDUSTRIE CÉRAMICHE
Déc. 2002/Janv. 2003; page(s) 60
Sedlmaier, Albert; Abee, André; Liu, Jiying: The use of numerical simulation in roll form tool development increasing roll forming know-how for practical - Proceedings of 2003 Cold Rollforming Steel technology &
Equipment - International Conference; China Roll Forming Steel Association; Beijing, 2003; page(s) 36ff.
Sedlmaier, Albert: High Quality Tubing requires High Quality Tooling - ITA Regional Conference; ITA
International Tube Association; Hyderabad, Indien, 2003; page(s) 9
Sedlmaier, Albert: High Quality Tubing Requires High Quality Tooling; Computer Aided Design and QM for
Tube Mill Roll Tooling - ITA - ASIA Pacific Tube 2003, Bangkok 2003; International Tube Association; Bangkok, 2003
Hörnig, Burkhard: Lösungen rund ums Blech - COPRA® Autodesk Applikationskatalog 2003; page(s) 34-35
®
Consistent Software: COPRA Rollform... - CADmaster 2003; page(s) 13
Fouhy, Ken: Biegetechnisch einwandfreie Teile durch zuschnittgerechte Entwicklung - MM Maschinenmarkt
28/2003; page(s) 39
Sedlmaier, Albert: Qualitätsmanagement in der Konstruktion und Fertigung von Kaltwalzprofilen Tschechische-Deutsche Konferenz; Optimierung von Produktionsabläufen in der Blechverarbeitung; VZP - Czech
Research Association for Sheet Metal Working; Prag, 2003
Sedlmaier, Albert: Die neue virtuelle Prozesskette für das Walzprofilieren - Stahl Markt 12/2002; page(s) Kopie
Scharfenorth, Ulrich Dr.: data M auf der EuroBlech 2002: COPRA MetalBender TD-i für Inventor - Stahl Markt
12/2002; page(s) 43
N.N.: Optical Roll Inspection System and Finite Element Analysis Software - ITAN; October, 2002; page(s) 3
Houck, Theresa: Roll form engineering software version introduced - The FABRICATOR October/2002;
7
Attention!
Dear reader, please note:
all brochures and articles on the
following pages (until the end
of the book) are available as a
single document in a bigger size
(DIN A4, printed or digital).
Please feel free to contact us
here at data M. We would be
glad to hear from you!
The data M team
3.1
General & Services
General & Services
www.bbr.de
SPECIAL EDITION
Albert Sedlmaier,
Managing director of data M:
»We work with
scientific institutions in
close conjunction.«
Stefan Freitag,
Managing director of data M:
»Today FEA simulation
is the first step into practical
implementation.«
FOKUS
10 PAGES
Simulate
IT BEFORE trying it – because it saves effort and expense.
NEWS, FACTS
AND TRENDS –
COMPUTER
APPLICATION
IN THE SHEET-,
TUBE- AND
PROFILEPROCESSING
FOKUS
Simulation
1
THE ECONOMICAL plus the constructional advantages of using lightweight
profiles are certainly known to us, the continuous and flexible roll forming process
virtually multiplies the advantages.
IRREGULAR PR
O
ne example is the manufacture of
load-adapted profile shapes. As in
the case of tailored blanks for instance, material and weight can
be saved in the roll forming process. Naturally,
the production processes called for here makes
special demands of the plant equipment and
engineering. Fortunately such demands are easily overcome by the use of modern software
technology.
data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH is
a provider of such technology, and their integrated COPRA® RF software program offers a process chain for the setup and validation of sets
of rolls prior roll forming manufacture. The
program comprises functionality for the development of open or closed profile cross-sections
plus the appropriate roll tools, and includes simulation of the forming processes supported by
the finite element method (FEM). The data M simulation solution is consequently a major production factor.
Special edition of bbr October 2010 www.bbr.de
Reliable FEM simulation
Previously the only way to arrive at a correctly
functioning set of rolls was by practical experimentation on the actual machine. Now there is
an alternative to this time-consuming and costly
verification of a new set of roll forming tools. It is
faster, and there is virtually no need for reworking of manufactured roll tools. What is meant by
simulation of the forming process on a computer?
As soon as a set of rolls is constructed in COPRA®
RF, the designed set of rolls is transferred into the
FEM simulation program: COPRA® FEA RF (finite element analysis for roll forming), this is then
used to simulate the roll forming operation by
nonlinear elastoplastic calculation. The user does
not even need to bother about issues such as the
definition of the FE calculation model, discretization, selection of suitable element types or definition of boundary conditions, as these are
automatically taken into account by the fully integrated software program in the COPRA® process chain.
A number of powerful analytical functions give
the user dependable statements about the final
profile quality to be expected or the properties
of a product. That could be a precision pipe
whose roundness is decisive for its use, or an
automobile member where the end-user wishes to
know how much energy it will be able to sustain.
Both the finished profile and the individual stages
of its forming are presented plastically in threedimensional coloured images. The visualisation
of any defects eradicates the need for empirical
trials and adjustments on the roll forming line.
Plus, the user starts to understand the roll forming process better, and is able to optimize the
set of tools in the design phase already, saving
time and money.
Getting to know roll forming
Not every business will need the full functionality of such a solution, so the complete software is
modular in its makeup, being a scalable program,
it is able to focus on and meet the requirements of
the individual user.
1 Load-adapted crosssections save more than 20
percent in weight
2 Optimization loops in the
COPRA® process chain
1) Designing the profile
flower pattern in COPRA®
Spread Sheet
2) Fast analytic advance
optimization with COPRA®
DTM
3) Reliable fine tuning with
COPRA® FEA RF
4) Optical quality control
with COPRA® Roll Scanner
2
ROFILES
An entire finite element calculation cannot run in
a matter of minutes even on today‘s fast computer
systems. Instead a two-step solution has proven
itself in practice: first optimisation by a fast
analytical calculation approach COPRA® DTM
(Deformation Technology Module) followed by
validation of the complete set of tools by the
FE method.
much larger selection of cold roll formed profiles
plus the use of new materials exhibiting higher
breaking strength – although poorer roll forming
properties. For data M Sheet Metal Solutions it
creates a continuing demand for further development of its COPRA® RF software program. Here
the company is supported by the research results
from various roll forming projects.
Of course the consequences for cold roll forming
go far beyond reducing the time to validate a new
set of tools and enhancing control of a process.
The profile manufacturer now gets to know and
experience the roll forming process in a whole
new way, thus it is possible to eliminate in advance
the kind of mistakes and problems that might
occur with future new products.
The history of data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH
goes back to before the actual establishment of the
company. Founder Albert Sedlmaier, Dipl.-Ing.,
was engaged as a scientific assistant in the department of mechanical engineering and design of
Munich Technical University from 1982 through
to 1987, as part of a project of what was then a research association for steel applications, now the
FOSTA group in Düsseldorf, Sedlmaier conducted
research on the subject “Knowledge-driven design
of roll forming tools – CAD/CAM applications”.
R&D for living software
Because of their variety of application, roll formed
parts have increasingly gained importance in recent years, and you find them today in new sectors
like the automobile industry. That means a very
The work and developments from this period of
research inspired the young engineer together
with Stefan Freitag, another engineering graduate, to found data M Software GmbH in June of
1987. The company‘s activities were originally
aimed purely at software development. Gradually
this also turned into process simulation.
Today, 23 years later, data M is again engaged in a
FOSTA project. Basically this is focused on
mapping simulated bending tests and simple roll
forming tests, and verifying the simulation by
the experiments that are conducted. One of the
aims is to determine which material models and
element descriptions optimally map the measured reality.
Development of
flexible roll forming
About ten years ago we saw the development of
what is called “flexible roll forming”, by which a
new kind of adjustable roll stand also makes it
possible to produce cross-sections that are discontinuous on the longitudinal axis. The first generation of this kind of equipment was born of
1
2
3
4
1 FE simulation of a hole profile with COPRA® FEA RF produces important findings about the roll forming process. 2 Intelligent COPRA® AMC
(adaptive motion control) software enables precise control of 256 flexible axes from a PC. 3 Simulation of irregular 3D profiles with COPRA® FEA
RF minimizes unwanted deformation and warp on the cross-section transitions. 4 Construction of a set of rolls in COPRA® RF – generating the
profile flower pattern in COPRA® Spread Sheet.
ideas by Prof. Schmoeckel, Prof. Groche and Dr.
Istrate of the PtU (Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines) in Darmstadt,
Germany. data M contributed its own ideas to this
development, creating and delivering the adaptive motion control COPRA® AMC.
Another project at the PtU focused on the generation of tailored blanks for the hydroforming processes. In particular, when using ultra-highstrength sheet metal, the failure limit of the material, which can no longer be so easily formed, may
sometimes be reached very fast.Flexible roll forming enables the production of blanks that are already contoured close to the finished result by an
effective process that is also highly suitable for ultra-high-strength steel.
Development of this technology took a major step
forwards in the Proform project of the EU at LABEIN Tecnalia in Spain, in which 22 European
partners were involved. Here too, data M Sheet
Metal Solutions conceived, developed and delivered the entire COPRA® AMC control for up to
256 flexible axes for an experimental installation
built by the Gasparini company. The project, ending in October 2010, was aimed at investigating
the fundamental suitability of the flexible roll
forming process for the manufacture of automobile components with discontinuous crosssections (3D profiles) from the bodywork, and
verifying this on a demonstration installation.
The project was successful, delivering evidence of
the sought capability.
Based on expertise gained from active participation in the above-mentioned and other projects,
the engineers of data M Sheet Metal Solutions
proceeded to develop a second-generation flexible
rollforming line with improved components. After trialling and demonstration this was sold to
one of the world’s biggest steel producers as an experimental plant in June 2010.
Differentiated material behaviour
At Deakin University in Melbourne, Australia a
new bending test was developed especially for use
in roll forming. The possibility of bending a strip
of sheet metal free of moment in the test rig produces a more precise description of material behaviour than previously. For example, the test allows marked differentiation of the bending response of metal strip in and opposed to the direction of the coil. This difference in material behaviour is also clearly evident on the rolled parts.
