Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 Dennis Chapman. 6 May 1927 − 28 October 1999 : Elected F.R.S. 1986 Peter J. Quinn Biogr. Mems Fell. R. Soc. 2001 47, 55-66 doi: 10.1098/rsbm.2001.0004 Email alerting service Receive free email alerts when new articles cite this article - sign up in the box at the top right-hand corner of the article or click here To subscribe to Biogr. Mems Fell. R. Soc. go to: http://rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org/subscriptions This journal is © 2001 The Royal Society Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 DENNIS CHAPMAN 6 May 1927 — 28 October 1999 Biog. Mems Fell. R. Soc. Lond. 47, 55–66 (2001) Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 DENNIS CHAPMAN 6 May 1927 — 28 October 1999 Elected F.R.S. 1986 B P J. Q Division of Life Sciences, King’s College, London, 150 Stamford Street, London SE1 9NN, UK E T W Dennis Chapman was born on 6 May 1927 in Sunderland, County Durham, the only son of George and Katherine Chapman. His formative years were dominated by the hardships visited on working-class families living in the industrial north of England during the depression of the 1930s and the attentions paid to a major shipbuilding port by the Luftwaffe during the early phase of World War II. He attended Sunderland Junior Technical School from 1938 to 1943, where his parents expected him to learn a trade and make his own way in the world. He left at age 16 without any qualifications. The shipyards and coalmines apparently held little attraction for him and he was determined to improve his prospects. To this end he worked in unskilled jobs by day and studied during the evenings at Sunderland Polytechnic, gaining an external BSc from London University in 1948. He courted one of the star pupils of the local grammar school, Margaret Stephenson. His suit was somewhat hampered, however, by an insistence by her parents that she be chaperoned by her sister, Mary. Despite this encumbrance they married in Hampstead in 1949; he was then aged 22 years. Their marriage represented quite a sacrifice for Margaret as she was obliged to decline an offer of a place to read for a degree at Cambridge and to move across the Pennines to set up house with her husband in Birkenhead. The couple were also indebted to Margaret’s mother, Elsie, who provided considerable assistance to set up their residence at 29 Wharfedale Avenue. He had a particular affection for his mother-in-law, who was a reliable supporter of his family throughout his life. 57 © 2001 The Royal Society Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 58 Biographical Memoirs M M Chapman’s move to Merseyside was necessitated by his recruitment to the Port Sunlight laboratory of Unilever. On a recommendation of Dr J. Topping at Sunderland Polytechnic, he was awarded a maintenance grant from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research that enabled him to study on secondment for a research degree at the nearby University of Liverpool. The topic of his research seems to have been undefined at the outset and not of obvious relevance to the interests of the company. Chapman relished the freedom that these circumstances provided and set about experiments in Professor Meek’s Department of Electronics under the guidance of Mr Hopwood, who suggested the subject that he should examine. The originality of his graduate studies concerned the experimental determination of electron affinities of negative ions created when electrons collide with molecules. From this work he was able to correlate the electronegativity of metal complexes with the stability of the complex in terms of the strength of metal–ligand bonds. The results were presented in a thesis entitled ‘A spectroscopic study of a spark discharge in oxygen’, for which he was awarded a PhD in 1952. The work was published, two years after he graduated, from his private address in Wharfedale Avenue (2)*. Chapman resumed full-time work at Port Sunlight, where his attention was diverted to the study of materials in the product range marketed by Unilever, namely glycerides such as cocoa butter, which are primary ingredients of chocolate and other foods. He began by modifying a single-beam infrared spectrometer so that spectra could be recorded over a wide range of wavelengths in a carefully controlled sample environment. His initial studies were performed under the direction of R.J. Taylor and addressed the assignment of C=C vibrational modes in vitamin A palmitate. He showed that C=C stretching vibrations in the conjugated configuration in the molecule could be readily distinguished from bands originating from isolated double bonds (1). These initial studies of unsaturated lipids stimulated Chapman to contemplate the use of infrared spectroscopy to characterize the thermotropic polymorphism of