OVERVIEW How far had the United States involved itself in foreign affairs during the early to mid-nineteenth century? What were the most significant reasons the United States became an imperial power? How far did the United States develop imperial interests before 1898? How far had the United States involved itself in foreign affairs during the early to mid-nineteenth century? Stated position of isolationist Monroe Doctrine Great Britain China and Japan Traditionally the United States had been stated isolationist Avoid foreign entanglements New immigrants had escaped problems of Europe and Asia Great Britain Conflict over trade restrictions during Napoleonic Wars Conflict over perceived support for confederacy Monroe Doctrine (1823) Declared the Western Hemisphere closed to colonization To protect the Revolutions in Latin America against Spain Used to demand the withdrawl of French troops from Mexico in 1866 China and Japan Treaty of Wanghia (1844) 1858 Japanese commercial treaty Pacific Bases and Coaling Stations Midway Guam Wake Samoa What were the most significant reasons the United States became an imperial power? End of Westward Expansion Industrial development Naval Expansion and Sea power Manifest Destiny and Social Darwinism Preclusive Imperialism End of Westward Expansion 1890 Census declared all lands as settled Fredric Jackson Turner: Thesis. That the US was formed by expansion to a frontier Completion of Expansion into the west Homestead Act 1862 Morrill Acts 1862,1890 Alaska 1869 1890 Census Wounded Knee (December 1890) Industrial development Mechanization of Agriculture Power of the horse and oxen replaced with steam Improvements in transportation Transcontinental Railroads Union Pacific and Central Pacific (1869) Southern Pacific And Santa Fe (1881) Great Northern Railroad (1883) Increased industrialization Steel Industry Oil Industry Naval Expansion and Sea Power Alfred Thayer Mahan Geographical Advantage Alfred Thayer Mahan The Influence of Sea Power Upon History, 1660–1783 To be a world power Develop a Navy to control sea lanes and protect commerce Obtain bases and overseas colonies or trading alliances What ideas fueled the desire for expansion? Manifest Destiny Social Darwinism Certain peoples and nations were superior, proven by their ability to expand and dominate others It was the job of the superior people to raise the others to self-reliance this was “the white man’s burden” Work of American Missionaries Present the WASP view of America Preclusive Imperialism Effort to take over a colony so that another country will not. U.S. must expand to restore their economic prosperity? Panic of 1893 Farmers and manufacturers producing too much for domestic consumption Need to expand and provide a market for industrial and agricultural surplus European market increasingly protectionist How far did the United States develop imperial interests before 1898? Us Involvement in the Pacific US Involvement in Latin America Us Involvement in the Pacific Acquisition of Samoa Annexation of Hawaii Us Involvement in the Latin America Pan-American Conference (1889) US takes the lead for free trade and internal arbitration Chile 1891. Forced to pay compensation for the death od American sailors Venezuela, 1895 Border dispute between British Guiana and Venezuela, US demanded that Britain seek arbitration Summing Up Traditionally the US has had a stated position of isolationism. Not really the case and by the mid 19th Century the US had begun its move towards Imperialism Because of internal changes the US was primed for expansion beyond its borders By the end of the century, the US had abandoned its isolationist position and had begun to seek and gain colonies outside its borders. Imperialism vs. AntiImperialist Is there a way for the United States to expand and guarantee prosperity without becoming a European type power with colonies.