As part of a project with Deakin University, it is
now intended to implement the improved description of material behaviour in data M’s COPRA® FEA RF software, where it will produce
improved estimation of springback, twist and
other profile defects. This means that the user can
respond early on with appropriate countermeasures, avoiding the costly fabrication of faulty roll
tools and a time-consuming series of tests on the
ready profile.
A further research project, with data M as the coordinator, is RFexpert. Here the aim, among other
things, is to investigate the effects of different ➔
Special edition of bbr October 2010 www.bbr.de
FOKUS
[ Simulation
parameters such as friction and work hardening
on the quality of cold rolled cross-sections, thus
ensuring constant quality of the profiles to be manufactured, by suitable methods of measurement
and the use of an expert system. It is expected that
the finite element model used to simulate the roll
forming process will be very much improved in
its performance by this project.
The data M service centre
For a number of years now data M Sheet Metal
Solutions has been thinking about expanding its
selection of services so that it can better communicate the expertise constantly being developed to
its customers all over the world. For this purpose
the company has already established offices in the
USA, India, Brazil, Poland, Sweden and Britain.
In this way data M engineers are always receptive
to the needs of customers, to what is happening
on the market. This facet of data M service will
continue to grow.
A further, major aspect is that here, in Valley,
Germany where the company is based, data M intends to set up a service centre in the course of the
next few years. An industry-compatible prototype plant will be developed and built for flexible
roll forming of sheet metal profiles with discontinuous cross-sections on the longitudinal axis. Entirely new in this project is that for the first time
industrial standards in the automobile industry
for 3D profiles are to be achieved. Intelligent control, reliable simulation and patented process engineering are essential for controlled roll forming
operations of sheet metal strip.
flexible cross-sections from their calculation and
design through to the creation of a complete industrial plant.
The future services will comprise the following:
Generation of a feasibility study.
Devising of a (partly) new machine and roll
forming concept.
Production of any lacking components for the
prototype plant.
Manufacture of 10-20 parts with the required
profiles.
Planning of the industrial plant and
either delivery of the complete industrial plant
to the end-user as a general contractor,
or consulting of individually selected machine
manufacturers to produce the plant(s) for selected end-users.
\ ]
!" # # " $ % Load-optimized profiles
To convince the automobile industry, among
others, of the advantages of 3D roll forming, this
prototype industrial plant will later produce prototypes of the parts desired by the potential user irregular and of course conventional profile crosssections too - as evidence of their feasibility.
The new process also makes it possible to fabricate so called load-optimised profiles, i.e. with
profile cross-sections optimally matched to their
particular load. On the structural parts of automobiles and trucks, such as cross and main members, that can mean a weight saving of more
than 20 percent, which other technologies can
often only achieve through much more effort
and expense.
& Modern engineering
Both suppliers and machine manufacturers to the
automobile industry still lack expertise and experience in this specific technology, which is why
investment by industry has been hesitant for a few
years now, although the advantages of the new
technology are fairly obvious:
More flexibility than press moulded parts (each
needing an extra tool) and greater variety of
form (e.g. closed profile forms).
Cost benefits through continuous production.
Fabrication of complete part families on a
single installation.
Better formability of high-strength and ultrahigh-strength steel as well as aluminium, etc.
A test laboratory will also be set up – specialized
in roll forming – and its services made available
to industry. Through the planned project data M
Sheet Metal Solutions intends to offer its customers efficient and competent services for implementing the entire process chain of roll forming
Special edition of bbr October 2010 www.bbr.de
The economical and ecological effects are also very respectable. Assuming a vehicle drives 100,000
km, the total saving is 4 litres of fuel per kg
saved*. That is not only economically but environmentally sound.
Especially worth mentioning about this new process is that it is very cost effective and economical
in terms of tangible benefits produced by money
spent, giving vast savings in the long run. Given
the high flexibility of the process combined with
the effectiveness of roll forming, whole assemblies
and similar part families can be produced on a
single roll forming line.
& '
(
) (*Based on: saving of 0.4 liters / 100 km
per saved 100 kg)
^ ^ ^_ ` _ Albert Sedlmaier
www.datam.de
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data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH
Am Marschallfeld 17 I D - 83626 Valley
Germany I Tel.: +49 (0) 8024 - 6 40 -0
e-mail: datam@datam.de
Internet: http://www.datam.de
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Mob: 13911780553
E-mail: jiyingliu@vip.sohu.com
TEL
010-52967218
FAX
010-52967219
http://www.rollforming.com.cn
Scanning the Future
COPRA® RollScanner
Automatic Roll Inspection Machine for Quality Control,
Reworking and Reverse Engineering
High quality
tooling for better
products!
Simply put the roll on
the plug – either manually,
by fork lifter or crane
There are no doubt many advantages of using
CAD/CAM software for the layout of tube mill rolls or
roll form tooling. But does the actual geometry really
meet the original design of the rolls? Even a minor
deviation from the original roll contour may result in
minor quality tubes or profiles.
The COPRA® RollScanner is a fully automatic
measuring device for inspecting existing rolls quickly
and accurately. It satisfies the rollforming industry’s
big demand for a high-quality control system.
Scanning the roll between
a CCD camera and a
background illumination
Quality control at a glance:
the roll’s “fingerprint”
Red crosses indicate
the measured points
and deviations
Deviation between
the actual and the
measured contour
The typical ”fingerprint”
of the scanned roll
appears on the screen
The COPRA® RollScanner allows the user to register existing rolls and provides continuous quality
control. After scanning the roll you will also get an
immediate comparison of the measured contour and
the originally designed reference contour if available
in the COPRA® Database.
The deviation is shown in a diagram. All information
about the deviation can be exported to MS Excel for
further analysis and printout. The typical “fingerprint”
of the scanned roll appears on the screen. The deviation is indicated by red crosses.
Fully automatic scanning and
easy to use
The COPRA® RollScanner can be handled very
easily without any experience with computers: simply
put the rolls on the plug. After entering a roll number or
another identifier, the roll is being scanned automatically without any additional programming required.
The whole scanning process takes about one minute
(depending on roll size). Your digitized actual contour
now appears on the screen. The data can be saved in
common format, e.g. DXF, and can be processed and
stored by nearly any CAD system.
Get the original forming
strategy of stocked rolls
The measured contour of the
profile appears on the screen
After transferring the scanned data into the COPRA®
Database, the original forming sequence (flower pattern) is available and can be used by the designer for
new tubes or profiles. With these data the user can now
simulate, optimize and draw new roll sets as well as
generate NC files as if he had designed his own rolls.
Why do I need a
COPRA® RollScanner?
A: Because it is the fastest method to measure
the active surfaces of a roll.
Active areas are all
outer surfaces, but in
most cases, no undercuts and always visible
in the silhouette. Thus
the measuring job is
simplified to a 2D- problem. The COPRA® Roll
Scanner starts the measuring process at a known point
of the mandrel and is automatically following the roll contour. With a tactile comparison it would be necessary to
define the centre plane of the roll.
Who can operate the device?
A: Every (careful) worker.
All essential information
is reduced to select the
right mandrel size and a
unique roll name/number. Additional information, like bore diameter
or groove sizes are optional and used for additional description.
Do I have to develop a measuring plan for each roll?
A: No.
Measuring machines usually require an input of the
contour to be scanned (teach-in method) and how the
device will find the measuring path. As every roll is different this increases the effort substantially - even worse
if the contour to be scanned is not available in electronic
format. With the COPRA® RollScanner the measuring job
is done automatically. The analysis of the measurement
result is done automatically based on the design specification. The analysis is done by a recalculation of tangentially linked lines and arcs from the measured contour
points and an automatic comparison with a CAD drawing.
Is there a possibility to also managing roll data?
The RollScanner has a data base link to COPRA® DBMS
and is archiving the results automatically. The design
department can easily access the measuring results.
How can I get drawings from my existing old rolls?
The image processing feature, i.e. the calculation of
tangentially linked lines and arcs from the contour points,
allows a fast generation of drawings for stock rolls. As a
result of integrated logical design rules like maximum
and minimum radius, preferred chamfer angles etc. there
is only little reworking for the compensation of wear
needed to get perfect drawings.
Can I make use of my old and worn out rolls?
A: Yes.
The COPRA® RollScanner archives used rolls in a
recycling data base. A big advantage of using stocked
rolls lies in the resulting reduction of costs for manufacturing new tool sets. Why not produce a roll from an
already existing one that is no longer needed? Reworking stocked discarded or useless rolls pays back quickly
by saving the costs for raw material and working
processes such as boring and milling.
70% of the total production cost for a new roll result
from costs for raw material and hardening, 30% from
design and shaping. Experience shows that by reengineering a used roll total cost can be reduced to about
15% due to the fact that the new roll can usually be produced at a minimum of time required for chip removal.
The most effective way of saving costs is to use a highly
similar, oversize roll. Which roll fulfils these requirements
is identified by an intelligent similarity search process of
the COPRA® data base management system.
Is there an Interface to CAD Systems available?
A: Yes!
The contour of every roll being scanned is stored in a
DXF-file and can thus be used in CAD systems.
How can I integrate COPRA® RollScanner
into my QM system?
The control of the process reliability postulates the control of the
roll forming tools. This
can be done fast and
easily with the COPRA®
RollScanner. If the designed roll is available
as CAD-drawing, then it can momentarily be compared
with the actual scanned roll. The quality diagram shows
the appearing deviations. Thus it is possible to determine
quickly if a roll is within the required tolerance.
It is also possible to show the position of a big deviation
in a roll by picking the deviation in the finger print with the
mouse. Big variations in tolerance can immediately be
recognised. In practice it is especially in the area of radii
as a general rule not possible to recognize manufacturing errors. With the COPRA® RollScanner the quality of a
roll can be proved in a reliable and doubtless manner.
How do I protocol the scanned result?
A protocol is automatically generated from
the measuring process
to be printed or saved
in PDF format. This allows to create a quality
history for every roll.
How does the system help me
during set-up of new roll sets?
