The Art, Architecture and Gardens of Italy Renaissance of Greek Ideals and Roman Megalomania in the hands of the Popes and their great families, 1500 - 1600 CE created by Cynthia Venables for TAL K-W not to be copied St.Peter’s Basilica Castel Sant'Angelo ROME Medieval Rome Castel Sant'Angelo ~ Castle of the Holy Angel The tomb of the Roman Emperor Hadrian 134-39 CE pilgrimage to Rome "Via Francigena" Medieval Travel The population of Rome 100 CE over 1 000,000 1200 CE 30,000 Medieval Rome spolia Old St. Peter’s Basilica from 320 CE Roman Colosseum Arles Middle Ages The Pantheon Rome 126 CE A Symbol of Rome’s Glorious Past Italy Layers of History Renaissance 1400-1600 Medieval 500 - 1400 Roman Christian350-500 CE Gothic Romanesque Roman Civilization 400 BCE- 350 CE 700 BCE Greek Migration & Colonization 1100, Villanovan 800 BCE? Etruscan !0,000 BCE The Neolithic Era 100,000 BCE Paleolithic Era Renaissance of Greek Ideals and Roman Megalomania in the hands of the Popes and their great families, 1500 - 1600 CE Re-building Re-birth The Dome St. Peter’s Basilica Rome 1500-1590 CE Florence Brunelleschi’s Dome. Il Duomo Florence 1420-1436CE * * Renaissance Florentia- Firenze - Florence Florence Santa Maria dei Fiori Holy Mary of the Flowers from the Rose Garden Florence Florence Rose Garden There is no rose of such virtue as is the rose that bare Jesu Santa Maria dei Fiori ~Il Duomo~ Begun in 1296 by Arnolfo di Cambio Iris Garden Rose Garden Duomo Florence TheBaptistery of St. John was built in Romanesque style around 1059,CE In the Renaissance all things are possible 1350 the design called for a dome 1402–1404 CE Florentine’s Brunelleschi and Donatello make the perilous journey to Rome to study the architecture of the ancients Vitruvius' work was "rediscovered" in 1414 by the Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini Vitruvius ~ De Architectura ~ 15 BCE Marcus Vitruvius Pollio c. 80BCE- c. 15 BCE Vitruvius, Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer Archimedes screw from 200 BCE "Well building hath three conditions: firmness, commodity, and delight.” Vitruvius Greek House Plan Apollo Belvedere Roman ca 120–140CE copy of bronze Greek original ca. 350–325 BCE. THE RENAISSANCE Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over unthinking acceptance of dogma or superstition. The re-birth/rediscovery of an interest in the Classical Greco-Roman Past Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-1226) Francesco Petrarch (1304–1374) Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375) Vitruvian man, Leonardo da Vinci, (c. 1485-90 CE) The Pantheon Rome 126 CE span of 43.2 m height 43.2 m Dome, Duomo Florence begun 1420 completed structurally 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi ! 46-meter-wide 114.5 meters high Dome, Duomo Florence begun 1420 completed structurally 1436 with the dome engineered by Filippo Brunelleschi 46-meter-wide 114.5 meters high Gothic Architecture Gothic flying buttress Re-Birth of Roman Enginering, The Renaissance and The Dome Humanism, The Renaissance and Man Iris Garden Rose Garden Palazzo MediciRicacardi Florence Duomo Palazzo Medici-Riccardi 1444 and 1484CE Florence for Cosimo de’ Medici Greco-Roman peristyle court 300 BC - 350 CE Medieval Christian cloister 350 - 1400 CE Early Renaissance Villa Rufolo Ravello 1250 CE High Renaissance Palazzo Medici-Riccardi Florence 1444-1484CE Donatello’s David 1408-09 Magi Chapel frescoes by Benozzo Gozzoli, 1459-1461CE Celebrating *The Family/The Men *The Council of Florence (1438-1439) *The Cofraternity of the Magi Benozzo Gozzoli Journey of the Magi 1459-62 Cappella dei Magi, Villa La Petraia Villa Medici di Poggio a Caiano1470 Villa Medici Fiesole, Italy Settignano, The Annunciation (1472–1475) Leonardo da Vinci the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. Villa Gamberaia Restored 1895 by Princess