lipids, notably the glycerides, that was central to understanding the changes that are associated with food processing. He was able to identify structural transitions from changes in band position and intensity of different vibrational modes in this group of molecules. He found the transition from the various crystalline forms of the glycerides to a ‘liquid’ state particularly noteworthy. These detailed infrared studies were published in the Journal of the Chemical Society in a series of five single-author papers during 1956–58 (3–7). In addition to these studies he examined the infrared spectra of long-chain anhydrous soaps such as sodium stearate and sodium palmitate and made the important discovery that partial melting of the hydrocarbon chains took place hundreds of degrees below their capillary melting points (8). Despite the fact that his work at the Port Sunlight laboratory of Unilever was to be the foundation on which his research career would be based, he showed a remarkable reticence to acknowledge how influential this early phase of his working life had been. * Numbers in this form refer to the bibliography at the end of the text. Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 Dennis Chapman 59 G C C, C In 1960 Chapman was given leave of absence from Unilever to take up a Comyns Berkeley Fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, to continue his work on lipid structure. From his own account he received little encouragement: I was keen to learn about molecular orbital theory and I had many discussions with the theoretical chemists. On one occasion I was asked by one of the young scientists about my own research interests and confessed to a fascination with lipids. ‘Lipids?’ he said; ‘how many atoms are there in lipids?’. I replied, ‘Quite a few.’ ‘More than four?’ he asked. ‘Well, yes,’ I replied. ‘More than eight?’ he challenged with some surprise in his voice. ‘Well,’ I said somewhat apologetically, ‘yes, I’m afraid so.’ ‘Oh dear,’ he replied, ‘Dennis, you are wasting your time working on those molecules!’. He was gainfully distracted in his first year at Cambridge by starting work on a comparatively simple molecule, S4N4, and a relative, S2N2. This proved prophetic in the sense that he was introduced to a variety of physical techniques that he would subsequently employ to great effect. He used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to demonstrate, for the first time, that electron delocalization could take place in an inorganic ring molecule (9) and this led to other studies of [SN]x polymers, charge alternation and molecular orbital calculations (10). Not content to abandon his interest in lipids he returned to the subject in the second half of his fellowship at Cambridge. Infrared spectroscopy at that time was not able to deal with hydrated specimens because of the dominating O–H stretch vibrations. He therefore initiated proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of partly hydrated lipids. He foresaw the importance of characterizing the structure of polar lipids, particularly phospholipids, that were being shown to act as reliable models of biological membranes in pioneering studies of R.M.C. Dawson (F.R.S. 1981) and A.D. Bangham (F.R.S. 1977) at the then Agricultural and Food Research Council Institute of Animal Physiology in nearby Babraham. His interest in these lipids was also heightened by a chance meeting with L.L.M. vanDeenen, working in Utrecht, who had recorded an infrared spectrum of phospholipid but was puzzled by the very broad lines obtained. Chapman instantly recognized these features from his earlier work on soaps and glycerides as arising from a liquid-crystalline phase. He quickly applied biophysical methods to determine the extent of molecular motion in the molecules above the critical temperature and then related this thermotropic phase behaviour of the phospholipid to its behaviour in solids, lipid–water systems and monomolecular films at the air–water interface (11). T F L, W He returned to the industrial fold by joining the scientific staff of the Unilever Research Laboratories at the Frythe in Welwyn, Hertfordshire. He set about the synthesis of pure molecular species of a range of phospholipids that he then proceeded to characterize by calorimetry, paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and monomolecular film techniques. This was one of the most productive and exciting times in his research career. He rose quickly through the ranks to become director of the Molecular Biophysics Group, in which he assembled a team of talented young scientists who set about Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 60 Biographical Memoirs transforming the notion that living cell membranes were static structures into our present view of fluid and dynamic molecular assemblies. The concept of