Very often individual areas of the forming rolls have to
be reworked during the set-up of the machine.
These changes need to be documented, otherwise the
set-up has to be repeated again if a roll is broken or worn
out. The COPRA® RollScanner needs only a few minutes
for the full documentation and helps this way to avoid
costly machine down-times.
How does a COPRA® RollScanner
help me if I am making my rolls using
CNC machines?
There are some typical errors that might occur during
roll manufacturing with CNC lathes that cannot be
checked by measuring just roll width and diameter.
These errors are caused by an incorrect radius compensation or abrasion at the tool tip. In combination with a
small sheet thickness this will result in faulty profiles.
One major reason is the squeezing of the material causing unwanted plastic deformations. Finding errors like
that without a COPRA® RollScanner is very time-consuming and almost difficult - if possible at all.
How to verify the roll gap?
The roll gap calculation is very important, especially for
thin material. Sometimes this information is even more
important than the geometry of the individual rolls. Squeezing of the material will e.g. result in failure at the burst test
of radiator tubes. For the roll gap calculation each individual roll is scanned. A software module aligns the
respective rolls automatically to a predefined sheet thickness. The deviation between the nominal and the actual
gap is shown with a quality diagram and a graphical
superelevation along the roll contour.
Automatic alignment of both rolls
Report of the roll gap
Does optical measuring method allow
measurement of faces that cannot be measured
with a mechanical sensing device?
Rolls are containing active faces with very little inner radii like
strip guides. Unlike mechanical measuring units
that have the limitation of
the gauging ball diameter
the COPRA® RollScanner
is able to measure unlimited small inner radii.
What about life time of this device?
Optical measurement is free of abrasion. The measuring process is realized with a CMOS image sensor being
positioned is by means of glass scales. Both measuring
systems are working without wear. The measuring precision is guaranteed for years without adjusting.
What about accuracy when scanning small rolls?
The measuring accuracy is almost independent from the
roll size. There is only a little thermal and absolute positioning error of the glass scales (3µm/m). In principle the measuring accuracy is not influenced by the roll size and weight.
Can I scan any kind of rolls?
A: Yes - with 3 axis.
Automatic focusing
with a third axis enables
measuring of any roll as
long as the contour to
be scanned is completely visible in the centre plane. Any shoulder
Diameter Step
however has to be meaThe roll is in scanning position.
At the diameter step the focus can not be in
sured with the front
the centre of the roll due to the horizontal
plane. Therefore the camera automatically
edge. This edge is perputs the focus on the outside diameter line.
pendicular to the centre plane and so no more visible as a sharp edge. An
accurate measurement without focussing to this distance
would not be possible. Therefore the COPRA® RollScanner
can move the camera perpendicular to the centre plane
with high accuracy to focus the front edge of shoulders.
Can the COPRA® RollScanner also measure profiles?
A: Yes.
Embedded profile cuts can be measured with an on-axis
light option. Thin profile cuts are measured with the standard
backlight. In both cases the profile must be free of burrs.
Software is adapted to the measuring problem
The operation of the COPRA® RollScanner is adapted
to the special demands of the roll forming industry. There
is no preparation needed for defining working planes,
coordinate systems or measuring regions.
Ability to operate in shop floor
A measuring laboratory is recommended but not needed
for the COPRA® Roll
Scanner. The encapsulated construction enables the operation in a
shop floor environment.
It is only important that
the rolls are clean and
stored at a similar temperature as the COPRA®
The encapsulated construction enables
RollScanner.
operation in a shop floor environment
COPRA® RollScanner the new generation
The COPRA® RollScanner is designed for operation
in rough industrial environment. The rolls can be handled either manually, by fork lifter or crane.
Compared to the previous model the new COPRA®
RollScanner has been developed with a totally new
design concept in mind: the main body consists of a
highly precise stone base offering a reference level
that is accurate down to a few µm. The linear guide is
mounted on the stone body. The new measuring lens
displays a considerably higher magnification level
than the former model. The vertical guide of the camera is mounted on a high precision normal, which
guarantees that the vertical movement is absolutely
perpendicular to the body.
Also new is the integrated illumination device that
comes as part of the machine body. Reflections that
usually occur in standard video inspection systems
are now dramatically reduced. By separating the x- and
the y-axis (camera up-down, roll back-forth) measurement errors are now reduced to a minimum and there
is no more need for calibration. The RollScanner
reaches measured values of 1/100 mm accuracy and
an optical resolution of 4 µm. A horizontal moveable
camera axis (3 axis models only) enables the
COPRA® Roll Scanner to measure more complex roll
shapes by adjusting the focus out of the center plane.
Being a closed system the COPRA® RollScanner is
protected against external influence of ambient light.
It operates completely free of vibration and is - thanks to
its solid granite block - resistant to thermal deformation.
COPRA® RollScanner:
Type 200
COPRA® RollScanner:
Type 100 - 3
COPRA® RollScanner: Type 200
The new generation of the
COPRA® RollScanner:
solid building with highest accuracy
COPRA® RollScanner the new generation
Fast Facts:
• Digitizing and archiving of existing rolls
• Contactless measuring without abrasion
• Scans rolls automatically
(no extra programming required)
• Quality control of the roll contour
• Analysis and reworking of existing roll sets
• Interface to roll database systems
(cost reduction by usage of existing rolls)
• Early detection of weak points
• Optimization of your production
• Continuous quality documentation
• 3 axis for automatic focus (Autofocus)
Technical Data:
• Computer: Industrie-PC
• Operating system:
Windows XP Professional Embedded
• Software: Coroma 2010
• Accuracy: +/- 0,01 mm of scanned points
• Interface: COPRA® DBMS, DXF
• Power supply: 110/230 V 50/60 Hz
(subject to change without notice)
COPRA® RollScanner:
profile scanning
© data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH · CRS 06/ 2011
COPRA® RollScanner
TYPE
200-3
100-3
max. roll weight [kg]
200
100
max. roll diameter [mm]
450
270
max. roll width [mm]
460
250
approx. dimensions [m]
1,5 x 1 x 2
1 x 0,8 x 1,65
approx. weight [kg]
1250
650
Number of controlled axes
3
3
Additional Rollforming Solutions:
• COPRA® RF / Design Software Modul
• COPRA® FEA RF / Analysis Software (Finite Element Analysis)
• COPRA® RF DBMS (Database Management System)
www.datam.de
data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH
Am Marschallfeld 17
D-83626 Valley / Oberlaindern
Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 80 24 / 6 40 - 0
Fax: +49 (0) 80 24 / 6 40 - 300
e-mail: datam@datam.de
http://rollscanner.datam.de
COPRA Software Roll Forming
3.2
®
COPRA® Software Roll Forming
ENGLISH
COPRA FEA RF
®
Simulation Technology for the Roll Forming Process with
DTM and Finite Element Analysis
www.datam.de
COPRA ® DTM
Deformation Technology Module
COPRA® Roll Form Simulation
In the past roll forming used to be treated as a kind
of "black art". Difficulties such as appearing defects
and problems in setting up new roll sets on the mill
were not uncommon. In a trial & error approach one
had to produce a whole roll set and do the machine
setup in order to find potential weaknesses in the
roll forming process – a costly and time-consuming
cycle causing expensive machine down-times.
data M has been aware of this problem from an
early stage and has concentrated its efforts into
developing a simulation program to overcome these
problems. It is now possible to predict the practical
results with high accuracy with COPRA® Roll Form
Simulation Technology.
A 2-step philosophy
COPRA® Deformation Technology Module
(COPRA® DTM)
This module calculates occurring longitudinal
(elastic and plastic) strains quickly and reliably with
high accuracy. It takes into account parameters that
are vital to the roll forming process such as material
properties, sheet thickness, roll diameter, types of
rolls, etc.
The geometry generated by COPRA®’s shaping
feature enables the design engineer to optimise his
own roll designs. He gets automatic feedback about
feasibility and potential weaknesses of the design.
The simulation tool – as says its name – shows
critical areas without touching a single piece of hardware. COPRA® DTM has been developed scientifically and has proven its practical use in thousands
of cases.
data M offers two different software programs for
simulating the roll form process:
1) a static solution, based on the theory of
thin shells (COPRA® DTM) and
2) a non-linear Finite Element Analysis
(COPRA® FEA for Roll Forming).
Simulating the forming process in the
first step: COPRA ® DTM
Matjaz Knez, Alpos:
Longitudinal plastic strain values:
COPRA® DTM
should be!”
“Since we have been optimising our rolls with COPRA®
DTM we were able to reduce our tooling costs significantly”.
Lars-Gunnar Söderlind, AvertaPolarit Stainless Tube:
Johann Breytenbach, Bosal Africa:
“Thanks for 10 years of cooperation with data M and
“the roll design supplied by data M is as a roll design
usage of the excellent COPRA® Roll forming program.”
COPRA ® FEA RF
Simulation of the Roll Forming Process - (Non-linear 3D Finite Element Analysis)
Non-linear Finite Element Analysis (COPRA® FEA RF)
With its COPRA® FEA RF software package data M
continues to supply highly efficient software packages tailored to the roll forming industry´s needs.
The program imports data directly from COPRA® RF,
which is used as a pre-processor for the Finite
Element Simulation technique.
In addition to the COPRA® DTM simulation results,
COPRA® FEA RF provides essential information about
forces, torques, stresses and a 3D-visualization of the
final product showing possible later defects. As a matter
of fact, this module can be regarded as a "virtual roll
forming mill" that allows the user to try out new roll
sets even before the actual manufacturing process.
COPRA® FEA RF is easy to use and runs on a
standard up-to-date personal computer. It does not
require any time-consuming pre-processing or difficult
post-processings. It is tailored to the roll former’s
needs – as are all of data M COPRA® products.
