Page 1: Now it comes to my part - the Hawthorne Studies. It’s a series of experiments on factory workers between 1924-1932. The experiments were carried out in Hawthorne Works of Western Electric Company, which is a manufactoring arm of AT&T, which locates in the State Illinois, USA. The experiments were carried out by the industrial engineers of the company, and later in 1927 Harvard Prof. Elton Mayo joined the study along with his assistants. At the beginning there was one experiment which was designed to examine the Effect of various lighting levels on the productivity of the workers. And i’ll come back to this experiment later to provide you more details of the process. After some unexpected result which come out of the experiment, Harvard professor Elton Mayo was invited into the study and they designed a whole new series of experiments, which aimed to research the influence of different factors on workers behavior. Such as: social situation and social treatment which the workers received at work and etc. Page 2: And now i would like to name three most important experiments of the Hawthorne studies as well as the main conclusion people made out of the results from the experiment. First one is the Illumination Experiment which i mentioned earlier. As every scientific experiment, they have experiment groups and control groups. They expose the experiment group to different lighting intensity and documented how the productivity changed then compare the data with the control group. Surprisingly they found out that there is actually no direct relations between the lighting intensity and the work force productivity. So they come to the conclusion, that something else must have contributed to the change of the workers‘ behavior and further more, the productivity. Other experiments conducted by Prof. Elton Mayo such as: the Relay Assembly Experiment and the Bank wiring room Experiment. They tried out variables of different working environment, such as, different workday-length, whether there was food provided during the breaks, how often the workers got a break etc. They also tried providing different payment incentives. They measured the outcome and see what are the impacts of these factors on the Workers‘ hahavior. Page 3: To give you a more direct view of the conclusions of the Hawthorne Studies, i’ve summarised the researchers‘ findings as followed. These are actually also the interpretation from Prof. Elton Mayo of the experiments‘ results. -Individual workers must be seen as members of a group. The feeling that they belong to a group affect their behavior. -Monetary incentives and good working conditions are less important to the individual than the need to belong to a group. This means physical conditions or financial incentives have little motivational value. -Informal or unofficial groups formed at work have a strong influence on the behavior of those workers in a group. -Managers must be aware of these 'social needs' and cater for them to ensure that employees collaborate with the official organization rather than work against it.