membrane fluidity originated from the discovery that phospholipids, as he had shown previously in soaps, exist as liquid crystals at temperatures well below their capillary melting temperatures (14). Its original formulation was as follows: We envisage that one of the functions of the distribution of fatty acid residues observed with these phospholipids is to provide the correct fluidity at the particular environmental temperature so as to match the required diffusion or rate of metabolic process for the tissue. Thus in membranes where metabolic and diffusion processes are required to be of a rapid nature, such as in the mitochondria, the average transition temperature of the phospholipids present will probably be low compared with the biological environmental temperature, while in membranes where these processes are slow, e.g. in myelin of the central nervous system, the average transition temperature of the phospholipids will be higher and may be close to that of the biological environmental temperature. It was also noted that the fatty acyl composition of the membrane phospholipids of poikilothermic organisms varied with the growth temperature in such a way as to preserve the fluidity within relatively narrow limits. Sterols were known to be prominent constituents of biological membranes; in animal cells the sterol is cholesterol. Chapman turned his attention to how cholesterol modulated the dynamic motion of the acyl chains of the membrane phospholipids. In a landmark publication (12) he reported that cholesterol ‘condenses’ both saturated and unsaturated phospholipid monolayers and in subsequent calorimetric studies it was shown that cholesterol broadens the thermotropic phase transition and decreases the transition enthalpy. The first high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectrum of a model membrane was published at this time and the method was used to show the condensing effect of cholesterol at the molecular level (13). Chapman held to the belief that there were no specific interactions between cholesterol and phospholipids (or peptides) and considerable effort was devoted to molecular dynamic studies of arrays of acyl chains (or peptides) and cholesterol on the assumption that they obeyed a hard-sphere model. He was wrong on this score and remained unconvinced to the end. Nevertheless, he can be credited with highlighting the role of cholesterol in the function of biological membranes. His time at the Frythe was marked by an extraordinary list of influential publications reporting on the work undertaken by his team. Literally thousands of scientific papers from scientists throughout the world were generated directly from the lead taken by the group. Indeed, Chapman’s work was judged by the Institute of Scientific Information as being among the most cited studies ever performed in the UK. R & C, S U The era came to an end in 1969 when Unilever took the decision to close the Frythe laboratory and amalgamate it with the laboratories at Coleworth House in Bedfordshire. Chapman was not able to negotiate a future for his research with the company and was recruited by Reckitt & Colman as Director of Research and joined the University of Sheffield as a Visiting Professor. His team at Sheffield retained much of the talent built up in the Frythe but expanded to about 25 young researchers and distinguished visitors as his reputation grew. Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 Dennis Chapman 61 It was at Sheffield that he became interested in the proteins in membranes and particularly the effect of lipid fluidity on the motion of the proteins. R. Cone had demonstrated, by using the 11-cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin, that the protein rotated about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the retinal rod disk membrane with a relaxation time of ca. 20 µs. A flash-photolysis instrument was constructed under his direction and was used to show that bacteriorhodopsin, an integral protein of the purple membrane of Halobacterium halobium, was severely constrained in its rotational diffusion motion, indicating that not all membranes were fluid. In an imaginative step, Chapman’s group developed the use of triplet probes that were covalently bound to a variety of proteins so as to enable measurements of rotational diffusion of proteins without intrinsic chromophores (16). Also at Sheffield he began a systematic examination of the interactions between lipids and proteins in membranes. He used a model initiated earlier at the Frythe laboratory to study how the presence of intrinsic peptides such as the cyclic antibiotics affect the motion of the acyl chains of the lipid. One approach to this problem was to substitute deuterium for protons in the system and to follow the relaxation of the deuterium atoms