■ With MSC.MARC solver - optimized for roll forming
■ Comfortable managing of different simulations by
the COPRA® FEA RF Project Manager
■ Automatic preparation of FE model from existing
COPRA® RF design data
■ Automatic definition of respective roll form specific
boundary conditions
COPRA® FEA RF:
Deformation of prepunched material
■ Calculation of forming forces and forming work:
this will help you defining the machine
(axis-diameter, required motor power)
■ Tools for the analysis / interpretation of simulation
results (you do not need to be a FEA expert in
order to be able to interpret the results…)
■ Plotting of simulated cross sections at user defined
positions. These can be compared with the designed
cross sections in order to verify current cross section
deviations (necking, springback, widening, etc.)
■ Dynamic animation of roll form behavior
■ Analysis of maximum and permanent longitudinal
strain values as well as real forming lengths
■ Investigation of behavior of the material after cut-off
in the mill. This allows to visualize frozen inner
stresses and respective influence on the final
profiled shape (bow, twist, end flair, etc.)
■ Shows defects due to wrong flower or roll design
■ Shows forming lengths, longitudinal and transversal
strain values in diagrams
■ Other diagrams for investigating material changes
(like work hardening), thickness changes,
springback, unsymmetrical behavior, and failure
of the material (FLD)
■ Possibility to make a restart with the results from
a specific station
■ Semi-automatic report creation
■ Simulation of pre-punched material: investigation
of deformation of punch holes and surrounding
material. Influence on cross sectional stiffness.
Analysing trapezoidal sections
From art to part...
Duffy Armstrong, Webco Industries:
The FEA analysis that data M performed for us allowed
The visual representation was described by the machine
us to see a visual representation of the process problem
operator as "exactly what I'm seeing coming out of the
we were having, as well as providing a quantitative
mill". This analysis showed us exactly where in the pro-
value to the stresses we were imparting to the product.
cess our problems were occurring.
COPRA ® FEA RF
Welding - tubes and
(un)symmetrical closed profiles:
■ Calibration of round tubes / closed sections
■ Round to (un)symmetrical shapes
■ Shape to shape
■ V-angle of weld
■ Quality of weld
(e.g. investigation of the real welding addition)
COPRA® FEA RF: Tube mill welding
Cage forming
■ Investigating and defining smooth forming
■ Controlling the cross sections
■ Equalize force distribution
■ Definition of optimal downhill forming
Drawing Dies
■ Supporting air bending
■ Cost reduction in tooling
COPRA® FEA RF: Cage forming
Interaction of driven / non-driven rolls and their influence on the forming process and quality of the shape:
■ Investigating of driving diameter
■ Frictional forces and losses
■ Pulling force in material
■ Better indication of surface damage
■ Better investigation of required motor power
Future in COPRA® FEA RF already proved by pilot projects /experience:
Coupled thermal / mechanical analysis of welding
■ Coupled Thermal / Mechanical Analysis
■ Adaptive Meshing in Welding Area
■ Welding Criterium
■ Material Phase Transformation
■ Geometry and Position of the Laser Heat Input
■ Power of the Laser / HF Welding Equipment
COPRA® FEA RF: Drawing dies
COPRA® FEA RF: Evaluating driven rolls
© data M · COPRA® FEA RF 04/04 . üa 04/09
Additional Solutions from data M
•
•
•
•
•
•
COPRA® RF Design and consultancy services
COPRA® ProfileChecker (Quality Control Hardware)
COPRA® RF Roll Design Software
COPRA® WR for Wire Rolling
COPRA® for Tube Drawing
COPRA® RF DBMS (Database Management System)
• COPRA® MetalBender
(Sheet Metal Design and unfolding Software)
• COPRA® LaserCheck (Sensor for Bending Machines)
• Vision Systems
• Hexapod Robots
• Software Developement
www.datam.de
data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH
Am Marschallfeld 17
D-83626 Valley / Oberlaindern
Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 80 24 / 6 40 - 0
Fax: +49 (0) 80 24 / 6 40 - 300
e-mail: datam@datam.de
http://www.datam.de
1. Reduction of Calculation Time by use of multiple processors
As you will find in Fig. 1 it is clearly possible to reduce the calculation time significantly by using more than one processor.
Every processor takes over the calculation of a part of the strip. Using two processors the amount of elements which is to be
calculated can be halved. So the calculation time can be reduced theoretically by 75%. Unfortunately there exists a certain
administration effort which occurs when parallelising the calculation and which shoots down the gain of time partially. Of course,
the saving in time depends for example on the model type or on the element distribution and therefore adheres to certain
variations.
Fig. 1 illustrates the relative calculation speed of the different parallel options. A simulation operated with two processors gains
®
40% calculation time in comparison to a standard COPRA FEA RF version. One simulation with eight processors (“parallel_8
option”) gains even 80% of calculation time.
Fig. 1: Comparison of the different parallel options
By the way: You can reduce your simulation time through another technology: the automatic re-mesh.
®
The new COPRA FEA RF 2013 version contains this interesting timesaving feature.
2. Reduction of Calculation Time by using automatic re-mesh with COPRA®
FEA RF 2013
With the dynamic re-mesh, the reduction of calculation time for typical roll forming examples can account for 30 to 40% of time.
This particularly becomes more evident at the beginning of the roll form process; thus you can save significant time by using the
re-mesh functionality.
Fig. 2 shows that using automatic re-mesh (blue line) a reduction of calculation time of 40 % can be achieved compared to not
using this technology (red line):
Fig. 2: Application with Re-mesh vs. application without Re-mesh
The red line shows the calculation time per “INCREMENT” without automatic re-mesh. All elements are already applied at the
start of the calculation. The blue line describes the progress with automatic re-mesh. At the beginning of the calculation the
model has significantly less elements – the calculation time per “INCREMENT” is considerably less. After all bends have been
applied the calculation time is more or less identical.
Soon available:
x
®
COPRA FEA RF 2013:
The automatic re-mesh function minimizes the calculation up to 40%.
Furthermore we would also like to provide you with a few valuable hints on how you can further minimize your calculation time:
3. Reduction of Calculation Time by application of new processors
You can gain additional calculation time by investing circa 1.500 € and purchasing a more up to date work station. Depending
of the currently used system, a newer workstation helps you to achieve a better processing power of up to 90% compared to
older hardware. Such a comparison of the different processors is shown in Fig. 3.
Thus the calculation time of our benchmark project with a Pentium P4 Processor 2.4 GHz accounts for 14 hours calculation
time, with an i7 2600K processor it takes only two hours! Fig. 3 also illustrates the difference for i7 2600K, and calculating the
project by using four processors, the calculation time was only 45 minutes!
Fig. 3: Comparison of different processors
1 CPU - Benchmark calculation time in hours .
20,0
18,0
16,0
14,0
12,0
10,0
8,0
6,0
4,0
2,0
i7 2600K 4CPU
i7 2600K
marc9 Intel Core i7
965 XE @ 3,2GHz
Intel Core 2Duo
E8600 @ 3,33 GHz
marc6 Intel XEON QC
DP X5355 @ 2,7 GHz
marc5 Intel XEON DC
5160 @ 3,0 GHz
Xeon05
marc4 Intel XEON
3,6 GHz 64 bit
Xeon03
Xeon 2,8 GHz
P4 2,4 GHz
AMD 1,3 GHz
0,0
4. Reduction of Calculation Time by application of a 64bit workstation
Instead of 32bit we recommend to run workstations and operating systems with a 64bit work environment. Fig. 4 shows that
this can also help you to reduce your calculation time further, however not to such a degree that you would usually expect. You
may also expect a maximum reduction of calculation time of between 5 to 8 %.
Fig. 4: Comparison of 32/64 bit-operating systems
32 bit / 64 bit
6,2
6,0
32 bit
5,6
64 bit
5,0
3,7
4,0
3,5
3,0
2,0
1,0
0,0
1CPU
2CPU
‘New Technologies for Tube & Pipe Production’
SESSION: Ferrous Tube – Welded
TUBE 05 PRAGUE - CZECH REPUBLIC
24-25 October 2005
Predicting the Properties off Welded Roll Formed
Tubes for Subsequent Processes Using the Finite
Element Method
A Sedlmaier, data M Software GmbH, Germany
Abstract
Determining and optimizing the properties of a tube semi-finish in advance of subsequent
processes such as bending and hydroforming require simulation of the entire process chain.
Every single forming step must be considered in terms of its influence on material properties.
In many cases, for example hydroforming, one starts by simulating the forming operation
with the ready tube, although major properties such as work hardening have already been
defined by the production process in the tube welding plant. For this reason we commence
our simulation as early as the roll forming phase, considering the individual forming steps
in the process chain, i.e. roll forming, preparation for welding and calibration. Investigations
show that these steps have a substantial effect on later tube properties, and that they can
be influenced positively by adroit variation of the tube forming process.
A computer program system is presented here by means of which the entire tube making
process chain – roll forming, welding, calibration and even verification of the tube properties
by means of hydro forming – can be mapped.
Introduction
Given the variety of their applications, welded roll formed tubes and profiles have taken on
increasing importance in recent years, finding their way into new sectors like the automobile
industry. The reasons for this include the introduction of new materials, and improved
possibilities for designing roll tools. Advantages that go along with the overall process are
the large choice of profile cross-sections, and the work hardening of the material that results
from the forming operation, which can be utilized in many cases by applying the right design
skills. Such are the benefits, but there are also a number of constraints, for example the, in
many cases, time-consuming design and production of roll tools, the, again time-intensive,
startup and try out of tool sets, or unwanted deformation and strain in the end-product – in
particular if the ready tube or profile is to be treated further in follow-on processes. This is
the case in the bending of tubes or hydroforming for instance.
Examples of closed roll-formed tubes and profiles
A listing of these aspects alone illustrates the potential presented by the use of powerful
analyzing and optimizing tools. If all the efficiency of roll forming is to be utilized in the
production of tubes, methods and means must be applied in the tool design phase that will
help to improve the properties of a tube semi finished product for its subsequent processing.
The software solution presented here is suitable not only for steel but also for non-ferrous
metals such as aluminum or copper.
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24-25 October 2005
Roll tool design
For some time now the company data M Software, based in German Bavaria, has been
offering a virtual process chain for the design and validation of roll forming processes in
tube production. The COPRA® RF software program supports all steps in the development off
tube cross-sections. This starts with the definition and design of the individual forming steps
(flower pattern and roll passes), proceeding through generation of technical documentation
to quality control. A multi-stage concept accelerates both the design and analysis process,
allowing for the needs of the designer, who is looking for speedy design of a tool set, and
of the production manager, who is interested in early validation of roll forming and welding
operations.
