F.R.S. 1986 28 October 1999 : Elected − Dennis Chapman. 6 May

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Dennis Chapman. 6 May 1927 − 28 October 1999 : Elected
F.R.S. 1986
Peter J. Quinn
Biogr. Mems Fell. R. Soc. 2001 47, 55-66
doi: 10.1098/rsbm.2001.0004
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This journal is © 2001 The Royal Society
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6 May 1927 — 28 October 1999
Biog. Mems Fell. R. Soc. Lond. 47, 55–66 (2001)
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6 May 1927 — 28 October 1999
Elected F.R.S. 1986
B P J. Q
Division of Life Sciences, King’s College, London, 150 Stamford Street,
London SE1 9NN, UK
E   T  W
Dennis Chapman was born on 6 May 1927 in Sunderland, County Durham, the only son of
George and Katherine Chapman. His formative years were dominated by the hardships
visited on working-class families living in the industrial north of England during the
depression of the 1930s and the attentions paid to a major shipbuilding port by the Luftwaffe
during the early phase of World War II. He attended Sunderland Junior Technical School
from 1938 to 1943, where his parents expected him to learn a trade and make his own way in
the world. He left at age 16 without any qualifications.
The shipyards and coalmines apparently held little attraction for him and he was
determined to improve his prospects. To this end he worked in unskilled jobs by day and
studied during the evenings at Sunderland Polytechnic, gaining an external BSc from London
University in 1948.
He courted one of the star pupils of the local grammar school, Margaret Stephenson. His
suit was somewhat hampered, however, by an insistence by her parents that she be chaperoned
by her sister, Mary. Despite this encumbrance they married in Hampstead in 1949; he was
then aged 22 years. Their marriage represented quite a sacrifice for Margaret as she was
obliged to decline an offer of a place to read for a degree at Cambridge and to move across
the Pennines to set up house with her husband in Birkenhead. The couple were also indebted
to Margaret’s mother, Elsie, who provided considerable assistance to set up their residence at
29 Wharfedale Avenue. He had a particular affection for his mother-in-law, who was a reliable
supporter of his family throughout his life.
© 2001 The Royal Society
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Biographical Memoirs
M  M
Chapman’s move to Merseyside was necessitated by his recruitment to the Port Sunlight
laboratory of Unilever. On a recommendation of Dr J. Topping at Sunderland Polytechnic, he
was awarded a maintenance grant from the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research
that enabled him to study on secondment for a research degree at the nearby University of
Liverpool. The topic of his research seems to have been undefined at the outset and not of
obvious relevance to the interests of the company. Chapman relished the freedom that these
circumstances provided and set about experiments in Professor Meek’s Department of
Electronics under the guidance of Mr Hopwood, who suggested the subject that he should
examine. The originality of his graduate studies concerned the experimental determination of
electron affinities of negative ions created when electrons collide with molecules. From this
work he was able to correlate the electronegativity of metal complexes with the stability of the
complex in terms of the strength of metal–ligand bonds. The results were presented in a thesis
entitled ‘A spectroscopic study of a spark discharge in oxygen’, for which he was awarded a
PhD in 1952. The work was published, two years after he graduated, from his private address
in Wharfedale Avenue (2)*.
Chapman resumed full-time work at Port Sunlight, where his attention was diverted to the
study of materials in the product range marketed by Unilever, namely glycerides such as
cocoa butter, which are primary ingredients of chocolate and other foods. He began by
modifying a single-beam infrared spectrometer so that spectra could be recorded over a wide
range of wavelengths in a carefully controlled sample environment. His initial studies were
performed under the direction of R.J. Taylor and addressed the assignment of C=C
vibrational modes in vitamin A palmitate. He showed that C=C stretching vibrations in the
conjugated configuration in the molecule could be readily distinguished from bands
originating from isolated double bonds (1).
These initial studies of unsaturated lipids stimulated Chapman to contemplate the use of
infrared spectroscopy to characterize the thermotropic polymorphism of lipids, notably the
glycerides, that was central to understanding the changes that are associated with food
processing. He was able to identify structural transitions from changes in band position and
intensity of different vibrational modes in this group of molecules. He found the transition
from the various crystalline forms of the glycerides to a ‘liquid’ state particularly noteworthy.