by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. This proved to be an incisive method that was subsequently widely exploited to build up a detailed picture of the motion of lipid hydrocarbon chains in membranes and hydration of the membrane–water interface. Chapman was also instrumental overcoming problems in using highly dispersed phospholipid systems for resolving high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. He instigated experiments with ‘magic-angle’ sample spinning in which the dispersion was rotated at several kilohertz in a gas turbine and the dipolar interactions between protons responsible for broadening the spectrum were averaged out by the sample motion (15). Although modest achievements in resolution could be obtained at the field strength (ca. 1.4 teslas) then in use, it took improvements in instrumentation to produce truly high-resolution spectra from solidstate samples. However, the principles established by Chapman at the outset paved the way for these later developments. Chapman’s ease in both industrial and academic environments was reflected in the authority carried by his inaugural speech delivered for the chair at Sheffield in 1969. The title of the address was ‘Industry and the universities: collision or collaboration’. In this he argued cogently that the exchange of personnel and ideas between research laboratories in academia and industry was essential to exploit fundamental discoveries in development of products that could be marketed profitably. Indeed, his ethos expounded in this address and in talks presented on programmes broadcast by the BBC was to apply his discoveries to serve the health and wealth of others. C C, U L After leaving Sheffield he took up a Senior Wellcome Trust Fellowship in 1975 at Chelsea College, University of London, with the intention of setting up a new department when the College merged with St George’s Hospital Medical School in the formation of what was to have been a multifaculty university in South London. The plan failed to materialize but he set about new research designed to modulate the fluidity of membranes by hydrogenating the double bonds of the phospholipids. Initial attempts using Adams’s catalyst were unsuccessful but, in a brilliant stroke, he tried Wilkinson’s catalyst and achieved rapid and complete Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 62 Biographical Memoirs hydrogenation of the phospholipid dispersions and respectable hydrogenation of suspensions of biological membranes (17). Wilkinson’s catalyst, Rh(PPh3)3Cl, is insoluble in water and had to be added in a small amount of solvent whence it partitioned into the membrane. Chapman was concerned that the method of addition of the catalyst or its presence in the membrane might have detrimental effects and sought to solve this problem by persuading Wilkinson to synthesize a water-soluble form of his catalyst. Wilkinson obliged by substituting diphenylphosphinobenzene-m-sulphonate for triphenylphosphine to produce a water-soluble catalyst that could hydrogenate model membranes and be removed at the completion of the reaction. His insight into the utility of the method was apparent from the exchange with Alec Bangham recorded after a lecture to the New York Academy of Sciences in 1978: Bangham: What worries me a little about this is that there is a good deal of evidence that suggests that the animals, as it were, can adapt membranes for a change. For example, if you put goldfish into a warm or cold environment, their membranes change. If you are going to hydrogenate their membranes and they don’t like it, so to speak, they are going to modify other parts of the membrane components to adapt to that. Chapman: We know that poikilothermic organisms do vary their fatty acids to match their environmental temperature. When the environmental temperature is raised, the fatty acids become more saturated; when the environmental temperature is lowered, the membrane will become more unsaturated in the cell. But what happens when we hydrogenate at constant temperatures? What are the biochemical processes that control membrane fluidity? That is what we are asking. Bangham: Quite so; but then there is going to be a possibility of an adaptation to the modified membranes, at least this is what happens in nutritional states. Chapman: That’s true, except that in the nutritional state you have a considerable length of time in which adaptation can occur. When you’ve changed the membrane fluidity within 45 minutes, what are the cells going to do about it? With regard to nutritional variation, if we are interested to know the role of the highly unsaturated fatty acids in excitable tissues, such as the squid axon, then the possibility of getting major changes in the fatty acids as a result of nutrition is very limited indeed. In principle it is possible to take an axon and