COPRA® tube mill roll design software for flower and roll tool design
The forming sequence (flower pattern) is calculated either to the designer’s wishes or based
on ready stored, corporate strategies (center line, double radius, W-bend, linear, cage,
etc).
The geometry of the various roll tools is calculated by the design software according to
predefined machine parameters stored in a database. Information is entered about the
types of passes (forming stands), driving diameters, gear ratios, side rolls, their maximum
and minimum adjustments, etc. With these predetermined, corporate and machine-oriented
values, the user formulates an – optionally automatic – design for every forming pass, each
of which can be modified afterwards with a so called flower and parametric tool editor. The
software guides the designer through the process. Dialog boxes provide explanation where
appropriate, and reduce the required amount of user input to a minimum. Even if there is no
doubt about the continuing importance of the designer’s role, the roll tool design software
has become an important instrument for the efficient calculation and planning of tube mill
roll tooling.
Calculation of plastic strain values
For a long time the designer lacked reliable methods to provide information about the quality
of tool design. Roll tool design tended to be treated like some kind of black magic, often
leading to faults and difficulties in setting up new roll tools on a tube mill or problems with
welding quality. The increasing use of simulation tools is turning this magic of tool design into
a proper science that uses a continuously growing number of influencing parameters. The
aim of such simulation has always been to make the tube forming process reproducible and
enable prediction of subsequent product properties.
Roll forming is a continuous process with rotary tool motion. The sheet metal is bent into
shape at several consecutive stations by vertically or horizontally aligned, mating rolls.
For the most part, a change in the thickness of the metal is not intentional in roll forming,
but results in practice through the process. Forming occurs not only at the direct points off
contact between tool and workpiece, but also in the region ahead of the roll tool. Points
on the strip edge travel further than points in the middle of the strip. This produces strain
whose maximum, in most cases, lies in the region of the strip edge. Such strain can lead to
process-specific problems like strip edge waviness or undesirable deformation of the tube.
International Tube Association Conference
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24-25 October 2005
Deformation
f
off this kind is the result off residual stress induced by plastic strip edge strain.
The definition of the forming geometry, i.e. the tool design, must be aimed at preventing orr
at least minimizing this residual stress.
Course of strip edge strain in a tube mill/roll forming mill
Finite element simulation: strip edge waves due to residual stress after first breakdown (left); strip edge
buckling after fin passes in practice (right)
Residual stress is stress that remains in the part following plastic deformation when the load
on the part is removed. It is produced by the elastic component of the deformation, creating
resiliency after removal of the load.
Based on extensive practical investigations and finite element calculations, the author’s
company developed a mathematical model for fast estimation of the plastic strain occurring
on strip edges during roll forming (COPRA® Deformation Technology Module - DTM). This
means that a newly designed forming sequence, before it is trialed on a machine or even
accurately verified by finite element analysis (FEA), can be speedily and surely examined
for such undesirable plastic strain, which can consequently be corrected. In addition to
theoretical values for the longitudinal or transverse strain appearing on the upper or underr
side of the sheet metal, COPRA® DTM also shows how the values are distributed over the
cross-section.
This is important because in practice, in many cases, one only hears of strip edge strain,
whereas roll forming can quite easily create higher strain in other regions of the strip, as
is the case in what is called downhill forming for instance. COPRA® DTM produces a threedimensional presentation of the roll forming operation together with the roll tools. Thus,
immediately after tool design, the user sees a clear 3D display of the later forming process.
With this fast analytical tool it is possible to work through a whole number of different
forming variants, and, if need be, to correct the drafted forming strategy or the number off
forming passes used before actually getting down to the details or producing the roll tools.
That saves time and reduces the risk of reworking.
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International Tube Association Conference
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24-25 October 2005
COPRA® DTM (Deformation Technology Module) calculates longitudinal plastic strain values resulting from the
roll forming process in tube mills
Finite element simulation of the roll forming process
Not so long ago, the only possible way to arrive at a working roll set was practical trialing on
the machine. Today there is an alternative, a means of accelerating such a time-consuming
and costly tryout of a new roll set and avoiding the need to rework the roll tools: simulation
by the finite element method (FEM).
The performance of today’s computers allows the solution of extensive and complicated
problems by numerical simulation. Nevertheless, the computation time needed to resolve
the system of equations is very much dependent on the different parameters that are to be
defined. The finite element model of the roll forming process as a map of the real process is
determined among other things by factors like the number of finite elements (discretization),
the number and modeling of contacting bodies, the number and distribution of time
increments, and possible use of existing symmetry relationships.
In the numerical solution of a structurally mechanical problem by FEM, one always looks forr
a balance between inner and outer forces. Once this is found, one is able to calculate the
displacements of the individual nodes and, in turn, the strain. Using the strain, the law off
materials enables one to deduce stress and force.
This is a case for the COPRA® FEA RF software package, which sets up on the commercial
MSC.MARC solver (responsible for performing the numerical calculations). Generating an
FE model of a complete roll forming installation will normally involve a considerable work
investment, requiring specialists trained for the purpose.
The geometry of every single forming roll must be imported as a curve, then rotated about
its axis, and positioned in space. After that, each roll must be assigned material and contact
information, and data have to be entered about output variables (job results), time sequences
(load cases), material and contact of the strip material and other, in part time-dependent,
boundary conditions. It can easily take up to several days in order to do such a job. COPRA®
FEA RF relieves the user of all this. The program generates an FE model optimized forr
simulation of the roll forming process, and executes the computation within MSC.MARC5.
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24-25 October 2005
COPRA® FEA RF: easy-to-use dialog launches a finite element simulation
COPRA® FEA RF uses cubic volume elements with assumed strain formulation for the
generated FE model. The advantage of these volume elements compared to the shell elements
frequently used to simulate metal forming processes is that they can map forces in all three
directions in space as well as the resulting stresses and deformations. Shell elements are
not able to do this in the direction of their surface normals. If a roll forming process is to
be realistically simulated and the influence of the roll gap analyzed for example, there is no
alternative to use of the described volume elements 4.
As shown by the investigations that were conducted, it is not enough to simulate the continuous
roll forming process just two-dimensionally or to approximate it 1. The longitudinal stress
appearing in the strip must not be neglected in an FE simulation 2 because it contributes,
among other things, to changes in wall thickness.
Multi-stage concept for design and verification of the tube making process:
1) Design of the tube to be produced
2) Design optimization by COPRA® Deformation Technology Module
3) Process verification by finite element analysis
4) Analysis and quality control of existing roll tooling by optical roll scanning
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A number of powerful analytical functions (postprocessor) in COPRA® FEA RF give the user
dependable information about the profile quality or material properties to be expected. Both
the ready tube and single intermediate stages are presented in three-dimensional colorr
images. The visualization of defects means that, for the most part, it is possible to dispense
with the empirical trials and adjustments to the tube mill or roll forming line that used to be
necessary, and a new tool set can already be analyzed and optimized in its design phase.
A two-stage solution to an optimized production result
Given the fact that a full finite element computation is not a matter of minutes, even with
the speed of today’s computer systems, a two-stage solution has proven its worth in actual
practice. This consists of preliminary optimization through a fast computing approach by
COPRA® DTM (calculation of plastic strain values) and subsequent validation of the complete
tool set by COPRA® FEA RF (finite element analysis). An optical scanning tool for roll and
profile cross-sections is available for the analysis and improvement of roll tooling already in
use in production. It delivers digitized tool contours that allow quality inspection of roll tools
parallel to production and FE analysis of the forming process.
Simulation of a tube forming process with COPRA® FEA RF
COPRA® FEA RF provides the user with important data about possible problem areas in metal
forming. In addition to information on the quality of forming, the software generates values
relating in particular to material strain and inner stress or quite simply to the forming forces
or moment. COPRA® FEA RF is a decisive aid in understanding the roll forming process, and
in this way contributes to improved quality. A number of examples are illustrated below.
“Air bending” in a station. There is the risk of marks on the outside surface of the tube, caused by the point
contact at the bottom roll. The part with the larger radius than designed must be formed later. This means
additional work for the fin stations.
Verification of tube quality: a poor and a better example
International Tube Association Conference
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24-25 October 2005
Investigation of the V-angle. The V-angle is important in defining the position and geometry of the welding
equipment.
COPRA® FEA RF: thermomechanical coupling for simulation of the welding process; heat distribution model
according to Scott 8
Practical example – wall thickness distribution
In what follows, the forming of a welded tube is simulated, and the results are compared to
practical values. The example taken is a socalled W-forming of a 60 mm steel tube with 27
stands. The thickness of the metal is 1.5 mm.
W-forming of a 60 x 1.5 mm tube6
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The tool set for this purpose was designed in COPRA® RF and the entire initial forming
simulated. The simulated pattern of the wall thickness of the coil versus circumference as a
function of the pass number is shown in the following diagram 6.
Pattern of wall thickness versus circumference as a function of pass number
Three extreme values of wall thickness appear. They are in the region of the plane off
symmetry (Max 1), in the region of the strip edge (Max 3) and at approx. 90°. It has shown
that all three extremes are formed in stands 16 and 17. These are fin passes, which apply
heavy compression to the metal strip.
Total equivalent plastic strain (TEPS) values at the entry to the first fin pass. A huge amount of calibration and
forming work is being applied.
Work hardening
The value of total equivalent plastic strain (TEPS) is used to calculate work hardening. This
value is the sum of the comparative logarithmic plastic strain values over the entire forming
process, and consequently exhibits a monotonically increasing pattern. If the comparative
strain for the entire forming process is summed, the result is a measure of the strain history
of a certain node. This can be taken as a qualitative measure of work hardening on this node
4.
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Total equivalent plastic strain as a measure of work hardening
The following diagram shows the pattern of work hardening (TEPS) over the circumference
in the final state of the formed tube (red curve). This pattern is very similar to that for wall
thickness in the final state of the tube (blue curve).