These detailed infrared studies were published in the Journal of the Chemical Society in a
series of five single-author papers during 1956–58 (3–7). In addition to these studies he
examined the infrared spectra of long-chain anhydrous soaps such as sodium stearate and
sodium palmitate and made the important discovery that partial melting of the hydrocarbon
chains took place hundreds of degrees below their capillary melting points (8). Despite the
fact that his work at the Port Sunlight laboratory of Unilever was to be the foundation on
which his research career would be based, he showed a remarkable reticence to acknowledge
how influential this early phase of his working life had been.
* Numbers in this form refer to the bibliography at the end of the text.
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Dennis Chapman
G  C C, C
In 1960 Chapman was given leave of absence from Unilever to take up a Comyns Berkeley
Fellowship at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge, to continue his work on lipid structure.
From his own account he received little encouragement:
I was keen to learn about molecular orbital theory and I had many discussions with the theoretical
chemists. On one occasion I was asked by one of the young scientists about my own research interests
and confessed to a fascination with lipids. ‘Lipids?’ he said; ‘how many atoms are there in lipids?’. I
replied, ‘Quite a few.’ ‘More than four?’ he asked. ‘Well, yes,’ I replied. ‘More than eight?’ he
challenged with some surprise in his voice. ‘Well,’ I said somewhat apologetically, ‘yes, I’m afraid so.’
‘Oh dear,’ he replied, ‘Dennis, you are wasting your time working on those molecules!’.
He was gainfully distracted in his first year at Cambridge by starting work on a
comparatively simple molecule, S4N4, and a relative, S2N2. This proved prophetic in the sense
that he was introduced to a variety of physical techniques that he would subsequently employ
to great effect. He used electron spin resonance spectroscopy to demonstrate, for the first
time, that electron delocalization could take place in an inorganic ring molecule (9) and this
led to other studies of [SN]x polymers, charge alternation and molecular orbital calculations
Not content to abandon his interest in lipids he returned to the subject in the second half
of his fellowship at Cambridge. Infrared spectroscopy at that time was not able to deal with
hydrated specimens because of the dominating O–H stretch vibrations. He therefore initiated
proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of partly hydrated lipids. He foresaw the
importance of characterizing the structure of polar lipids, particularly phospholipids, that
were being shown to act as reliable models of biological membranes in pioneering studies of
R.M.C. Dawson (F.R.S. 1981) and A.D. Bangham (F.R.S. 1977) at the then Agricultural and
Food Research Council Institute of Animal Physiology in nearby Babraham. His interest in
these lipids was also heightened by a chance meeting with L.L.M. vanDeenen, working in
Utrecht, who had recorded an infrared spectrum of phospholipid but was puzzled by the very
broad lines obtained. Chapman instantly recognized these features from his earlier work on
soaps and glycerides as arising from a liquid-crystalline phase. He quickly applied biophysical
methods to determine the extent of molecular motion in the molecules above the critical
temperature and then related this thermotropic phase behaviour of the phospholipid to its
behaviour in solids, lipid–water systems and monomolecular films at the air–water interface
T F L, W
He returned to the industrial fold by joining the scientific staff of the Unilever Research
Laboratories at the Frythe in Welwyn, Hertfordshire. He set about the synthesis of pure
molecular species of a range of phospholipids that he then proceeded to characterize by
calorimetry, paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction
and monomolecular film techniques. This was one of the most productive and exciting times
in his research career. He rose quickly through the ranks to become director of the Molecular
Biophysics Group, in which he assembled a team of talented young scientists who set about
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Biographical Memoirs
transforming the notion that living cell membranes were static structures into our present
view of fluid and dynamic molecular assemblies.
The concept of membrane fluidity originated from the discovery that phospholipids, as he
had shown previously in soaps, exist as liquid crystals at temperatures well below their
capillary melting temperatures (14). Its original formulation was as follows:
We envisage that one of the functions of the distribution of fatty acid residues observed with these
phospholipids is to provide the correct fluidity at the particular environmental temperature so as to
match the required diffusion or rate of metabolic process for the tissue. Thus in membranes where
metabolic and diffusion processes are required to be of a rapid nature, such as in the mitochondria, the
average transition temperature of the phospholipids present will probably be low compared with the
biological environmental temperature, while in membranes where these processes are slow, e.g. in
myelin of the central nervous system, the average transition temperature of the phospholipids will be
higher and may be close to that of the biological environmental temperature.
