ETAP Project Status Report December 2000

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 23
Reports from the ETAP project
Editor: Lars Borin
ETAP Project Status Report
December 2000
Lars Borin
with contributions by others
p
eta
research report
etap-rr-06
2000
ETAP project status report
December 2000
Lars Borin
with contributions by
Camilla Bengtsson
Maria Borg
Sephorah Graves
Camilla Löfling
Leif-Jöran Olsson
Gustav Öquist
Henrik Oxhammar
Susanne Viestam
WP CL&LE 23
The ETAP project Research reports
ETAP is short for Etablering och annotering av parallellkorpus för
igenkänning av översättningsekvivalenter (“Creating and annotating a
parallel corpus for the recognition of translation equivalents”).
The basic aim of the project is to develop a computerized multilingual
translation corpus, made up of Swedish source text representing different
styles and domains, together with its translations into several languages,
which can be used in bilingual lexicographic work and in methodological
studies directed towards the development and evaluation of corpus formats
and computational tools for the automatic recognition and extraction of
translation equivalents from text.
The project is part of the research programme Översättning och tolkning
som språk- och kulturmöte (“Translation and Interpreting—a Meeting
between Languages and Cultures”), financed by the Bank of Sweden
Tercentenary Foundation. This research programme
“. . . started in 1996. It involves a great variation of research topics within the domain
of translation and interpreting and has an overall aim of seeing translation and
interpreting as activities that are related not only to linguistic and textual aspects
but to cultural, historical, social and communicative phenomena as well. [It℄ is
a result of a collaboration between two big and well-known Swedish universities,
Stockholm University and Uppsala University.” (From the WWW homepage of the
programme: <http://www.translation.su.se/abstract.html>)
WWW: http://stp.ling.uu.se/etap/
etap-rr-04
( WP CL & LE 21)
ETAP research reports 2000:
Seeing double: using parallel corpora
for linguistic research
Papers by Borin, Olsson, Prütz
etap-rr-05
( WP CL & LE 22)
Segmenting and tagging parallel corpora
Papers by Bengtsson, Borin, Oxhammar
etap-rr-06
( WP CL & LE 23)
ETAP project status report December 2000
Lars Borin, with contributions by others
ETAP project status report
December 2000
Lars Borin
with contributions by
Camilla Bengtsson
Maria Borg
Sephorah Graves
Camilla Löfling
Leif-Jöran Olsson
Gustav Öquist
Henrik Oxhammar
Susanne Viestam
1
Introduction
ETAP is the acronym of the project title “Etablering och annotering av parallellkorpus
för igenkänning av översättningsekvivalenter”' (in English: “Creating and annotating a
parallel corpus for the recognition of translation equivalents”). This project is a part of a
joint research programme between the universities in Stockholm and Uppsala,
Translation and Interpreting – A Meeting between Languages and Cultures financed by
the Bank of Sweden Tercentenary Foundation (Riksbankens Jubileumsfond); see
<http://ww.translation.su.se>, Översättning 1995, 1998, and Svane 1996. The project
started in 1996, and will go on with the present funding until the end of 2001.
The main goal of the project, ever since it was formulated in 1995 (Sågvall Hein 1995),
has been the creation of a corpus of annotated parallel texts. This corpus, as it appears at
the time of writing of this report, consists of a number of subcorpora, described below.
Common to all the subcorpora is that Swedish is one of the languages in the subcorpus,
normally the source language (SL), typically combined with more than one other
language, mostly in the role of target languages (TL), i.e. translated from the SL. The
annotations made on the ETAP texts are of three kinds, (1) SGML or XML markup of
sentences, paragraphs, etc., (2) part-of-speech (POS) tags, i.e., an annotation for each
text token (words and punctuation marks), showing its word class and possibly
morphological information, and (3) sentence and word alignment, i.e., the establishment
of explicit ‘links’ between equivalent units—sentences and words/phrases, respectively
—in the two language versions making up the parallel text (see section 3.2, below).
The work towards the main project goal has included a fair amount of groundwork on
capturing, converting and cleaning up texts delivered in various formats on various
media (section 3.1). The annotation (tagging and alignment) of the texts has also—both
by necessity and choice—prompted some methodological work on tagging and
alignment, as well as general software development; especially, we would like to point
to the development of interactive web-based software for viewing and searching aligned
parallel texts (section 4).
The work and results of the ETAP project have been reported in a number of contexts.
Research reports (the present status report being one), conference and symposium
1
2
Borin, with contributions by others
presentations, and a number of scientific publications have been produced by project
members (section 5).
Overlapping with the ETAP project in time, in goals and in people, there has been
another parallel corpus project going on in the Department of Linguistics, the PLUG
project (Parallel corpora in Linköping, Uppsala, Göteborg; see Sågvall Hein 1999). This
has made possible the sharing of resources, such as corpora (section 3) and software
(section 4), as well as ideas—at regular joint “corpus project meetings”—between the
two projects.
ETAP project researchers and technical staff have acted in the capacity of consultants on
matters relating to (parallel) corpus processing for other projects in the Translation
Programme, viz. projects no. 9 (Magnusson 1998), 6 (Jonasson 1998), and 13 (Wande
1998).
This status report was written by Lars Borin, with the inclusion of (edited) material
from work reports submitted by project co-workers Camilla Bengtsson, Maria Borg,
Sephorah Graves, Camilla Löfling, Leif-Jöran Olsson, Gustav Öquist, Henrik
Oxhammar and Susanne Viestam (see section 2).