Jeanne Ghyka, sister of Queen Natalia of Serbia who lived here with her American companion, Miss Blood. ! simplicity serenity Villa Gamberaia order in nature "Well building hath three conditions: firmness, commodity, and delight.” Vitruvius ~ Alberti Temper Medici Villa al Costello Medici villa al Costello NEO - PLATONISM When man philosophizes, he ascends the chain of being towards the angels, and communion with God. Giovanni Pico della Mirandola Sandro Botticelli 1445-1510 La Primavera 1481 Tempra on wood 79 x 123” The Birth of Venus Sandro Botticelli, c. 1482–1486 tempera on canvas Uffizi, Florence Venus de' Medici 1st-century BCE marble copy Uffizi Gallery Florence Changing Portrayal of Women 13th century Byzantine Icon Cimabue The Madonna in Majesty (Maestà) 1285-86 Tempera on panel, 385 x 223 cm ! Simone Martini ~ The Annunciation 1333 Tempra on wood 73” x 83” PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE RENAISSANCE Fra Filippo Lippi Madonna and Child c. 1440 & 1465 -67 Portrait of Mona Lisa (1479-1528) also known as La Gioconda, the 3rd wife of Francesco del Giocondo ! 1503-06 (150 Kb); Oil on wood, 77 x 53 cm (30 x 20 7/8 in); Musee du Louvre, Paris "La Gioconda" the merry one Simonetta Vespucic Venus and Mars Botticelli 1483 Giuliano de Medici Venus de' Medici 1st-century BCE marble copy Uffizi Gallery Florence ROMAN COPY OF THE GREEK CLASSICAL from 450 BCE HIGH RENAISSANCE Michelangelo 1501–04 The expulsion of the Medici from Florence 1494-1512. Re-build Re-Birth The Pope’s Garden Rome from1500- A grand vision A carrousel in the Cortile del Belvedere, 1565: The Vatican Collection The Belvedere, The Vatican designed by Bramante 1500 CE Old St. Peters 318 - 1505 CE A grand vision Pope Julius II "aggrandize himself in the popular imagination" ~ Perugino~ Christ Gives the Keys to the Kingdom to Peter Sistine Chapel Sistine Chapel before the Ceiling In the Renaissance all things are possible Donato Bramante (1444 – 1514 CE) The Tempietto of San Pietro in Montorio Donato Bramante 1502 The School of Athens Raphael 1503-05 Michelangelo Michelangelo’s Plan for St. Peter’s and earlier The Sistine Chapel Papal Collection reworking of the classical past Creation of Adam Michelangelo redesigned the dome in 1547 Michelangelo died in 1564, leaving the drum of the dome complete Welcome To The Vatican Gardens St. Peter’ Basilica 1500 - 1600 CE Rome Renaissance From Venice to the Veneto Brenta Canal Veneto & The Brenta Canal Farms, Villas & The Veneto Andrea Palladio (1508–1580) ! PALLADIAN ! Dramatic exterior motifs. ! Economical materials. ! Internal harmony and balance. Palladio & Vicenza Basilica Palladiana 1546 the Council of One Hundred chose a young local architect, Palladio, to reconstruct the town hall, starting from April 1549 Palladian Window Roman Basilica 100 AD Basilica Palladiana ~ Renaissance 1550AD Palladin Villas & Gardens Villa La Rotonda is a Renaissance villa just outside Vicenza, northern Italy, designed by Andrea Palladio 1567-91 Pantheon Facade Greco-Roman Temple Greek Decoration Pilaster Roman Materials & Structural Devices Barrel Vault & Dome Villa Rotunda Palladio 1560 AD Renaissance Quattro Libri dell’Architettura Palladio Villa Rotunda Palladio 1560 AD Renaissance Vincenzo Scamozzi Internal harmony and balance. Internal harmony and balance. 6/10 a~6 a+b ~10 the golden ratio perfection in nature golden spiral Villa Rotunda Palladio 1560 AD Renaissance suburban palace 4 floors N W light E S Dramatic CLASSIC exterior motifs. Villa Foscari La Malcontenta Dramatic CLASSIC exterior motifs. Palladian 5 part harmony * * Palladian 5 part harmony Economical Materials Brick and stucco Wood covered with straw lathing and then stucco. Villa Barbaro 1560 Palladio a working farm nympheum Economical Materials Plaster Internal harmony and balance Paolo Veronese trompe l'oeil Villa Maser Internal harmony and balance.