The Renaissance of Greek Ideals and Roman Megalomania in the

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The Art, Architecture and Gardens of Italy
Renaissance of Greek Ideals and Roman Megalomania in
the hands of the Popes and their great families, 1500 - 1600 CE
created by Cynthia Venables for TAL K-W not to be copied
St.Peter’s Basilica Castel Sant'Angelo
ROME
Medieval Rome
Castel Sant'Angelo ~ Castle of the Holy Angel
The tomb of the Roman Emperor Hadrian 134-39 CE
pilgrimage to Rome
"Via Francigena"
Medieval Travel
The population of Rome
100 CE over 1 000,000
1200 CE 30,000
Medieval Rome
spolia
Old St. Peter’s Basilica
from 320 CE
Roman Colosseum Arles Middle Ages
The Pantheon Rome
126 CE
A Symbol of Rome’s Glorious Past
Italy
Layers of History
Renaissance 1400-1600
Medieval 500 - 1400
Roman Christian350-500 CE
Gothic
Romanesque
Roman Civilization 400 BCE- 350 CE
700 BCE Greek Migration & Colonization
1100, Villanovan 800 BCE? Etruscan
!0,000 BCE The Neolithic Era
100,000 BCE Paleolithic Era
Renaissance of Greek Ideals and Roman Megalomania in
the hands of the Popes and their great families, 1500 - 1600 CE
Re-building Re-birth
The Dome St. Peter’s Basilica
Rome 1500-1590 CE
Florence
Brunelleschi’s
Dome.
Il Duomo
Florence
1420-1436CE
*
*
Renaissance
Florentia- Firenze - Florence
Florence
Santa Maria dei Fiori Holy Mary of the Flowers
from the Rose Garden Florence
Florence
Rose
Garden
There is no rose of such virtue as is
the rose that bare Jesu
Santa Maria dei Fiori ~Il Duomo~
Begun in 1296 by Arnolfo di Cambio
Iris Garden
Rose Garden
Duomo
Florence
TheBaptistery of St. John was built in Romanesque style around 1059,CE
In the Renaissance all things are possible
1350
the design called for a dome
1402–1404 CE Florentine’s
Brunelleschi and Donatello
make the perilous journey to
Rome to study the architecture
of the ancients
Vitruvius' work was "rediscovered" in 1414 by the
Florentine humanist Poggio Bracciolini
Vitruvius
~ De Architectura
~ 15 BCE
Marcus Vitruvius Pollio c. 80BCE- c. 15 BCE
Vitruvius, Roman author, architect, civil
engineer and military engineer
Archimedes screw
from 200 BCE
"Well building hath three conditions: firmness, commodity, and delight.”
Vitruvius
Greek House Plan
Apollo Belvedere
Roman
ca 120–140CE
copy of bronze
Greek original
ca. 350–325 BCE.
THE RENAISSANCE
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that
emphasizes the value and agency of human beings,
individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical
thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over
unthinking acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The re-birth/rediscovery of an interest in the Classical
Greco-Roman Past
Saint Francis of Assisi (1182-1226)
Francesco Petrarch (1304–1374)
Giovanni Boccaccio (1313–1375)
Vitruvian man, Leonardo da Vinci, (c. 1485-90 CE)
The Pantheon
Rome 126 CE
span of 43.2 m
height 43.2 m
Dome, Duomo Florence
begun 1420
completed structurally
1436
with the dome engineered
by Filippo Brunelleschi
!
46-meter-wide
114.5 meters high
Dome, Duomo Florence
begun 1420 completed
structurally
1436 with the dome
engineered by Filippo
Brunelleschi
46-meter-wide
114.5 meters high
Gothic Architecture
Gothic flying buttress
Re-Birth of Roman Enginering, The Renaissance and The Dome
Humanism, The Renaissance and Man
Iris Garden
Rose Garden
Palazzo MediciRicacardi
Florence
Duomo
Palazzo Medici-Riccardi 1444 and 1484CE Florence for
Cosimo de’ Medici
Greco-Roman
peristyle court
300 BC - 350 CE
Medieval
Christian cloister
350 - 1400 CE
Early Renaissance
Villa Rufolo
Ravello 1250 CE
High Renaissance Palazzo
Medici-Riccardi
Florence 1444-1484CE
Donatello’s David 1408-09
Magi Chapel
frescoes by
Benozzo Gozzoli,
1459-1461CE
Celebrating
*The Family/The Men
*The Council of Florence (1438-1439)
*The Cofraternity of the Magi
Benozzo Gozzoli
Journey of the Magi
1459-62
Cappella dei Magi,
Villa La Petraia
Villa Medici di Poggio a Caiano1470
Villa Medici
Fiesole, Italy
Settignano,
The Annunciation (1472–1475) Leonardo da Vinci
the Uffizi Gallery, Florence.