ETAP status report December 2000
2
3
ETAP people
The following people have at various times been working in the ETAP project in
different capacities. Many of them are students in the department’s Language
Engineering Programme (“LE student” in the list), who have been employed in the
project for a specific task or for a short time period (1–2 months).
name
role / task
Kristina Apelqvist
Anna Andjic
LE student / Finnish IVT (section 3.3), 1998
LE student / Serbian-Bosnian-Croatian IVT
(section 3.3), 1998
LE student / Spanish IVT (section 3.3), tagger
evaluation (section 3.2), 1999
LE student / tagging (section 3.2), 2000
researcher / research, 1996–97; PI, 1998–2000
research engineer / software development and
systems support, 1996–
LE student / Finnish IVT (section 3.3), 1998
LE student / tagging (section 3.2), 2000
LE student / software development, 2000
LE student / English IVT, text conversion
(section 3.3); sentence and word alignment
(section 3.2), 1999
LE student / tagger training (section 3.2), 1997
project assistant / software development, 1999–
LE student / software development, 1999
project assistant / software development, 1999
Ph.D. student / research on tagging and
translationese, 1996–2000
researcher / research on tagging, 1996–97
researcher / PI, 1996–97, 2001–
research engineer / software development and
systems support, 1996–
LE student / PKS99 website building and
maintenance (section 5.1), 1999
researcher / text conversion and markup (section
3.1), sentence alignment (section 3.1) 1996–98
LE student / English IVT, text conversion
(section 3.3); sentence and word alignment
(section 3.2), 1999
LE student / Finnish IVT (section 3.3), 1998
LE student / Polish IVT (section 3.3), 1998
Camilla Bengtsson
Maria Borg
Lars Borin
Bengt Dahlqvist
Anna Eklund
Sephorah Graves
Mattias Lingdell
Camilla Löfling
Stina Nylander
Leif-Jöran Olsson
Gustav Öquist
Henrik Oxhammar
Klas Prütz
Hong Liang Qiao
Anna Sågvall Hein
Per Starbäck
Sten Thaning
Erik Tjong Kim Sang
Susanne Viestam
Satu Ylinen
Natalia Zinovjeva
4
Borin, with contributions by others
3
The ETAP corpus
3.1
Text collection and markup
Generally, the ETAP texts go through a number of processing stages. First, they are
captured, which may mean that the publisher provides the text in a machine-readable
format, but which also may imply keying or scanning in the texts from a printed
version. Both capturing methods have been used for the ETAP texts. In the first case,
conversion routines may have to be written for conversion from whatever word
processing format the texts are provided in. In the second case, the texts will need
proofreading. After capture, the texts are segmented into sentences and larger units,
such as articles, pages, and paragraphs (by no means a trivial task; see Grefenstette and
Tapanainen 1994; Tjong Kim Sang 1999a; Oxhammar and Borin 2000), and provided
with markup. In the ETAP texts, two markup schemes have been used: TEI LITE
SGML (Tjong Kim Sang 1999a) and PLUG XML (Tiedemann 1999).
3.2
Text annotation
For the ETAP texts, annotation consists of part-of-speech (POS) tagging, sentence
alignment and word alignment. In the project, we have explored the methodology of
these annotation steps. Sentence alignment is done with a method due to Gale and
Church (1994; see Tjong Kim Sang 1999b), and word alignment with the Uppsala Word
Aligner (UWA), developed by Tiedemann (2000) in the PLUG project. The UWA
presupposes sentence aligned input. In ETAP, the main contribution to word alignment
methodology has been that of pivot alignment (Borin 2000a, 2000b), i.e. the use of
additional parallel texts for enhancing bilingual word alignment, but the role of word
similarity for word alignment has also been investigated (Borin 1998).
POS tagging is done with existing (free) taggers; it is not within the brief of the project
to train taggers for all the ETAP corpus languages. Swedish has been a special case,
however; here, Prütz (1999a, 1999b) has experimented with training a Swedish Brill
tagger using tagsets of differing granularity. The two main contributions of the ETAP
project to tagging methodology have been, (1) the exploration of linguistically
motivated combination of taggers, as opposed to the classifier combination schemes
normally encountered in the literature on tagger combination (Qiao 1999; Bengtsson et
al 2000; Borin 2000c, to appear), and (2) the use of a POS tagged SL text and word
alignment for (partially) tagging a TL text for which no tagger is available (Borin 1999).
ETAP status report December 2000
3.3
5
The ETAP subcorpora: processing status
The ETAP corpus material currently consists of 5 subcorpora, in various stages of
processing (see section 3.3). Here, we give a brief characteristic of each subcorpus,
including an account of the processing stages it has gone through, indicating what has
been done with the material and what still remains to be done.
(1) ETAP subcorpus SGP
This is the Swedish Statement of Government Policy, issued by each new Swedish
government in a number of language versions simultaneously. This small subcorpus has
been part of the joint ETAP/PLUG corpus for a long time, and it is completely
processed.
(2) ETAP subcorpus EU
ETAP subcorpus EU consists of legislative EU text in Swedish and German. It was
provided by Bettina Jobin (see section 3.3) in machine-readable form in 1998 (German
umlauts are written <ae> and <oe>). It is not known which text is the SL, although it is
probably not the Swedish. This small subcorpus is completely processed.