It was also noted that the fatty acyl composition of the membrane phospholipids of
poikilothermic organisms varied with the growth temperature in such a way as to preserve the
fluidity within relatively narrow limits.
Sterols were known to be prominent constituents of biological membranes; in animal cells
the sterol is cholesterol. Chapman turned his attention to how cholesterol modulated the
dynamic motion of the acyl chains of the membrane phospholipids. In a landmark
publication (12) he reported that cholesterol ‘condenses’ both saturated and unsaturated
phospholipid monolayers and in subsequent calorimetric studies it was shown that cholesterol
broadens the thermotropic phase transition and decreases the transition enthalpy. The first
high-resolution proton magnetic resonance spectrum of a model membrane was published at
this time and the method was used to show the condensing effect of cholesterol at the
molecular level (13). Chapman held to the belief that there were no specific interactions
between cholesterol and phospholipids (or peptides) and considerable effort was devoted to
molecular dynamic studies of arrays of acyl chains (or peptides) and cholesterol on the
assumption that they obeyed a hard-sphere model. He was wrong on this score and remained
unconvinced to the end. Nevertheless, he can be credited with highlighting the role of
cholesterol in the function of biological membranes.
His time at the Frythe was marked by an extraordinary list of influential publications
reporting on the work undertaken by his team. Literally thousands of scientific papers from
scientists throughout the world were generated directly from the lead taken by the group.
Indeed, Chapman’s work was judged by the Institute of Scientific Information as being
among the most cited studies ever performed in the UK.
R & C, S U
The era came to an end in 1969 when Unilever took the decision to close the Frythe
laboratory and amalgamate it with the laboratories at Coleworth House in Bedfordshire.
Chapman was not able to negotiate a future for his research with the company and was
recruited by Reckitt & Colman as Director of Research and joined the University of Sheffield
as a Visiting Professor. His team at Sheffield retained much of the talent built up in the Frythe
but expanded to about 25 young researchers and distinguished visitors as his reputation grew.
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Dennis Chapman
It was at Sheffield that he became interested in the proteins in membranes and particularly
the effect of lipid fluidity on the motion of the proteins. R. Cone had demonstrated, by using
the 11-cis retinal chromophore of rhodopsin, that the protein rotated about an axis
perpendicular to the plane of the retinal rod disk membrane with a relaxation time of
ca. 20 µs. A flash-photolysis instrument was constructed under his direction and was used to
show that bacteriorhodopsin, an integral protein of the purple membrane of Halobacterium
halobium, was severely constrained in its rotational diffusion motion, indicating that not all
membranes were fluid. In an imaginative step, Chapman’s group developed the use of triplet
probes that were covalently bound to a variety of proteins so as to enable measurements of
rotational diffusion of proteins without intrinsic chromophores (16). Also at Sheffield he
began a systematic examination of the interactions between lipids and proteins in membranes.
He used a model initiated earlier at the Frythe laboratory to study how the presence of
intrinsic peptides such as the cyclic antibiotics affect the motion of the acyl chains of the
lipid. One approach to this problem was to substitute deuterium for protons in the system and
to follow the relaxation of the deuterium atoms by deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance
spectroscopy. This proved to be an incisive method that was subsequently widely exploited to
build up a detailed picture of the motion of lipid hydrocarbon chains in membranes and
hydration of the membrane–water interface.
Chapman was also instrumental overcoming problems in using highly dispersed
phospholipid systems for resolving high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. He
instigated experiments with ‘magic-angle’ sample spinning in which the dispersion was rotated
at several kilohertz in a gas turbine and the dipolar interactions between protons responsible
for broadening the spectrum were averaged out by the sample motion (15). Although modest
achievements in resolution could be obtained at the field strength (ca. 1.4 teslas) then in use, it
took improvements in instrumentation to produce truly high-resolution spectra from solidstate samples. However, the principles established by Chapman at the outset paved the way for
these later developments.
Chapman’s ease in both industrial and academic environments was reflected in the
authority carried by his inaugural speech delivered for the chair at Sheffield in 1969. The title
of the address was ‘Industry and the universities: collision or collaboration’. In this he argued
cogently that the exchange of personnel and ideas between research laboratories in academia
and industry was essential to exploit fundamental discoveries in development of products that
could be marketed profitably. Indeed, his ethos expounded in this address and in talks
presented on programmes broadcast by the BBC was to apply his discoveries to serve the
health and wealth of others.