Villa Gamberaia
Restored 1895 by
Princess Jeanne
Ghyka, sister of
Queen Natalia of
Serbia who lived
here with her
American
companion,
Miss Blood.
!
simplicity serenity Villa Gamberaia order in nature
"Well building hath three conditions: firmness, commodity, and delight.”
Vitruvius ~ Alberti
Temper
Medici Villa al Costello
Medici villa al Costello
NEO - PLATONISM
When man philosophizes, he ascends the chain of being towards the
angels, and communion with God.
Giovanni Pico della Mirandola
Sandro Botticelli 1445-1510 La Primavera 1481
Tempra on wood 79 x 123”
The Birth of Venus Sandro Botticelli, c. 1482–1486 tempera on canvas
Uffizi, Florence
Venus de' Medici
1st-century BCE
marble copy
Uffizi Gallery
Florence
Changing Portrayal of Women
13th century Byzantine Icon
Cimabue
The Madonna in Majesty
(Maestà)
1285-86
Tempera on panel, 385 x 223
cm
!
Simone Martini ~ The Annunciation 1333
Tempra on wood 73” x 83”
PORTRAYAL OF WOMEN IN THE RENAISSANCE
Fra Filippo Lippi
Madonna and Child
c. 1440 & 1465 -67
Portrait of Mona
Lisa (1479-1528)
also known as La Gioconda, the 3rd wife of Francesco del
Giocondo
!
1503-06 (150
Kb); Oil on wood, 77 x 53 cm (30 x
20 7/8 in);
Musee du
Louvre, Paris
"La Gioconda"
the merry one
Simonetta Vespucic
Venus and Mars
Botticelli
1483
Giuliano de Medici
Venus de' Medici
1st-century BCE
marble copy
Uffizi Gallery
Florence
ROMAN COPY
OF THE GREEK
CLASSICAL
from 450 BCE
HIGH
RENAISSANCE
Michelangelo
1501–04
The expulsion of the Medici
from Florence 1494-1512.
Re-build Re-Birth
The Pope’s Garden
Rome from1500-
A grand vision
A carrousel in the Cortile del
Belvedere, 1565:
The Vatican Collection
The Belvedere, The Vatican designed by
Bramante 1500 CE
Old St. Peters 318 - 1505 CE
A grand vision
Pope Julius II "aggrandize himself in the popular
imagination"
~ Perugino~
Christ Gives the Keys to the Kingdom to Peter
Sistine Chapel
Sistine Chapel before the Ceiling
In the Renaissance all things are possible
Donato Bramante
(1444 – 1514 CE)
The Tempietto of San Pietro in
Montorio
Donato Bramante 1502
The School of Athens
Raphael 1503-05
Michelangelo
Michelangelo’s Plan for St. Peter’s and earlier The Sistine Chapel
Papal Collection
reworking of the classical past
Creation of Adam
Michelangelo redesigned the dome in 1547
Michelangelo died in 1564, leaving the drum of the
dome complete
Welcome To The Vatican Gardens
St. Peter’ Basilica
1500 - 1600 CE Rome
Renaissance
From Venice to the Veneto
Brenta Canal
Veneto
&
The Brenta Canal
Farms, Villas & The Veneto
Andrea Palladio
(1508–1580)
!
PALLADIAN
!
Dramatic exterior
motifs.
!
Economical
materials.
!
Internal harmony
and balance.
Palladio & Vicenza
Basilica Palladiana
1546
the Council of One Hundred
chose a young local architect,
Palladio, to reconstruct the
town hall, starting from April
1549
Palladian
Window
Roman Basilica 100 AD
Basilica Palladiana ~ Renaissance
1550AD
Palladin Villas & Gardens
Villa La Rotonda is a Renaissance villa just outside Vicenza,
northern Italy, designed by Andrea Palladio 1567-91
Pantheon
Facade
Greco-Roman Temple
Greek Decoration
Pilaster
Roman Materials & Structural Devices
Barrel Vault & Dome
Villa Rotunda Palladio 1560 AD Renaissance
Quattro Libri dell’Architettura Palladio
Villa Rotunda Palladio
1560 AD Renaissance
Vincenzo Scamozzi
Internal harmony and balance.
Internal harmony and balance.
6/10
a~6
a+b ~10
the golden ratio
perfection in nature
golden spiral
Villa Rotunda Palladio
1560 AD Renaissance
suburban palace
4 floors
N
W
light
E
S
Dramatic CLASSIC exterior motifs.
Villa Foscari
La Malcontenta
Dramatic CLASSIC exterior motifs.
Palladian 5 part harmony
*
*
Palladian 5 part harmony
Economical Materials
Brick and stucco
Wood covered with straw lathing and then stucco.
Villa Barbaro 1560 Palladio
a working farm
nympheum
Economical Materials
Plaster
Internal harmony
and balance
Paolo Veronese
trompe l'oeil Villa Maser
Internal harmony and balance.
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