Pattern of wall thickness (blue curve) and work hardening (red curve) over circumference; final state of tube
The patterns of wall thickness distribution and TEPS, each in the final state of the tube, both
exhibit maxima at approx. 92° and 180°. The wall thickness shows a further maximum at
14°, which may not be so conspicuous for TEPS but is nevertheless recognizable. From this
it can be concluded that zones of high work hardening may be expected in the ready profile
(tube) at approx. 15°, 90° and on the strip edge (180°) 4.
An element in the refined region in stand 17, where the wall shows the largest increase in
thickness (fin pass), exhibits the following stress condition:
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International Tube Association Conference
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Increase off wall thickness at 90° (inside = Innenseite; outside = Aussenseite)
4
The comparative stresses are calculated as follows:
бv_tresca_inside
= │-430 N/mm2 – 82 N/mm2 │= 512 N/mm2
and
бv_tresca_outside = │-126 N/mm2 – 215 N/mm2 │= 341 N/mm2
Both comparative stresses exceed the yield point. The wall can be expected to thin on the
outside, but the inside will thicken. The value of the strain on the inside exceeds that on
the outside, so here the wall will thicken overall. These findings are confirmed by practical
observations.
Determining tube properties by experiment
A bulge test was chosen to determine the properties of the semi-finished product ‘tube’ .
The experiments were conducted at the Institute for Production Engineering and Forming
Machines (PtU) of Darmstadt University. The following illustration is a schematic of the test
setup:
Schematic of bulge test setup 7 at PtU Darmstadt
(die = Matrize; tube = Rohr; sealing cone = Dichtkonus; radial expansion sensor = radialer Aufweitsensor)
International Tube Association Conference
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First a tube is placed in the bottom halff off the tool. While the tube is being prefilled
f
with
forming medium, the two axial cylinders with the sealing cones move to the ends of the tube,
fill out the cones and seal the tube. Then the tube is expanded by filling it with a constant
volume flow until bulge pressure is reached. The radial expansion is recorded during the test
as a function of the internal pressure that is created. By subsequent optical evaluation of the
plastic strain on the burst tube it is possible to deduce the nature of the expansion of the
tested tube.
The plastic strain on the burst tube was analyzed from the different measured values and
results of the bulge test. The pattern of the strain over the circumference shows to what
extent material has flowed in a region during the test. Optical evaluation was performed with
the GOM/Argus system. The dot matrix was rolled onto the tested tube by means of a silk
screen die 4.
Burst tube example 60 x 1.5 mm, roll-formed, HF welded
6,7
Optical measurement of circumferential strain (GOM/Argus system)
6,7
The two pictures above show a burst tube from the experiments and an optical evaluation off
the plastic strain over the circumference.
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International Tube Association Conference
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24-25 October 2005
Optical measurement of circumferential strain 6,7
Above diagram illustrates the evaluated pattern of the plastic strain around the tube
circumference. Three distinct minima can be observed, i.e. regions with lower values off
strain.
Comparison of experimental results with FEA results
Comparison of simulation with experiment:
wall thickness distribution and work hardening (TEPS) from FE simulation (top diagram); circumferential strain
values from bulge test and optical analysis (bottom diagram)
In the above comparison of the diagrams with the values for wall thickness distribution and
work hardening (TEPS) obtained by simulation and the circumferential strain determined in
the bulge test, it can be seen that the values correlate. Both the wall thickness and the work
hardening reach maxima (colored regions) at approx. 14°, 92° and 172°. It can consequently
be expected that these three regions will exhibit the most resistance to a change in shape
International Tube Association Conference
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24-25 October 2005
through hydroforming
f
(bulge test). At these points one will thus also expect to find
f
minima
of the strain component in the circumferential direction. This is borne out by the bottom
diagram.
Simulation of bulge test
Here the experimental bulge test is simulated by the finite element method. The simulation
model of the tube generated in COPRA® FEA RF is used, with the material properties
discussed above. The tube is continuously expanded radially by internal pressure. The bulge
test on the computer model matches the outcome expected from the practical experiment
– the tube fails at about the 130° position.
Simulation of tube bulge test with results matching practical experiment
Summary and outlook
The COPRA® FEA RF computer program system enables the design and construction off
roll tooling for the production of longitudinally welded, roll-formed tubes and profiles. Two
special program modules allow simulation of the forming operation for its optimization and
validation. Using the finite element method, the forming of a tube is simulated and from
this the theoretical wall thickness distribution and work hardening of the ready tube are
calculated. These values are compared to the results obtained by bulge tests.
The accuracy of the simulation results is confirmed by the practical experiments. An essential
finding of evaluation of the simulation is that the patterns of wall thickness and TEPS overr
the circumference correlate. Increases in wall thickness result primarily from compression
applied to the profile in a circumferential direction and longitudinal stress. Compression in a
circumferential direction occurs - in our example - mainly when passing through fin passes.
The longitudinal stress that contributes to a change in wall thickness is created by bending off
the metal strip about the longitudinal axis. The quality of the treated tube and its properties
in terms of hydroforming depend, among other things, on suitable design of the geometry off
the fin roll passes and the vertical positioning of the forming stands 4.
The properties of roll-formed, longitudinally welded tubes as regards their suitability as semifinishes for subsequent forming processes can be predicted by finite element simulation. This
is of particular importance for the design of new tool sets and in the use of new kinds of highstrength material. The software package outlined here also presents a solution for analyzing
and optimizing existent tool sets. A finite element model generated by COPRA® FEA RF can
be used for further investigations within an extended process chain. In the case at hand it
was presented for the welding process and bulge tests.
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* Albert Sedlmaier is co-founder and managing director of data M Software GmbH, based at
Valley in Upper Bavaria, Germany.
References
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
Karan Shah, Yingyot Aue-u-lan, Taylan Altan: “Using finite element analysis to roll-form
tubes”. TPJ – Tube & Pipe Journal, October 2003.
B.D. Carleer: “FE Process Simulation for Tube Hydroforming, Starting with the Tube
Forming Process”. Proceedings from the International Conference on Hydroforming,
sponsored by the University of Stuttgart, Germany, Nov. 6-7, 2001.
Michael Schäfer: Numerik im Maschinenbau. Springer Verlag, 1999.
Dirk Elsenheimer, Gerrit v. Breitenbach: “Untersuchung unterschiedlicherr
Rohreinformverfahren mit Optimierung für das Innenhochdruck-Umformen”. Unpublished
paper, Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines, Darmstadt University,
2004.
MSC.MARC 2003. Company Brochure MSC Software, Santa Ana, California, 2003.
Gerrit von Breitenbach, Ulrich Semmler: “Analyse unterschiedlicher Herstellverfahren
längsnahtgeschweisster
g
g
Rohre mit Optimierung
p
g für das Innenhochdruckumformen”.
Zwischenbericht zur Sitzung des EFB-Arbeitskreises “Übergreifende Optimierung in derr
Blechteilefertigung”, June 14, 2005, Dresden.
S. Freitag, A. Sedlmaier, G. v. Breitenbach: “Prediction of Longitudinally Welded Tube
and Profile Properties by Using FE Simulation”. Proceedings of roll forming workshop at
data M Software GmbH, Valley, Germany, May 10-12, 2005.
Paul Scott: “The Effects of Frequency in High Frequency Welding”. Transactions of Tube
2000, Toronto; ITA Publication.
International Tube Association Conference
41
COPRA Software Wire Rolling
3.3
®
COPRA® Software Wire Rolling
WIRE
Simulation
P
source: DEM Costruzioni Speciali Srl in Pavia di Udine
rofile wires are flat wires or wires with
special profiles for the …precision engineering, textile, electrical and metal fittings industries. Profile wires produced
as coiled semi-finished goods are also of particular value to precision engineering (e.g. watchmaking), to the automotive supplier’s industry (wiper
arms) and also to the manufacture of wire ropes
or conductors. This is to quote from the ›Umformtechnik Handbuch für Industrie und Wissenschaft Volume 2, Massivumformung‹ (Berlin,
Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, P.318). And also, last
but not least, the railway catenaries (Ω-shaped
profile wires), albeit clearly larger than 100 mm2.
Continuous process chain
Optimised
Profile Wires
HE MANUFACTURE of profile wires, especially with cross sectional areas
under 100 mm², has gained in importance in recent years. They are drawn or
rolled. Simulating the metal forming process before toolmaking would appear
appropriate.
Drawing dies or wire rolling machines are generally used to form round or square wires into
profile wires, in stages.
With every stage the wire gradually assumes the
desired shape. It is notable in this respect that the
material flows mainly axially and is hard to form
into radial zones. The cost of tooling and manufacture is relatively high for new profiles. A continuous process chain from toolmaking to verification of the tools is desirable in order to recognise
and avoid possible faulty tooling at an early stage.
Simple and logical toolmaking
This type of environment is offered by the Copra
RF Wire Rolling software. The software supports
the entire process chain – from the development
of the individual wire forming stages to simulation of the metal forming process based on the
roller design. The designer can delegate many
time consuming tasks, allowing him to concentrate on essential aspects such as optimisation of
the design.
Defining a wire in CAD: The parameters for
the wire cross section to be rolled are defined
here, assisted by a Project Management module.
This primarily includes of course the wire diameter used and material as well as the parameters of the machine designated for manufacturing of the profile wire.
2
4
5
reprint from bbr März 2012 www.bbr.de
3
5
Defining the final wire cross section: The cross
section is drawn in CAD as a poly-line or spline.
Drawing as a spline allows simple interactive
matching of a cross section. The user may select
the type of line he wishes to work with.
Defining the forming stages: The individual
forming stages may be defined by design or by
automatic calculation. The starting cross section may be round wire or wire of arbitrary
cross section. This defined preliminary shape
may, for instance, be rolled in order to move the
material to where it will be needed later.
Starting from this cross section, the individual
forming stages may be calculated automatically,
based on geometric criteria. Characteristics
such as the degree of compression and forming
of the material and its distribution are taken into account. The calculated forming stages are
easy to adapt in a table. This allows the user to
apply his specific know-how as necessary.