C C, U  L
After leaving Sheffield he took up a Senior Wellcome Trust Fellowship in 1975 at Chelsea
College, University of London, with the intention of setting up a new department when the
College merged with St George’s Hospital Medical School in the formation of what was to
have been a multifaculty university in South London. The plan failed to materialize but he set
about new research designed to modulate the fluidity of membranes by hydrogenating the
double bonds of the phospholipids. Initial attempts using Adams’s catalyst were unsuccessful
but, in a brilliant stroke, he tried Wilkinson’s catalyst and achieved rapid and complete
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Biographical Memoirs
hydrogenation of the phospholipid dispersions and respectable hydrogenation of suspensions
of biological membranes (17). Wilkinson’s catalyst, Rh(PPh3)3Cl, is insoluble in water and
had to be added in a small amount of solvent whence it partitioned into the membrane.
Chapman was concerned that the method of addition of the catalyst or its presence in the
membrane might have detrimental effects and sought to solve this problem by persuading
Wilkinson to synthesize a water-soluble form of his catalyst. Wilkinson obliged by
substituting diphenylphosphinobenzene-m-sulphonate for triphenylphosphine to produce a
water-soluble catalyst that could hydrogenate model membranes and be removed at the
completion of the reaction.
His insight into the utility of the method was apparent from the exchange with Alec
Bangham recorded after a lecture to the New York Academy of Sciences in 1978:
Bangham: What worries me a little about this is that there is a good deal of evidence that suggests
that the animals, as it were, can adapt membranes for a change. For example, if you put
goldfish into a warm or cold environment, their membranes change. If you are going to
hydrogenate their membranes and they don’t like it, so to speak, they are going to modify
other parts of the membrane components to adapt to that.
Chapman: We know that poikilothermic organisms do vary their fatty acids to match their
environmental temperature. When the environmental temperature is raised, the fatty acids
become more saturated; when the environmental temperature is lowered, the membrane
will become more unsaturated in the cell. But what happens when we hydrogenate at
constant temperatures? What are the biochemical processes that control membrane
fluidity? That is what we are asking.
Bangham: Quite so; but then there is going to be a possibility of an adaptation to the modified
membranes, at least this is what happens in nutritional states.
Chapman: That’s true, except that in the nutritional state you have a considerable length of time in
which adaptation can occur. When you’ve changed the membrane fluidity within
45 minutes, what are the cells going to do about it? With regard to nutritional variation, if
we are interested to know the role of the highly unsaturated fatty acids in excitable tissues,
such as the squid axon, then the possibility of getting major changes in the fatty acids as a
result of nutrition is very limited indeed. In principle it is possible to take an axon and
hydrogenate it selectively, step by step, and see how some of the electrical functions are
changed. But that’s speculative at present!
The method was indeed widely applied to investigate the role of unsaturated lipids in
membrane function and biochemical homeostatic mechanisms long before the advent of
genetic engineering to address these questions. He also showed prescience of the industrial
applications of such catalysts and obtained a patent for their use (18).