(3) ETAP subcorpora IVT1 and IVT2
ETAP subcorpora IVT1 and IVT2 consist of articles from issues 1–25 1997 (half a
year’s worth) of Invandrartidningen, a periodical for immigrants published by the
Invandrartidningen Foundation (Stiftelsen Invandrartidningen), which graciously put
this text material at our disposal. Invandrartidningen is published in 8 languages:
Arabic, English, Finnish, Persian, Polish, Serbian-Bosnian-Croatian, Spanish, and easy
Swedish. All these versions are produced by translation (adaptation in case of easy
Swedish) from an original which itself is not published, even though it is produced in a
desktop publishing program as if it would be. The Invandrartidningen Foundation have
provided us with the Swedish original text in addition to the published language
versions. A smaller portion of the material—issues 21–25 of some language versions—
came in machine-readable form, provided as PageMaker documents, but most of the the
material was captured by scanning and subsequent proofreading. Thus, in 1998, issues
1–20 1997 of the Finnish version were captured by the LE students Kristina Apelqvist,
Anna Eklund and Satu Ylinen, the same issues of the Swedish original by LE student
Anna Eklund, of the Polish version by LE student Natalia Zinovjeva, and of the
Serbian-Bosnian-Croatian version by LE student Anna Andjic. In 1999, issues 1–20 of
the Spanish version were scanned and proofread by Camilla Bengtsson, and the same
issues of the English version by Camilla Löfling and Susanne Viestam, all LE students.
Issues 21–25 of the English, Finnish, Polish, Serbian-Bosnian-Croatian, Spanish and
Swedish versions were converted from PageMaker format to Unix text files by Susanne
Viestam and Camilla Löfling in 1999. The IVT texts are almost completely processed.
The Finnish, Polish and Serbian-Bosnian-Croatian texts are not POS tagged. On the
other hand, the IVT1 subcorpus goes beyond ‘complete processing’, in that it is
exhaustively cross-aligned on the sentence and word levels, i.e. all language versions
are aligned with all other language version, in both directions (normally, ‘complete
processing’ is understood to include only alignments Swedish–other languages). This is
because the IVT1 corpus was used for the experiments with pivot alignment (Borin
2000a, 2000b). The Arabic and Persian language versions have not been processed at
all, and the version in easy Swedish was not considered for inclusion, because it does
not stand in a translation relation sensu stricto to the Swedish original.
6
Borin, with contributions by others
(4) ETAP subcorpora Scania 1995 and Scania 1998
The Scania texts consist of maintenance manuals and user guides for the products of
Swedish truck manufacturer Scania AB. These subcorpora are shared with the PLUG
project. The texts were provided in machine-readable form, as FrameMaker documents,
which were subsequently converted by Erik Tjong Kim Sang (1999a) to Unix text files.
The Swedish version has been aligned with some of the other language versions by Jörg
Tiedemann in the PLUG project. Several, but not all, language versions have been POS
tagged in the ETAP project.
(5) ETAP subcorpus Sienkiewicz
The Sienkiewicz subcorpus consists of polish literary texts by classical Polish author
Henryk Sienkiewicz, together with their Swedish translations. The texts have been
provided by Ewa Gruszczynska (see section 3.3). They have undergone no processing
so far.
3.3
The ETAP subcorpora at a glance
Abbreviations used in the tables
Languages
SE
DE
EN
ES
FI
FR
IT
NL
PL
SBC
Swedish
German
English
Spanish
Finnish
French
Italian
Dutch
Polish
Serbian–Bosnian–Croatian
Taggers
A
B
M
Prütz
Tn
TT
Alignment
Other
W
S
(p)
word alignment
sentence alignment
Amalgam
(Atwell et al. 2000)
Brill tagger
(Brill 1995)
Memory Based Tagger
(Daelemans et al. 1994)
Klas Prütz’s Swedish Brill tagger
(Prütz 1999a, 1999b)
TnT
(Brants 2000)
TreeTagger
(Schmid 1994)
partially (tagged/aligned)
(1) ETAP subcorpus SGP
Text type: political-administrative
Total size: 19,000 words
Source language: SE
Target languages: DE, EN, FR
Remarks: Shared corpus with the PLUG project
language(s)
SE
(SE–)DE
(SE–)EN
(SE–)FR
words
5210
4250
4490
5220
tagged with
Prütz, M
M, TT, Tn
B, TT, Tn, M, A
TT
alignment
—
S, W
S, W
S, W
ETAP status report December 2000
7
(2) ETAP subcorpus EU
Text type: political-administrative
Total size: 56,500 words
Source language: ?
Target languages: ?
Remarks: From project no. 9 in the Translation Programme (see Magnusson 1998),
provided by Bettina Jobin. Texts are in translation relation, but the source language is
not known; probably not SE.
language(s)
SE
(SE–)DE
words
28088
28565
tagged with
Prütz, M
M, TT, Tn
alignment
—
S, W
(3) ETAP subcorpora IVT1 and IVT2
The Polish and Serbian-Bosnian-Croatian texts in the IVT subcorpora use a custom
character encoding. Instead of Latin-2 (ISO 8859–2), a modified Latin-1 (ISO 8859–1)
representation is used, so that all the currently processed IVT texts use the same ISO
8859 subset. The following table shows the coding used (for all languages in the IVT
subcorpora except English).
Polish
ą, Ą
ć, Ć
S-B-C
Spanish
Swedish
Finnish
ä,Ä
á,Á
å,Å
ä,Ä
á,Á
ć, Ć
č, Č
đ, Đ
ę, Ę
é,É
í,Í
ł, Ł
ń, Ń
ó,Ó
é,É
ñ,Ñ
ó,Ó
ö,Ö
ś, Ś
š, Š
ú, Ú
ź, Ź
ż, Ż
ž, Ž
¡
¿
ö,Ö
Latin-1 (char code)
â (126), Â (194)
å (229), Å (197)
ä (228), Ä (196)
á (225), Á (193)
þ (254), Þ (222)
ç (231), Ç (199)
ð (240), Ð (208)
ê (234), Ê (202)
é (233), É (201)
í (237), Í (205)
£ (163), ÷ (247)
ñ (241), Ñ (209)
ó (243), Ó (211)
ö (246), Ö (214)
¢ (162), © (169)
ú (250), Ú (218)
§ (167), ¬ (172)
$ (36), ® (174)
¡ (161)
¿ (191)
8
Borin, with contributions by others
(3:1)
ETAP subcorpus IVT1
Text type: newstext
Total size: 470,000 words
Source language: SE
Target languages: EN, ES, PL, SBC
Remarks: —
language(s)
SE
(SE–)EN
(SE–)ES
(SE–)PL
(SE–)SBC
EN–ES
EN–PL
EN–SBC
EN–SE
ES–EN
ES–PL
ES–SBC
ES–SE
PL–EN
PL–ES
PL–SBC
PL–SE
SBC–EN
SBC–ES
SBC–PL
SBC–SE
words
85736
105492
107047
81988
90750
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
tagged with
Prütz, M
B, TT, Tn, M, A
M
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
—
alignment
—
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
S, W
(3:2)
ETAP subcorpus IVT2
Text type: newstext
Total size: 63,000 (SE + FI; total about 200,000)
Source language: SE
Target languages: EN, ES, FI, PL, SBC
Remarks: IVT2 is wholly included in IVT1 except for the FI texts.