The user may also define the forming stages
fully interactively. To this end, the final cross
section and the raw wire are first of all defined,
as with the automatic calculation. The data on
these cross sections are tabulated and may be
copied and changed at will. Since the wire cross
sections are defined as splines, the contours are
easy to adapt.
The use of splines creates smooth contours and
gradual transitions between individual elements.
This is an elegant way of avoiding the complications which the use of polygons (poly lines) may
cause.
The degree of forming and the compression factor are defined in the table and the associated
cross sections are calculated automatically. The
maximum reduction of the cross-sectional area
is a significant criterion in the design of the forming process. This is entered in the table and
the cross section adapted to this maximum in
each case. To help the user in understanding the
material distribution, the centre of area is given
for every cross section.
Design of the rolling tools: The design of the
associated rolling tools is based on the defined
cross sectional areas of the wire. If forming is by
upper and lower rollers, then Copra RF Wire
Rolling may generate these automatically. In
case of multiple roller configurations including
lateral or auxiliary parts, the calculated cross
sections again serve as the basis for interactive
design of the roller geometries.
Creating process documentation: Based on the
design data, Copra RF Wire Rolling automatically compiles the process documentation for
the rollers. This includes lists of materials and
parts, NC contours in the form of adapted DXF
files or ISO codes, as well as dimensioned detail
and construction plans.
Verification of forming using FEM: The created design may be handed directly to Copra
FEA WR. This solution may be used to carry
out a 2D simulation of the forming process. The
very short computing times (approx. 20 to 30
min. for a complete forming process) allow the
design to be quickly analysed and optimised.
The FEM package is based on an optimised
computing core by MSC.Marc, whereby the
preparation of the model, definition of the
boundary conditions and the simulation program settings are handled automatically, as defined by relevant Data M adaptations.
Although the description clearly illustrates the
simplicity and logic of Data M Copra RF Wire
Rolling, the pictures can probably say more than
5 000 words.
6
7
8
Tube Hall 4, Stand F19
www.datam.de
9
WHAT ARE SPLINES AND WHAT IS THEIR PURPOSE?
AS DEFINITION, let us cite Wikipedia: “It is commonly accepted that the first mathematical reference to splines is the 1946 paper by Schoenberg, which is probably the first
place that the word „spline“ is used in connection with smooth, piecewise polynomial
approximation”.
Splines are used especially for INTERPOLATION and APPROXIMATION. The piecewise
(!) definition renders splines more flexible than polynomials, yet relatively simple and
smooth. Spline interpolation avoids the disadvantages of unlimited strong oscillations of
interpolation with higher degree polynomials (Runge‘s phenomenon). Splines are also
very useful in creating curves. This is where they are found useful in CAD. Both methods
may, by mathematical analogy, be used to define not only curves, but surfaces as well.
ORIGIN OF THE WORD: The concept originated in shipbuilding: a long, thin spline,
fixated at individual points, bends exactly like a cubic spline with natural boundary
conditions. The spline in this case tends to minimise, or distribute (!) its internal stress
created by bending.
Spline functions are used not only in CAD but also in other graphic programs such as
“CorelDRAW”, due also to the fact that they are easy to control with a mouse.
10
1˚ Profile wires of DEM Costruzioni Speciali Srl
(Pavia di Udine)
2 bis 5˚ Forming stages with compression
stress curve
6˚ The defined forming stages at a glance.
Note: The wire material prefers to move axially,
not radially (towards the boundaries).
7 bis 10˚ Illustrative drawing: Some forming
stages as 3D objects
reprint from bbr März 2012 www.bbr.de
6
3.4
3D Roll Forming + R&D
3D Roll Forming + R&D
1st Rollform Conference 2009
Development of Roll Forming
Applications by means of Numerical
Analysis as a part of Quality Control
Author:
André Abee,
Albert Sedlmaier
Keywords:
Roll Forming, Quality management,
Finite element method
1st International Congress
on Efficient Roll Forming
October 14-15, 2009
Bilbao
Spain
www.datam.de
October 14-15, 2009 – PROFORM 2009 in Bilbao / Spain
Development of Roll Forming Applications by means of Numerical Analysis
as a part of Quality Control
André ABEE, Albert SEDLMAIER
data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH
Am Marschallfeld 17, 83626 Valley, Germany
Abstract
Quality management in roll forming became more and more important over the past decades. Besides the
stimulated demand for good material and tight machine and tooling tolerances, this was boosted by the
introduction of performing FE simulations over the last 5 years in the design departments of material
suppliers, machine makers and custom roll formers. This resulted in an increase of know-how and
understanding of the roll forming process and roll forming is on its way from an experience level to a more
scientific level.
The acceptance and benefit of performing FE simulations in daily roll form design practise as a part of the
total quality management is presented in this paper.
This evolution in the conventional roll forming can be seen as the base for the development of discontinuous
“flexible” roll forming. It appeared that more than ever it is important to understand the behaviour of roll
forming processes. The complex interrelations between hardware, control and design and their impact on the
process and the profile’s quality are topic of scientifically substantiated praxis orientated investigations
including numerical analysis. The need for fundamental investigation in the field of flexible roll forming is
presented in this paper.
Whereas flexible roll formed profiles with a variation in width is the main topic up to now, the pressure from
automotive industry stimulates the development of strategies to produce profiles with a variation in depth
and height. Important issues are the understanding of the process and the machine realisation at minimum
cost in order to be competitive with press operations. This paper discusses about these investigations and
objectives of today’s studies.
Keywords: Roll Forming, Quality management, Finite element method.
1. Introduction
According to DIN 8586 roll forming is a bending technology with rotating tool motion used to manufacture
open and closed profiles. In order to obtain the desired profile it needs several stages feeding a cut strip of
metal through successive pairs of stands.
Compared with other forming processes, classic roll forming offers a number of technical, economical and
ecological advantages e.g. high productivity at low tool costs.
The restriction of producing profiles with a constant cross sectional shape in longitudinal direction has now
overcome by the development of the so-called flexible roll forming process. [1]
About 10 years ago the roll forming know-how was merely on an expertise base between the machine
operator and the tool-designer based on years of practical experience. Several possible effects were known
and in most cases the machine operator and tool-designer knew how to react. From day to day new
phenomena appeared and a solution had to be developed. All that counted was the fact that the
manufacturing process continued. Understanding why or what they were doing was – if at all – only second
or third priority. It should be noted that the roll forming process is far too complex to understand and
describe all interrelations on a practical base only.
Nowadays, the tool designer has access to numerical simulation in order to investigate and optimize the roll
forming process. This has boosted the possibility of and need for understanding of roll forming processes
dramatically. Tool designer, machine operator and eventually also colleagues of the R&D department can
increase the company specific in-house know-how of their roll forming process and make it accessible for
other or new colleagues. [2]
October 14-15, 2009 – PROFORM 2009 in Bilbao / Spain
2. FEA and Quality Management in Roll forming companies
Serious concerns about quality management in roll forming were boosted by the possible increase in
company specific know-how of the roll forming process by means of the application of finite element
software to simulate the roll forming process. The nearness of this numerical tool to the designer of the
roll-tooling and machine operator appeared to be very important. In typical roll forming companies, no Finite
Element specialists are available and even if so, the understanding and communication between the tool
design department and research department appeared to be very difficult.
2.1 Simulation as a part of Quality Management in daily roll forming business
Typically, a rollformed profile passes through the stages as presented in Figure 1 on its way from the
customer wish to a produced part.
Figure 1. Roll forming experience and FE simulation in daily roll forming praxis
Quality Management has to cover all stages in this process and can be carried out by e.g. different standards
in the design work, roll production, tool quality approval, machine setup and monitoring of quality during
production. [3],[4] A quality increase can be also obtained by a serious implementation of simulation
software as a standard in the design phase in order to optimize the design. This can be observed in many roll
forming related companies like machine makers, tool makers, custom roll formers, and also steel suppliers.
Another typical company related quality aspect can be faced in the learning process of simulating processes
that are in operation. Weak points in the production can be detected and optimized. Above figure makes also
clear that company internal experience in roll forming is essential. It can be observed in modern roll forming
companies that the available roll forming experience is being logged by applying FE simulation in order to
guarantee an access to this know-how by all employees. This is the basis for the possibility to increase the
level of experience.
2.2 Goals for Finite Element Simulation in Roll Forming
Main goal for companies to apply finite element simulation on roll forming is to increase the process stability.
A typical first application can be found in increase of the understanding of the roll forming process and to
learn about the in-house processes. Furthermore, finite element simulations are performed in the design
department of roll forming tooling nowadays in order to predict achievable geometrical tolerances.
Additionally the process can be optimized to run at reduced forces, reduced roll tool wear, minimum material
load, minimum energy consumption, etc.
Several parameter studies can be applied in order to investigate the influence of deviations in the material
properties, sheet thickness or other imperfections like tool wear, machine deviations or different machine
settings. With respect to roll forming of high strength and ultra high strength steels, it can be faced that the
deflection of the machine shafts is a serious phenomenon which influences the process and profile quality
significantly. [5]
October 14-15, 2009 – PROFORM 2009 in Bilbao / Spain
3. Discontinuous Roll Forming
Typical phenomena in discontinuous - flexible - roll forming are caused by geometrically necessary
elongation and compression of the material in longitudinal direction in the transition zones. [6] This is a
major difference between flexible and conventional roll forming in which normally no remaining
longitudinal elongation or compression is required or desired.
The contact between the tooling and the sheet is situated in a small area directly in the stations only.
Compensation for the above described necessary deformation in the transition zones reflects in geometrical
deviations of the profile dimensions and can hardly be compensated afterwards. Goal for well designed
flexible roll form tooling is not to compensate, but to avoid these effects. [6]
A high level of roll forming experience is required, but it will not be enough to develop an appropriate design
for a specific family of flexible roll formed parts. Understanding of the working principles of flexible roll
form tooling and performing finite element analysis is required.