hydrogenate it selectively, step by step, and see how some of the electrical functions are changed. But that’s speculative at present! The method was indeed widely applied to investigate the role of unsaturated lipids in membrane function and biochemical homeostatic mechanisms long before the advent of genetic engineering to address these questions. He also showed prescience of the industrial applications of such catalysts and obtained a patent for their use (18). R F H M S, U L Chapman accepted a personal chair of biophysical chemistry of London University and moved to the Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry at the Hunter Street site of the Royal Free Hospital Medical School in 1978. Although his initial attempts to polymerize phospholipid dispersions at Chelsea had been unsuccessful, he followed the strategy of G. Wegner and succeeded in forming polymeric membranes from phospholipids synthesized with diacetylenic fatty acyl residues or in Acholeplasma membranes into which acetylenic fatty acids had been biosynthetically incorporated (19). He continued his work with catalytic Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 Dennis Chapman 63 hydrogenation at Hunter Street, using the method as a probe of membrane and lipoprotein structure. Chapman’s group moved to the Royal Free Hospital Medical School’s Hampstead campus in the early 1980s; there he founded the Department of Protein and Molecular Biology. Many of his colleagues were intrigued by the title of his department, which made no reference to his by now well-established reputation as a lipidologist. He justified this by embarking on a new line of investigation of the structure of membrane proteins with techniques that he had applied so effectively to the study of lipid polymorphism. Infrared spectroscopy had by then been adapted to deal with hydrated specimens and he undertook to characterize the amide bands of membrane polypeptides and proteins by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (21). The conformation of a variety of receptors, channels and membrane pumps was examined qualitatively with the method. In further refinements, methods based on deconvolution and derivative spectra were developed to identify the number and position of components of amide I and amide II bands so as to provide a quantitative analysis of protein secondary structure. These studies occupied much of the last 10 years of his active research career. With his characteristically astute commercial sense he recognized the potential of stabilized phospholipid structures as vectors for drug targeting and delivery, or for the production of haemo-compatible surfaces. It was long known that the failure of prosthetic devices implanted in the cardiovascular system was caused by a tendency of such devices to induce thrombosis. It was also known that haemo-compatibility within the circulatory system was achieved by preserving choline phosphatides (namely phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin) on the surface of cells. Chapman conceived of how polymerized films of choline phosphatides, and later phosphocholine, could be used to form stable haemocompatible interfaces to prevent prosthetic devices from causing blood clotting. The idea was formulated in a paper published in 1982 (20): We have shown that it is possible to coat many materials (glass, quartz, Perspex, Teflon and steel) with ordered layers of diacetylenic-containing phosphatidylcholine molecules and that upon irradiation these molecules polymerize. Furthermore, layers can be produced in such a way that the polar groups of the lipid form the outer coated surface. The layers after polymerization are quite stable in aggressive media and can also, with some precautions, be handled without damage. It is expected that the same technique can be used to deposit other phospholipids and glycolipids so that particular types of charged and zwitterionic phospholipid polar groups form the outer surfaces…. In this way, stable polymerized surfaces consisting of the charged polar groups which make up the inner surface of erythrocytes can be modeled. Stable polymeric surfaces consisting of carbohydrate groups of certain cell membranes may be modeled by the biosynthesis of various glycolipid molecules containing these diacetylene groups. These various surfaces may be useful for studies of blood coagulation processes, the adsorption of various types of protein such as fibrinogen, and also for cell–cell contact investigations. The ability to coat a surface such as glass or metal to produce a stable surface having the polar characteristics akin to that of the outer layer of erythrocyte membranes may make such surfaces useful in certain biomedical applications such as the production of biocompatible surfaces. He was granted a patent for the production of biocompatible