R F H M S, U  L
Chapman accepted a personal chair of biophysical chemistry of London University and
moved to the Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry at the Hunter Street site of the
Royal Free Hospital Medical School in 1978. Although his initial attempts to polymerize
phospholipid dispersions at Chelsea had been unsuccessful, he followed the strategy of
G. Wegner and succeeded in forming polymeric membranes from phospholipids synthesized
with diacetylenic fatty acyl residues or in Acholeplasma membranes into which acetylenic fatty
acids had been biosynthetically incorporated (19). He continued his work with catalytic
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Dennis Chapman
hydrogenation at Hunter Street, using the method as a probe of membrane and lipoprotein
Chapman’s group moved to the Royal Free Hospital Medical School’s Hampstead campus
in the early 1980s; there he founded the Department of Protein and Molecular Biology. Many
of his colleagues were intrigued by the title of his department, which made no reference to his
by now well-established reputation as a lipidologist. He justified this by embarking on a new
line of investigation of the structure of membrane proteins with techniques that he had
applied so effectively to the study of lipid polymorphism. Infrared spectroscopy had by then
been adapted to deal with hydrated specimens and he undertook to characterize the amide
bands of membrane polypeptides and proteins by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy
(21). The conformation of a variety of receptors, channels and membrane pumps was
examined qualitatively with the method. In further refinements, methods based on
deconvolution and derivative spectra were developed to identify the number and position of
components of amide I and amide II bands so as to provide a quantitative analysis of protein
secondary structure. These studies occupied much of the last 10 years of his active research
With his characteristically astute commercial sense he recognized the potential of
stabilized phospholipid structures as vectors for drug targeting and delivery, or for the
production of haemo-compatible surfaces. It was long known that the failure of prosthetic
devices implanted in the cardiovascular system was caused by a tendency of such devices to
induce thrombosis. It was also known that haemo-compatibility within the circulatory system
was achieved by preserving choline phosphatides (namely phosphatidylcholine and
sphingomyelin) on the surface of cells. Chapman conceived of how polymerized films of
choline phosphatides, and later phosphocholine, could be used to form stable haemocompatible interfaces to prevent prosthetic devices from causing blood clotting. The idea was
formulated in a paper published in 1982 (20):
We have shown that it is possible to coat many materials (glass, quartz, Perspex, Teflon and steel) with
ordered layers of diacetylenic-containing phosphatidylcholine molecules and that upon irradiation
these molecules polymerize. Furthermore, layers can be produced in such a way that the polar groups
of the lipid form the outer coated surface. The layers after polymerization are quite stable in aggressive
media and can also, with some precautions, be handled without damage. It is expected that the same
technique can be used to deposit other phospholipids and glycolipids so that particular types of
charged and zwitterionic phospholipid polar groups form the outer surfaces…. In this way, stable
polymerized surfaces consisting of the charged polar groups which make up the inner surface of
erythrocytes can be modeled. Stable polymeric surfaces consisting of carbohydrate groups of certain
cell membranes may be modeled by the biosynthesis of various glycolipid molecules containing these
diacetylene groups.
These various surfaces may be useful for studies of blood coagulation processes, the adsorption of
various types of protein such as fibrinogen, and also for cell–cell contact investigations. The ability to
coat a surface such as glass or metal to produce a stable surface having the polar characteristics akin
to that of the outer layer of erythrocyte membranes may make such surfaces useful in certain
biomedical applications such as the production of biocompatible surfaces.
He was granted a patent for the production of biocompatible surfaces (22) that was to reestablish his credentials in the industrial sector. To exploit this discovery he established the
UK firm Biocompatibles International in 1984; the company was successfully floated on the
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Biographical Memoirs
London Stock Exchange in 1995 and was headquartered in Farnham in Surrey. The basic
hypothesis of biocompatibility was rapidly expanded to embrace the polymerization of lipid
molecules with other species to form a new type of plastic material, the ‘friendly plastics’, so
called because they do not provoke adverse haematological or immunological reactions in the
body. Biocompatibles exploited these plastics to produce contact lenses for the eye, and other
ophthalmic surgical devices through their Eye Care Division, urological stents and catheters
manufactured by Biocompatibles’ wholly-owned subsidiary, Urotech GmbH, and lipid-coated
coronary stents. Coronary stents manufactured by Biocompatibles are currently the first
choice of many cardiologists. At the time of Chapman’s death, Biocompatibles International
plc maintained manufacturing facilities in the USA, Ireland and Germany, making it a truly
international company with more than 300 employees and a budget of £50 million for product
I R C, U  L
Dennis Chapman was a founding co-director of the University of London Interdisciplinary
Research Centre (IRC) in Biomedical Materials based at Queen Mary, University of London,
which included collaborating groups at St Bartholomew’s Hospital and the Royal London
School of Medicine and Dentistry, with associated laboratories at the Royal Free Hospital
School of Medicine, the Institute of Orthopaedics and Imperial College of Science,
Technology and Medicine. The IRC was founded in 1991, with a core programme grant from
the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) and now has a complement of over a
hundred staff and research students.
The IRC research activity is based on a multidisciplinary approach, with relevant aspects
of cell biology, biochemistry, basic medical science, materials science, bioengineering, clinical
dentistry and medicine. Chapman’s experience and temperament ideally suited him to these
ideals, and his talents as a scientific facilitator came to the fore. This was of particular value in
setting up the Industrial Affiliates Club of the IRC and an associated company, Abonetics
Ltd, to facilitate technology transfer in the development of medical implants and prostheses.