language(s)
SE
(SE–)EN
(SE–)ES
(SE–)FI
(SE–)PL
(SE–)SBC
tokens
35465
n.a.
n.a.
27516
n.a.
n.a.
tagged with
Prütz, M
B, TT, Tn, M, A
M
—
—
—
alignment
—
—
—
S, W
—
—
ETAP status report December 2000
9
(4:1)
ETAP subcorpus Scania 1995
Text type: technical (workshop manuals)
Total size: 1.66 million words
Source language: SE
Target languages: DE, EN, FR
Remarks: Shared corpus with the PLUG project. Aligned by Jörg Tiedemann in the
PLUG project.
language(s)
SE
(SE–)DE
(SE–)EN
(SE–)ES
(SE–)FI
(SE–)FR
(SE–)IT
(SE–)NL
words
220248
184588
222211
220631
143381
234467
233791
201289
tagged with
Prütz, M
TT, Tn
B, TT, Tn, M
—
—
TT
—
—
alignment
—
S, W
S, W
S
S
S
S
S
(4:2)
ETAP subcorpus Scania 1998
Text type: technical (workshop manuals)
Total size: 2.7 million words (SE + EN)
Source language: SE
Target languages: DE, EN, ES, FR, IT, NL
Remarks: Scania 1998 is a PLUG project corpus, which has been part-of-speech tagged
in the ETAP project.
language(s)
SE
(SE–)DE
(SE–)EN
(SE–)ES
(SE–)FR
(SE–)IT
(SE–)NL
words
1542729
n.a.
1183512
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
n.a.
tagged with
Prütz, M
TT, TnT
B, TT, Tn, M
M
TT
TT
M
alignment
—
S (p)
S, W
—
—
S (p)
—
(5) ETAP subcorpus Sienkiewicz
Text type: literary/fiction
Total size: not known
Source language: PL
Target languages: SE
Remarks: From project no. 4 of the Translation Programme (see Gustavsson 1998). So
far only unprocessed text in word processor format provided by Ewa Gruszczynska.
language(s)
PL
(PL–)SE
words
tagged with
? —
? —
alignment
—
—
10
4
Borin, with contributions by others
ETAP method and software development
ETAP method and software development has been concentrated in three areas: (1) text
tokenization; (2) annotation, i.e. alignment and POS tagging; (3) (computational)
linguistic use of parallel corpora.
In the area of text tokenization, Oxhammar and Borin (2000) have investigated ways of
improving sentence splitting algorithms. See also section 3.1, above.
The methodological work done in the ETAP project in the areas of alignment and POS
tagging has already been mentioned in section 3.2, above.
As for the (computational) linguistic use of parallel corpora, we have developed tools
for browsing and searching word-aligned parallel texts, but also explored ways of using
the POS tagged ETAP corpus for more sophisticated linguistic investigations than can
be done on unannotated texts, i.e. conventional corpora.
Figure 1: Visualising the distribution of a particular word alignment in the Swedish–
Finnish IVT2 ETAP subcorpus (from Olsson and Borin 2000)
ETAP status report December 2000
11
The ETAP–WebTEq alignment browser (Olsson and Borin 2000) was developed
specifically for browsing word-aligned parallel corpora, and thus represents a further
development in comparison to existing parallel corpus browsers, e.g. those described by
Ebeling (1998) and Tiedemann (p.c.; see <http://stp.ling.uu.se/~corpora/plug/> and
Sågvall Hein 1999), which work with sentence-aligned corpora. ETAP–WebTEq at
present allows word searches, as illustrated in Figure 1. The figure shows the graphical
interface, which provides a quick overview of the search results. Each square in the
figure represents one sentence alignment unit, and those units which contain the word
alignment in question are shown in a different colour from the rest (yellow instead of
grey; in Figure 4, there is one yellow square, in the third row from the top), and if
clicked, show the actual sentence alignment unit, as in the example in Figure 2, where
the sentence alignment units containing the word alignments for the word “svensk”
(Swedish; Swede) in the Swedish–Finnish IVT2 ETAP subcorpus. The kind of overview
illustrated in Figure 1 in combination with the more detailed information in Figure 2 is
valuable for many reasons, e.g. for finding thematically defined parts of the corpus, but
also for isolating systematic failures in the word alignment software.
Figure 2: Details of the word alignments for “svensk” (Swede; Swedish) in the
Swedish–Finnish IVT2 ETAP subcorpus with ETAP–WebTEq (from Olsson and Borin
2000)
12
Borin, with contributions by others
As a small illustration of the kinds of linguistic investigations made possible by the
existence of annotated parallel corpora, Borin and Prütz (2000) show that the so-called
‘translationese’ phenomenon (Gellerstam 1985) can profitably be investigated not only
as a phenomenon on the lexical level—which has been done frequently with the use of
unannotated corpora, both by Gellerstam and others (e.g. Johansson and Hofland 1994;
Johansson forthcoming)—but also on the syntactic level. In this investigation, using the
ETAP IVT1 subcorpus, a word class distributional influence was discernible in the
English IVT newstext (a translation from Swedish), as compared to original British and
American English newstext.