surfaces (22) that was to reestablish his credentials in the industrial sector. To exploit this discovery he established the UK firm Biocompatibles International in 1984; the company was successfully floated on the Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 64 Biographical Memoirs London Stock Exchange in 1995 and was headquartered in Farnham in Surrey. The basic hypothesis of biocompatibility was rapidly expanded to embrace the polymerization of lipid molecules with other species to form a new type of plastic material, the ‘friendly plastics’, so called because they do not provoke adverse haematological or immunological reactions in the body. Biocompatibles exploited these plastics to produce contact lenses for the eye, and other ophthalmic surgical devices through their Eye Care Division, urological stents and catheters manufactured by Biocompatibles’ wholly-owned subsidiary, Urotech GmbH, and lipid-coated coronary stents. Coronary stents manufactured by Biocompatibles are currently the first choice of many cardiologists. At the time of Chapman’s death, Biocompatibles International plc maintained manufacturing facilities in the USA, Ireland and Germany, making it a truly international company with more than 300 employees and a budget of £50 million for product development. I R C, U L Dennis Chapman was a founding co-director of the University of London Interdisciplinary Research Centre (IRC) in Biomedical Materials based at Queen Mary, University of London, which included collaborating groups at St Bartholomew’s Hospital and the Royal London School of Medicine and Dentistry, with associated laboratories at the Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, the Institute of Orthopaedics and Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine. The IRC was founded in 1991, with a core programme grant from the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) and now has a complement of over a hundred staff and research students. The IRC research activity is based on a multidisciplinary approach, with relevant aspects of cell biology, biochemistry, basic medical science, materials science, bioengineering, clinical dentistry and medicine. Chapman’s experience and temperament ideally suited him to these ideals, and his talents as a scientific facilitator came to the fore. This was of particular value in setting up the Industrial Affiliates Club of the IRC and an associated company, Abonetics Ltd, to facilitate technology transfer in the development of medical implants and prostheses. D C, Dennis Chapman was well known on the international conference circuit as an enthusiastic and entertaining speaker. Although his lectures were delivered with apparent ease and confidence, he often suffered considerable anxiety beforehand. His public persona also masked a more private and domestic side of his character. It was reliably told that he carried his scientific training into other fields of endeavour, whether this be swimming, golfing or growing tomatoes. The strategy was to read up on the theory, make careful observations of the practice, then perform the task. With one exception, success was assured; his failure to coordinate arm and leg movements efficiently meant that swimming and sinking were finely balanced! He also harboured a rather curious aversion to burnt toast; he maintained that the cinders contained free radicals that would harm his health. It did not seem to occur to him that all the unpaired electrons generated in the toaster would have found stable partners by Dennis Chapman 65 the time the dressings had been applied; perhaps he just did not like the taste. In another side of his character, he wrote a radio play that was broadcast by the BBC. When making scientific visits, even to the remoter parts of the world, the visitor was often regaled by the host on how much they had gained from a visit by Professor Chapman. He was an inveterate traveller and, when all the children had left the family home, his wife, who shared his appetite for the international set, usually accompanied him. He suffered the greatest adversity of his life on the tragic death of his first wife, Margaret, who provided him with a happy and stable family life during his often-turbulent scientific career. His marriage to his second wife, Françoise, managed to rekindle his spirits and get his scientific interests back on track. The academic community bestowed many accolades on him. He received honorary doctorates from the University of Utrecht, Memorial University of Newfoundland, Universidad del Pais Vasco, University of Cluj Napoca and the University of Ancona. He delivered the Langmuir Lecture to the American Chemical Society in 1992 and received the Harden Medal from the Biochemical Society in 1997. His election as a Fellow of The Royal Society he regarded as the pinnacle