D C,  
Dennis Chapman was well known on the international conference circuit as an enthusiastic
and entertaining speaker. Although his lectures were delivered with apparent ease and
confidence, he often suffered considerable anxiety beforehand. His public persona also
masked a more private and domestic side of his character. It was reliably told that he carried
his scientific training into other fields of endeavour, whether this be swimming, golfing or
growing tomatoes. The strategy was to read up on the theory, make careful observations of
the practice, then perform the task. With one exception, success was assured; his failure to
coordinate arm and leg movements efficiently meant that swimming and sinking were finely
balanced! He also harboured a rather curious aversion to burnt toast; he maintained that the
cinders contained free radicals that would harm his health. It did not seem to occur to him
that all the unpaired electrons generated in the toaster would have found stable partners by
Dennis Chapman
the time the dressings had been applied; perhaps he just did not like the taste. In another side
of his character, he wrote a radio play that was broadcast by the BBC.
When making scientific visits, even to the remoter parts of the world, the visitor was often
regaled by the host on how much they had gained from a visit by Professor Chapman. He was
an inveterate traveller and, when all the children had left the family home, his wife, who
shared his appetite for the international set, usually accompanied him. He suffered the
greatest adversity of his life on the tragic death of his first wife, Margaret, who provided him
with a happy and stable family life during his often-turbulent scientific career. His marriage to
his second wife, Françoise, managed to rekindle his spirits and get his scientific interests back
on track.
The academic community bestowed many accolades on him. He received honorary
doctorates from the University of Utrecht, Memorial University of Newfoundland,
Universidad del Pais Vasco, University of Cluj Napoca and the University of Ancona. He
delivered the Langmuir Lecture to the American Chemical Society in 1992 and received the
Harden Medal from the Biochemical Society in 1997. His election as a Fellow of The Royal
Society he regarded as the pinnacle of his achievements because it vindicated what he believed
to be his maverick approach to science. In his later years he undertook a more titular role in
the university serving as the Head of the Division of Basic Medical Sciences during 1988–89
and Vice Dean of the School during 1990–93. He published many books and research papers,
but his editorship of the influential volumes I–V of Biological membranes, published by
Academic Press during 1968–84, represents a lasting testament to his standing in the field.
Dennis Chapman’s presence will live on with the many colleagues whose careers he
influenced. In his valedictory address, he strongly urged young scientists to respond to the
needs of society, as he had endeavoured to do with great vigour and success over a lifetime
devoted to this cause. He died on 28 October 1999 in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire. He is
survived by his wife Françoise, children from his first marriage—Michael, Alison and Paul—
and stepdaughter Natasha, and will be greatly missed by all who had the pleasure of
matching wits with him over the years.
The frontispiece photograph was taken in December 1997 by Downing Street Studios, Farnham, Surrey, UK,
and is reproduced with permission.
The following publications are those referred to directly in the text. A full bibliography
appears on the accompanying microfiche, numbered as in the second column. A photocopy is
available from The Royal Society’s Library at cost.
1954 (With R.J. Taylor) Infrared assignments of unsaturation in the region 900–1,000 cm−1.
Nature 174, 1011–1012.
Electronegativity and the stability of metal complexes. Nature 174, 887–888.
(9) 1956 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part I. J. Chem. Soc. 12, 55–60.
(11) 1956 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part II. 1:3-Diglycerides and
saturated triglycerides. J. Chem. Soc. 487, 2522–2528.
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Biographical Memoirs
(14) 1957 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part III. Palmitodistearins and
dipalmitosterins. J. Chem. Soc. 523, 2715–2720.
(19) 1958 Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part IV. Myristopalmitins and
myristostearins. J. Chem. Soc. 646, 3186–3188.
Infrared spectra and the polymorphism of glycerides. Part V. 1:2 diglycerides. J. Chem.
Soc. 942, 4680–4682.
An infrared spectroscopic examination of some anhydrous sodium soaps. J. Chem. Soc.
152, 784–789.
(28) 1962 (With A.G. Massey) Spectroscopic studies of sulphur nitride ions. Trans. Faraday Soc.
58, 1291–1298.
(38) 1963 (With A.D. McLachlan) Bond alternation in (AB) inorganic polymers. Trans. Faraday.
Soc. 59, 2671–2679.
(42) 1964 (With P. Byrne) Liquid crystalline nature of phospholipids. Nature 202, 987–988.
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