ETAP status report December 2000
5
ETAP conference presentations and publications
5.1
Conference presentations
13
The results of the research done in the ETAP project have been presented at a number of
national and international conferences and symposia, notably the Nordic biennal
Computational Linguistics conference (Nodalida – 1998: nos. 1 and 10; 1999: no. 5)
and the international COLING (no. 7) and LREC (no. 6) Computational Linguistics
conferences.
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
Borin, Lars. Linguistics isn't always the answer: Word comparison in
computational linguistics. The 11th Nordic Conference on Computational
Linguistics – NODALIDA '98, Copenhagen, 28–29 January 1998.
Borin, Lars. Alignment and tagging. PKS99 – Symposium on parallel and
comparable corpora, Uppsala, 22–23 April 1999.
Borin, Lars. ETAP-projektet. PKS99 – Symposium on parallel and
comparable corpora, Uppsala, 22–23 April 1999.
Borin, Lars. Enhancing tagging performance by combining knowledge
sources. ASLA-symposiet Korpusar i forskning och undervisning – KORFU
99, Växjö 11–12 November 1999.
Borin, Lars. Pivot alignment. The 12th ”Nordiske datalingvistikkdager” –
NODALIDA ’99. Trondheim, 9–10 December 1999.
Borin, Lars. Something borrowed, something blue: Rule-based combination
of part-of-speech taggers. Second International Conference on Language
Resources and Evaluation – LREC 2000. Aten, 31 May – 2 June 2000.
Borin, Lars. You'll take the high road and I'll take the low road: Using a
third language to improve bilingual word alignment. The 18th International
Conference on Computational Linguistics – COLING 2000. Saarbrücken, 31
July – 4 August 2000.
Borin, Lars and Klas Prütz. Through a glass darkly: Part of speech
distribution in original and translated text. Computational Linguistics in the
Netherlands – CLIN 2000, Tilburg, 3 November 2000.
Olsson, Leif-Jöran and Lars Borin. A web-based tool for exploring
translation equivalents on word and sentence level in multilingual parallel
corpora. 20th VAKKI Symposium, Vaasa, 12–13 February 2000.
Prütz, Klas. Evaluation of the syntactic parsing performed by the ENGCG
parser. The 11th Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics –
NODALIDA '98, Köpenhamn, 28–29 January 1998.
Prütz, Klas. Part-of-speech tagging for Swedish. PKS99 – Symposium on
parallel and comparable corpora, Uppsala, 22–23 April 1999.
Further, a symposium on parallel and comparable corpora (PKS99) was arranged at
Uppsala University in April 1999 as part of the ETAP project activities, with additional
funding from the Faculty of Languages, Uppsala University and the research
programme Translation and Interpreting – A Meeting between Languages and Cultures.
The symposium attracted speakers from Finland, Great Britain, Norway and Sweden. A
volume containing selected contributions to the symposium is in preparation and will be
14
Borin, with contributions by others
published by Rodopi in 2001 (see section 5.2.3, below). Here, we reproduce the
program of the symposium:
Thursday, 22nd April 1999
9.00 REGISTRATION
10.00 Introduction Lars Borin
10.20 Invited speaker: Multilingual corpusbased extraction Gregory Grefenstette
11.00 From parallel corpus to semantic
representations Helge Dyvik
11.30 The English-Norwegian parallel corpus:
Current work and new directions Stig
Johansson
12.00 PLUG-projektet (The PLUG project) Anna
Sågvall Hein
12.30 LUNCH
14.00 The PLUG link annotator—interactive
construction of data from parallel corpora
Magnus Merkel, Mikael Andersson and
Lars Ahrenberg
14.30 The lexical profile of Swedish reflected in
parallel corpus data Åke Viberg
15.00 The INTERSECT project Raphael Salkie
15.30 Building parallel texts Peter Stahl
16.00 BREAK
16.30 Uplug - a modular corpus tool for parallel
corpora Jörg Tiedemann
17.00 ETAP-projektet (The ETAP project) Lars
Borin
20.00 SYMPOSIUM DINNER
Friday, 23rd April 1999
9.00 Parallelle korpora som verkty for utvikling
av minoritetsspråk, med samisk som
eksempel (Parallel corpora as tools for
investigating and developing minority
languages: The case of Sámi) Trond
Trosterud
9.30 How can linguists profit from parallel
corpora? Raphael Salkie
10.00 The English-Swedish Parallel Corpus
(ESPC) Karin Aijmer and Bengt Altenberg
10.30 PARTITUR: Att bygga, bearbeta och
utnyttja parallellkorpusar (PARTITUR:
Building, processing, and using parallel
corpora) Mattias Agnesund, Mia Boström
Aronsson, Pernilla Danielsson, Anna-Lena
Fredriksson, Katarina Mühlenbock, P-O
Nilsson, Lene Nordrum, Kristina Svensson
and Annelie Ädel
11.00 BREAK
11.30 Alignment and tagging Lars Borin
12.00 Reversing a Swedish-English dictionary for
the Internet Christer Geisler
12.30 LUNCH
14.00 Ordklasstaggning på svenska (Part of
speech tagging for Swedish) Klas Prütz
14.30 Personbeteckningar i jämförbara och
parallella korpora. Några exempel på
lingvistiska resultat av kontrastiva
korpusstudier tyska-svenska (Words
denoting persons in comparable and
parallel corpora. Some linguistic findings
from contrastive German-Swedish corpus
studies) Bettina Jobin
15.00 Uppsala Student English Project (USE)
Margareta Westergren Axelsson and Ylva
Berglund
15.30 En muntlig inlärarkorpus inom projektet
LINDSEI (A learner corpus of spoken
language: The LINDSEI project) June
Miliander
16.00 Conclusion
ETAP status report December 2000
5.2
15
Publications
5.2.1 Research reports
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
etap-rr-01 1999 = Sågvall Hein, Anna (ed.). Reports from the ETAP project:
Converting, aligning and tagging for ETAP. Papers by Erik Tjong Kim
Sang, Hong Liang Qiao. Working Papers in Computational Linguistics &
Language Engineering 18. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University.