of his achievements because it vindicated what he believed to be his maverick approach to science. In his later years he undertook a more titular role in the university serving as the Head of the Division of Basic Medical Sciences during 1988–89 and Vice Dean of the School during 1990–93. He published many books and research papers, but his editorship of the influential volumes I–V of Biological membranes, published by Academic Press during 1968–84, represents a lasting testament to his standing in the field. Dennis Chapman’s presence will live on with the many colleagues whose careers he influenced. In his valedictory address, he strongly urged young scientists to respond to the needs of society, as he had endeavoured to do with great vigour and success over a lifetime devoted to this cause. He died on 28 October 1999 in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire. He is survived by his wife Françoise, children from his first marriage—Michael, Alison and Paul— and stepdaughter Natasha, and will be greatly missed by all who had the pleasure of matching wits with him over the years. A The frontispiece photograph was taken in December 1997 by Downing Street Studios, Farnham, Surrey, UK, and is reproduced with permission. B The following publications are those referred to directly in the text. A full bibliography appears on the accompanying microfiche, numbered as in the second column. A photocopy is available from The Royal Society’s Library at cost. (1) (2) (3) (4) (3) 1954 (With R.J. Taylor) Infrared assignments of unsaturation in the region 900–1,000 cm−1. Nature 174, 1011–1012. (2) Electronegativity and the stability of metal complexes. Nature 174, 887–888. (9) 1956 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part I. J. Chem. Soc. 12, 55–60. (11) 1956 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part II. 1:3-Diglycerides and saturated triglycerides. J. Chem. Soc. 487, 2522–2528. Downloaded from rsbm.royalsocietypublishing.org on June 8, 2010 66 (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) Biographical Memoirs (14) 1957 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part III. Palmitodistearins and dipalmitosterins. J. Chem. Soc. 523, 2715–2720. (19) 1958 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part IV. Myristopalmitins and myristostearins. J. Chem. Soc. 646, 3186–3188. (16) Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part V. 1:2 diglycerides. J. Chem. Soc. 942, 4680–4682. (17) An infrared spectroscopic examination of some anhydrous sodium soaps. J. Chem. Soc. 152, 784–789. (28) 1962 (With A.G. Massey) Spectroscopic studies of sulphur nitride ions. Trans. Faraday Soc. 58, 1291–1298. (38) 1963 (With A.D. McLachlan) Bond alternation in (AB) inorganic polymers. Trans. Faraday. Soc. 59, 2671–2679. (42) 1964 (With P. Byrne) Liquid crystalline nature of phospholipids. Nature 202, 987–988. (53) 1966 (With D.A. Walker & N.F. Owens) Physical studies of phospholipids. II. Monolayer studies of some synthetic 2,3-diacyl-DL-phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylcholines containing trans double bonds. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 120, 148–155. (59) (With S.A. Penkett) NMR spectroscopic studies of the interaction of phospholipids with cholesterol. Nature 211, 1304–1305. (68) 1967 (With R.M. Williams & B.D. Ladbrooke) Physical studies of phospholipids. VI. Thermotropic and lyotropic mesomorphism of some 1,2-diacylphosphatidylcholines (lecithins). Chem. Phys. Lipids, 1, 445–475. (165) 1972 (With E. Oldfield, D. Doskocilova & B. Schneider) NMR of gel and liquid crystalline phospholipids spinning at the ‘magic angle’. FEBS Lett. 25, 261–264. (170) 1973 (With K. Razi-Naqvi, J. Gonzalez-Rodriguez & R.J. Cherry) Spectroscopic technique for studying protein rotation in membranes. Nature 245, 249–251. (204) 1976 (With P.J. Quinn) A method for the modulation of membrane fluidity: biohomogenous catalytic hydrogenation of phospholipids and phospholipid–water model biomembranes. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 73, 3971–3975. (–) (With P.J. Quinn & G. Wilkinson) Hydrogenation. UK Pat. No. 29997. (238) 1980 (With D.S. Johnston, S. Sanghera & M. Pons) Phospholipid polymers—synthesis and spectral characteristics. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 602, 57–59. (263) 1982 (With O. Albrecht, D.S. Johnston & C. Villaverde) Stable biomembrane surfaces formed by phospholipid polymers. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 687, 165–169. (301) 1985 (With D.C. Lee, J.A. Hayward & C.J. Restall) Second-derivative infrared spectroscopic studies of the secondary structures of bacteriorhodopsin and Ca2+-ATPase. Biochemistry 24, 4364–4373. (–) (With A. Durrani) Improvements relating to biocompatible surfaces. Eur. Pat. No. 853003564; Int. Pat. No. PCT/GB85/00025.