3.1 Discontinuous in Width Direction
The way how the above mentioned necessary elongation and compression react in the profile depends on
many parameters like cross sectional shape, forming step, roll design, material properties, sheet thickness,
etc.
Figure 2. Flat pattern and (half of) the flexible profile
For the convex transition zone (area A in figure 2) the length Lout is larger than the length Lin in the flat sheet.
In the final part one can see that Lout = Lin with Lin unchanged. So a compression of Lout is necessary. The
opposite for the concave transition zone (area B in figure 2) can be derived: whereas Lout < Lin in the flat
sheet, Lout = Lin in the final profile with Lin unchanged. That means that an elongation of Lout is necessary.
It should be noted that it is not only a compression or elongation of the strip edge (indicated with Lout), but it
is a compression and elongation of the complete areas A and B respectively.
Furthermore it can be derived that this geometrical compression and elongation is only depending on the
flexible radius and the instantaneous normal distance between a point in area A or B and the profile web
during forming. This distance can be described by the “leg-length-radius” in typical flexible in width profiles
(figure 3).
Figure 3. Roll formed profiles, flexible in width
Several industry projects proved the process for typical real parts and stated the necessity of the appliance of
scientifically substantiated investigations by means of finite element simulations. Experience in conventional
roll forming is required but not enough. Finite element analysis can help to increase the know-how and
understanding of the discontinuous roll forming process with all its complex and interesting aspects.
Profiles with variety in width are one of the major topics of the PROFORM project. [7]
October 14-15, 2009 – PROFORM 2009 in Bilbao / Spain
3.2 Flexible in Depth Direction
Whereas flexible roll formed profiles with a variation in width is the main topic up to now, the pressure from
automotive industry forces the development of strategies to produce profiles with a variation in depth.
Typical profiles [8] are presented in figure 4.
Figure 4. Typical profiles flexible in depth.
The development of suitable forming strategies, kinematics and special tooling are the main topics of R&D
at the moment.
Finite element simulations confirm the possibility of forming profiles with flexibility in depth. Also for these
kinds of profiles it can be proved that the geometrical necessary elongation and compression of the material
in rolling direction depends only on the flexible radius and the “flexible leg length”. However, contrary to
profiles flexible in width, this distance is not constant, but typically dependent to the flexible angle also.
Figure 5. Top view, side view and unfolded pre-cut sheet of a flexible in depth profile.
The geometrically necessary elongation and compression is indicated by the hatched areas and can be clearly
recognized in figure 5. The distance between the flexible radius and the strip edge is dependant to the current
flexible angle for typical automotive parts where the mounting ear of the top-hat shaped profile in one plane.
Because of this, the kinematic forming path is not equidistant related to the pre-cut sheet.
Another interesting issue is the fact that the kinematic path is not strictly a real existing path in the pre-cut
depending on the chosen forming strategy. This is related to the difference between the profile length and the
respective length of the pre-cut as indicated with dL in figure 5. This requires an additional control parameter
to guarantee a well coordinated material feed in rolling direction which is not constant anymore. In this case
it is advantageous to have an integrated control system for the complete line.
October 14-15, 2009 – PROFORM 2009 in Bilbao / Spain
First feasibility studies of such kind of flexible in depth profiles have been performed at the author’s
company. Figure 6 shows a result of a study in FEA for a typical automotive top-hat part.
The mounting ear of the profile is in one flat plane whereas the height of the profile varies through the length
of the profile. Such profiles can be found in e.g. the frame side members of a car or light trucks. Typical
dimensions are (85-110) x 180 x 2.2 mm (H x W x T) and are typically produced in high strength steel.
Figure 6. Feasibility study by FEA of a flexible in depth roll formed part.
The before mentioned necessary geometrical elongations and compressions can be clearly faced in figure 7.
This figure shows the longitudinal strain in the final part. A compression can be faced in the side flanges and
the top-hat mounting ears caused by the forming of the convex flexible radius in the bottom of the top-hat
profile. An elongation can be faced in the side flanges and the top-hat mounting ears caused by the forming
of the concave flexible radius in the bottom of the top-hat profile.
The longitudinal strain is higher in the areas with a larger distance between the flexible radius and the strip
edge. That is in the deepest parts.
Figure 7. Longitudinal strain in a flexible in depth roll formed part.
Some typical difficulties appear in dealing with all different process parameter. One basic issue is the
definition of the shape of the pre-cut sheet. This influences the behavior during the forming.
The control needs to take into account the kinematics in each station as a function of time, rather than sheet
movement, since this is not necessarily constant in flexible roll forming in depth. The complex movement of
the tools to fulfill the desired tool paths as prescribed by the control needed a further development of typical
flexible roll forming stations. The machine concept must fit for this advanced tooling system.
October 14-15, 2009 – PROFORM 2009 in Bilbao / Spain
4. Flexible roll forming in a productive environment
Quality management of both design and machine operation is very important to achieve a stable roll forming
process in which a wide variety of roll formed profiles at tight tolerances can be produced. Small deviations
and their influence to the process must be known and must be under control. The use of finite element
analysis allows the company to understand the process.
All this is a pre-requisite for flexible roll forming in a productive environment. Practical experience in the
flexible roll forming process in production is minimal compared with the experience that respective
companies have in the field of conventional roll forming. Therefore the quality management must be an
integrated approach of design, hardware (machine and tooling), control of the machine and scientifically
substantiated investigations of the behaviour of the process. (Figure 8)
Figure 8. Integrated approach of the quality control in flexible roll forming.
4.1 Competition with press forming operation
Press forming is prevalent in automotive industry. The introduction of flexible roll forming in automotive
production environment comes along with a kind of competition between these two forming processes. Most
automotive companies have well equipped press forming lines and the parts are highly adapted to the
forming process. Typical parts are U-shaped or top-hat-profiles with a non-perpendicular side leg to the
profile web (figure 8) because of the removal out of the tool die.
An advantage of (flexible) roll forming compared to press forming is the fact that along with top-hat-type
profiles, also C-type or even closed profiles can be produced in flexible roll forming. There are no such strict
conditions to the angles of the bend as in press forming. See also figure 9.
Figure 9. Typical profile of press forming (left) and flexible roll formed parts (right).
A family of products, e.g. characterized by different length between transition zones, can be produced on one
single roll forming line with only a minimum of tool changing. Even ranges of families of products can be
produced only by changing (parts of) the roll tooling, which is a relative dispensable cost compared with the
change of press dies for every single part.
4.2 Process Oriented Design
The production process should be considered during the definition of the profile in order to achieve good
tolerances and to minimize eventually negative influences of a specific forming process. A change of the
flexible radius within acceptable dimensions often leads to a relative large reduction of the geometrically
necessary elongation and compression of the transition zones.
A serious definition of product-families with similar shapes for different automotive segments like small,
medium, large and commercial cars in the design is an important challenge which will boost the effectiveness
of a flexible roll forming line and is an opportunity to reduce costs in a productive automotive environment
drastically.
October 14-15, 2009 – PROFORM 2009 in Bilbao / Spain
5. Conclusion
The introduction of finite element analysis as a part of roll forming design boosted the understanding and
company internal know-how of the roll forming process over the last half decade. This allows a scientific
substantiated and practically oriented development of the flexible roll forming process these days. This
article shows the need for both roll forming experience and an analysis tool to overcome the complex
problems and to deal with the behaviour of flexible roll forming.
While flexible roll forming for profiles with a variety in width are becoming standard, investigations of the
flexible roll forming in depth is a topic of research and development at the author’s company. The experience
in both conventional roll forming and flexible roll forming in width and the application of simulation
software are essential prerequisites to discover this new and complete different type of flexible roll forming.
The necessity of such studies is given by the demand from automotive industry for profiles with a
discontinuous height of the profile like top hat profiles with the mounting ear in one plane.
First studies of real automotive parts showed the feasibility of this process. The need for an integrated
approach of design, machine control, hardware and simulation is essential in order to keep control of total
costs. A well considered definition of product-families with similar shapes for different automotive segments
is an important challenge which will boost the effectiveness of a flexible roll forming line and is an
opportunity to reduce costs in a productive automotive environment drastically.
6. References
[1] Istrate, A. Verfahrensentwicklung zum Walzprofilieren von Strukturbauteilen mit der Längsachse
veränderlichen Querschnitten, Dissertation, TU Darmstadt, 2002.
[2] Sedlmaier, A., 2004. FEM gestützte Auslegung von Rollensätzen - Konstruktion und Auslegung von
Rollensätzen mit geometriebasierten Methoden, VDI Wissenforum Walzprofilieren, Darmstadt.
[3] COPRA® TQM – Total Quality Management, data M Hausmesse 2007, Valley
[4] COPRA® RollScanner 100/100-3 and 200/200-3 user manual, data M Engineering GmbH, 4th Version,
December 2008
[5] Larrañaga, J. 2009. Investigations in the simulation of the frictional behaviour of roll forming. DataM
Sheet Metal Solutions, Valley, Germany. Internal Technical Report
[6] Abee, A., Berner, S., Sedlmaier, A., 2008. Accuracy improvement of roll formed profiles with variable
cross sections, ICTP 2008 9th International Conference on Technology of Plasticity, Gyeongju, Korea.
[7] PROFORM, “An innovative manufacture process concept for a flexible and cost effective production
of the vehicle body in white: Profile Forming”, http://www.proform-ip.org/
[8] Abee, A.Z., Sedlmaier, 2009, A, On the quality improvement of roll formed profiles with variable
cross sections, International Symposium on Plasticity 2009, Frenchman's Reef and Morning Star
Marriott Beach Resort, 2009.
Pre- & post punching
Ring rolling
Strech bending
Tube drawing
Tube bending
Wire rolling
© data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH
CRF . 09 / 2012
R o l l f o r m i n g t h e F u t u r e®
data M Sheet Metal Solutions GmbH
Am Marschallfeld 17
D - 83626 Valley I Oberlaindern
Germany
Tel.: +49 (0) 8024 - 6 40 -0
Fax: +49 (0) 8024 - 6 40 -300
e-mail: datam@datam.de
Internet: http://www.datam.de
www.datam.de
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