etap-rr-02 1999 = Sågvall Hein, Anna (ed.). Reports from the ETAP project.
Klas Prütz: Sammanställning av en träningskorpus på svenska för träning av
ett automatiskt ordklasstaggningssystem. Working Papers in Computational
Linguistics & Language Engineering 19. Department of Linguistics,
Uppsala University.
etap-rr-03 1999 = Borin, Lars (ed.). Reports from the ETAP project: Tagging
and alignment. Papers by Lars Borin, Klas Prütz. Working Papers in
Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 20. Department of
Linguistics, Uppsala University.
etap-rr-04 2000 = Borin, Lars (ed.). Reports from the ETAP project: Seeing
double: using parallel corpora for linguistic research. Papers by Lars Borin,
Leif-Jöran Olsson and Klas Prütz. Working Papers in Computational
Linguistics & Language Engineering 21. Department of Linguistics,
Uppsala University.
etap-rr-05 2000 = Borin, Lars (ed.). Reports from the ETAP project:
Segmenting and tagging parallel corpora. Papers by Camilla Bengtsson,
Lars Borin, Henrik Oxhammar. Working Papers in Computational
Linguistics & Language Engineering 22. Department of Linguistics,
Uppsala University.
etap-rr-06 2000 = Borin, Lars (ed.). Reports from the ETAP project. Lars
Borin, with contributions by others: ETAP project status report December
2000. Working Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language
Engineering 23. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University.
5.2.2 Research reports, individual articles
(1)
(2)
(3)
Bengtsson, Camilla, Lars Borin and Henrik Oxhammar 2000. Comparing
and combining part of speech taggers for multilingual parallel corpora. In:
Lars Borin (ed.), Working Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language
Engineering 22. Reports from the ETAP project: Segmenting and tagging
parallel corpora. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University.
Borin, Lars 1999. Alignment and tagging. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working
Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 20. Reports
from the ETAP project: Tagging and alignment. Department of Linguistics,
Uppsala University, 1–10.
Borin, Lars 2000 (with contributions by others). ETAP project status report
December 2000. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working Papers in Computational
Linguistics & Language Engineering 23. Reports from the ETAP project.
Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University.
16
Borin, with contributions by others
(4)
Borin, Lars and Klas Prütz 2000. Through a glass darkly: Part of speech
distribution in original and translated text. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working
Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 21. Reports
from the ETAP project: Seeing double: using parallel corpora for linguistic
research. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University. 9–30.
Olsson, Leif-Jöran and Lars Borin 2000. ETAP–WebTEq: a web-based tool
for exploring translation equivalents on word and sentence level in
multilingual parallel corpora. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working Papers in
Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 21. Reports from the
ETAP project: Seeing double: using parallel corpora for linguistic research.
Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University. 1–8.
Oxhammar, Henrik and Lars Borin 2000. Sentence splitting and SGML
tagging of the ETAP corpora. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working Papers in
Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 22. Reports from the
ETAP project: Segmenting and tagging parallel corpora. Department of
Linguistics, Uppsala University.
Prütz, Klas 1999. Sammanställning av en träningskorpus på svenska för
träning av ett automatiskt ordklasstaggningssystem. In: Anna Sågvall Hein
(ed.), Working Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language
Engineering 19. Reports from the ETAP project. Department of Linguistics,
Uppsala University, 1–15.
Prütz, Klas 1999. Part-of-speech tagging for Swedish. In: Lars Borin (ed.),
Working Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 20.
Reports from the ETAP project: Tagging and alignment. Department of
Linguistics, Uppsala University. 11–15.
Qiao, Hong Liang 1999. Comparing the tagging performance between the
AGTS and Brill taggers. In: Anna Sågvall Hein (ed.), Working Papers in
Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 18. Reports from the
ETAP project: Converting, aligning and tagging for ETAP. Department of
Linguistics, Uppsala University, 1–9.
Tjong Kim Sang, Erik 1999. Converting the SCANIA Framemaker
documents to TEI SGML. In: Anna Sågvall Hein (ed.), Working Papers in
Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 18. Reports from the
ETAP project: Converting, aligning and tagging for ETAP. Department of
Linguistics, Uppsala University, 1–14.
Tjong Kim Sang, Erik 1999. Aligning the Scania corpus. In: Anna Sågvall
Hein (ed.), Working Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language
Engineering 18. Reports from the ETAP project: Converting, aligning and
tagging for ETAP. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University, 1–7.
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
ETAP status report December 2000
17
5.2.3 Other publications
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(7)
(8)
(9)
(10)
(11)
Borin, Lars 1998. ETAP: Etablering och annotering av parallellkorpus för
igenkänning av översättningsekvivalenter. ASLA-information, 24(1):33–40.
Borin, Lars 1998. Linguistics isn't always the answer: Word comparison in
computational linguistics. In: The 11th Nordic Conference on
Computational Linguistics. NODALIDA '98. Proceedings. Center for
Sprogteknologi and Department of General and Applied Linguistics,
University of Copenhagen, 140–151.
Borin, Lars 2000. Pivot alignment. In: NODALIDA ’99. Proceedings from
the 12th ”Nordiske datalingvistikkdager”. Trondheim: Department of
Linguistics, NTNU. 41–48.
Borin, Lars 2000. Something borrowed, something blue: Rule-based
combination of part-of-speech taggers. In: Second International Conference
on Language Resources and Evaluation. Proceedings, Volume I. Athens:
ELRA. 2000. 21–26.
Borin, Lars 2000. You'll take the high road and I'll take the low road: Using
a third language to improve bilingual word alignment. In: Proceedings of
the 18th International Conference on Computational Linguistics, Vol. 1.
Saarbrücken: Universität des Saarlandes. 2000. 97–103.
Borin, Lars to appear. Enhancing tagging performance by combining
knowledge sources. In: Proceedings of KORFU 1999. ASLA, Växjö
University.
Borin, Lars (ed.) to appear. Parallel corpora, parallel worlds. Papers
presented at a symposium on parallel and comparable corpora at Uppsala
University. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Borin, Lars to appear. … and never the twain shall meet. In: Lars Borin
(ed.), Parallel Corpora, Parallel Worlds. Amsterdam: Rodopi.
Olsson, Leif-Jöran and Lars Borin 2000. A web-based tool for exploring
translation equivalents on word and sentence level in multilingual parallel
corpora. In: Erikoiskielet ja kännösteoria – Fackspråk och
översättningsteori – LSP and Theory of Translation. 20th VAKKI
Symposium. 2000, Vasa 11.–13.2.2000. Publications of the Research Group
for LSP and Theory of Translation at the University of Vaasa, No. 27, 2000.
76–84.
Prütz, Klas 1998. Evaluation of the syntactic parsing performed by the
ENGCG parser. In: The 11th Nordic Conference on Computational
Linguistics. NODALIDA '98. Proceedings. Center for Sprogteknologi and
Department of General and Applied Linguistics, University of Copenhagen,
87–93.
Sågvall Hein, Anna fortcoming. Using parallel corpora in multilingual
lexical acquisition. In: Brynja Svane (ed.), Translation as Intercultural
Communication. Stockholm/Uppsala: Reports from the Research
Programme “Translation and Interpreting – A Meeting between Languages
and Cultures”.
18
Borin, with contributions by others
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Borin, Lars 2000a. Pivot alignment. In: NODALIDA ’99. Proceedings from the 12th
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41–48.
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Conference on Computational Linguistics, Vol. 1. Saarbrücken: Universität des
Saarlandes. 2000. 97–103.
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Borin, Lars to appear. Enhancing tagging performance by combining knowledge
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original and translated text. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working Papers in Computational
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vid universiteten i Stockholm och Uppsala.
Olsson, Leif-Jöran and Lars Borin 2000. ETAP–WebTEq: a web-based tool for
exploring translation equivalents on word and sentence level in multilingual parallel
corpora. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working Papers in Computational Linguistics &
Language Engineering 21. Reports from the ETAP project: Seeing double: using
parallel corpora for linguistic research. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala
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Oxhammar, Henrik and Lars Borin 2000. Sentence splitting and SGML tagging of the
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Language Engineering 22. Reports from the ETAP project: Segmenting and tagging
parallel corpora. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University. XX–YY.
20
Borin, with contributions by others
Prütz, Klas 1999a. Sammanställning av en träningskorpus på svenska för träning av ett
automatiskt ordklasstaggningssystem. In: Anna Sågvall Hein (ed.), Working Papers
in Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 19. Reports from the ETAP
project. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University, 1–15.
Prütz, Klas 1999b. Part-of-speech tagging for Swedish. In: Lars Borin (ed.), Working
Papers in Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 20. Reports from the
ETAP project: Tagging and alignment. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala
University. 11–15.
Qiao, Hong Liang 1999. Comparing the tagging
Brill taggers. In: Anna Sågvall Hein (ed.),
Linguistics & Language Engineering 18.
Converting, aligning and tagging for ETAP.
University, 1–9.
performance between the AGTS and
Working Papers in Computational
Reports from the ETAP project:
Department of Linguistics, Uppsala
Sågvall Hein, Anna 1995. Delprojekt 20: Etablering och annotering av parallellkorpus
för igenkänning av översättningsekvivalenter. In Svane 1996. 76–80.
Sågvall Hein, Anna 1999. The PLUG project. Parallel corpora in Linköping, Uppsala,
Göteborg: aims and achievements. In: Anna Sågvall Hein (ed.), Working Papers in
Computational Linguistics & Language Engineering 16. Reports from the PLUG
project. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University, 1–17. Forthcoming in:
L. Borin (ed), Parallel Corpora, Parallel Worlds. Papers Presented at a Symposium
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SGML. In: Anna Sågvall Hein (ed.), Working Papers in Computational Linguistics
& Language Engineering 18. Reports from the ETAP project: Converting, aligning
and tagging for ETAP. Department of Linguistics, Uppsala University, 1–14.
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Uppsala University, Department of Linguistics, Box 527, SE-751 20 Uppsala, Sweden.
URL: <http://www.ling.uu.se/> (e-mail: <[email protected]>)
No. 1
Prütz, Klas: Disambiguation Strategies in Automatic Part of Speech
Tagging Systems. A Probabilistic and a Rule Based System. 59 pp.
Uppsala, May 1996.
No. 2
Olsson, Fredrik: Tagging and Morphological Processing in the
SVENSK System. 104 pp.
Uppsala, June 1998.
No. 3
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Two Reports on CORRIE for SCARRIE:
Tjong Kim Sang, Erik: Testing CORRIE for SCARRIE, Deliverable 1.2. 22 pp.
Olsson, Leif-Jöran: Specification of Phonemic Representation, Swedish,
Deliverable 4.1.3. 14 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 4
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Wedbjer Rambell, Olga: Error Typology for Automatic Proof-reading
Purposes, Deliverable 2.1. 114 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 5
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Wedbjer Rambell, Olga, Dahlqvist, Bengt, Tjong Kim Sang, Erik, Hein, Nils:
An Error Database of Swedish, Deliverable 2.1.3.2. 54 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 6
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
The SCARRIE Swedish Newspaper Corpus.
Dahlqvist, Bengt: A Swedish Text Corpus for Generating Dictionaries,
Deliverable 3.1.3. 20 pp.
Dahlqvist, Bengt: The Distribution of Characters, Bi- and trigrams in the
Uppsala 70 Million Words Swedish Newspaper Corpus. 14 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 7
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Olsson, Leif-Jöran: A Swedish Hyphenation Marker, Deliverable 3.4.1. 37 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 8
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Wedbjer Rambell, Olga: Multi-word Expressions for Swedish, Deliverable
5.3.3. 34 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 9
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Wedbjer Rambell, Olga: A Study of Three Commercial Grammar Checkers,
Deliverable 6.1. 76 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 10
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Wedbjer Rambell, Olga: Three Types of Grammatical Errors in Swedish,
Deliverable 6.2.3. 39 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 11
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
CORRIE-based Grammar Checking.
Wedbjer Rambell, Olga: Swedish Phrase Constituent Rules. A Formalism
for the Expression of Local Error Rules for Swedish, Deliverable 6.3.3,
6.4 and 6.4.3. 28 pp.
Wedbjer Rambell, Olga: A Minor Grammar Checking Test for Swedish
Using the Fragment Analysis Approach in CORRIE. 26 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 12
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Chart-Based Grammar Checking in SCARRIE.
Sågvall Hein, Anna, Starbäck, Per: A Test Version of the Grammar Checker
for Swedish, Deliverable 6.5.1. 44 pp.
Sågvall Hein, Anna: A Specification of the Required Grammar Checking
Machinery, Deliverable 6.5.2. 39 pp.
Sågvall Hein, Anna: A Grammar Checking Module for Swedish, Deliverable
6.6.3. 24 pp.
Starbäck, Per: ScarCheck – a Software for Word and Grammar Checking. 6 pp.
Weijnitz, Per: Uppsala Chart Parser Light System Documentation. 20 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 13
Reports from the SCARRIE Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Evaluating the Swedish SCARRIE Prototype.
Sågvall Hein, Anna, Leif-Jöran Olsson, Bengt Dahlqvist, Erik Mats:
Evaluation Report for the Swedish Prototype, Deliverable 8.1.3. 16 pp.
Ahlbom, Viktoria, Sågvall Hein, Anna: Test Suites Covering the Functional
Specifications of the Sub-components of the Swedish Prototype, Deliverable
7.1.3. 28 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 14
Reports from the PLUG Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Tiedemann, Jörg: Parallel Corpora in Linköping, Uppsala and Göteborg
(PLUG): The Corpus. 13 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 15
Reports from the PLUG Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Ahrenberg, Lars, Merkel, Magnus, Sågvall Hein, Anna, Tiedemann, Jörg:
Evaluation of LWA and UWA. 28 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 16
Reports from the PLUG Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Sågvall Hein, Anna: The PLUG-project. Parallel Corpora in Linköping,
Uppsala, Göteborg: Aims and Achievements. 17 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 17
Reports from the PLUG Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Tiedemann, Jörg: Uplug – A Modular Corpus Tool for Parallel Corpora. 16 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 18
Reports from the ETAP Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Converting, Aligning and Tagging for ETAP.
Tjong Kim Sang, Erik: Converting the SCANIA Framemaker Documents to TEI
SGML. 14 pp.
Tjong Kim Sang, Erik: Aligning the Scania Corpus. 7 pp.
Qiao, Hong Liang: Comparing the Tagging Performance Between the AGTS and
Brill Taggers. 9 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 19
Reports from the ETAP Project, Editor: Anna Sågvall Hein.
Prütz, Klas: Sammanställning av en träningskorpus på svenska för
träning av ett automatiskt ordklasstaggningssystem.15 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 20
Reports from the ETAP Project, Editor: Lars Borin.
Tagging and Alignment.
Borin, Lars: Alignment and Tagging. 10 pp.
Prütz, Klas: Part-of-Speech Tagging for Swedish. 5 pp.
Uppsala, December 1999.
No. 21
Reports from the ETAP Project, Editor: Lars Borin.
Seeing Double: Using Parallel Corpora for Linguistic Research.
Olsson, Leif-Jöran, Borin, Lars: ETAP-WebTEq: a Web-Based Tool
for Exploring Translation Equivalents on Word and Sentence Level
in Multilingual Parallel Corpora. 8 pp.
Borin, Lars, Prütz, Klas: Through a Glass Darkly: Part of Speech
Distribution in Original and Translated Text. 22 pp.
Uppsala, December 2000.
No. 22
Reports from the ETAP Project, Editor: Lars Borin.
Segmenting and Tagging Parallel Corpora.
Oxhammar, Henrik, Borin, Lars: Sentence Splitting and SGML Tagging. 10 pp.
Bengtsson, Camilla, Borin, Lars, Oxhammar, Henrik:
Comparing and Combining Part of Speech Taggers for
Multilingual Parallel Corpora. 20 pp.
Uppsala, December 2000.
No. 23
Reports from the ETAP Project, Editor: Lars Borin.
Borin, Lars, with contributions by others:
ETAP Project Status Report December 2000. 20 pp.
Uppsala, December 2000.
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