Mossburg AP Biology Unit 2 Test Review 1. How are populations distinguished from other populations? 2. Explain the difference between a genotype and phenotype. 3. What is directly observed in order for the Hardy-Weinberg formula to determine gene pool frequencies? 4. List the seven conditions that must be met for a population to meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. 5. What is the Hardy-Weinberg equation? What is the equation that determine's allele frequency in a population? 6. What is the frequency of the dominate allele in a population where the frequency of the recessive allele is 0.30? 7. Given the calculations from question #4, what is the frequency of the homozygous recessive individuals in the population? Homozygous dominate? Heterozygous? 8. ___________ are selected for and ___________ evolve in the process of evolution. 9. Explain the five agents of evolutionary change. 10. What is the difference between founder effect and the bottle neck effect? 11. What is the difference between natural and sexual selection? 12. How is natural selection different that artificial selection? 13. Compare and contrast homologous and analogous structures by definition and an example for each. 14. Explain the difference between macroevolution and microevolution. Give a definition and examples. 15. Explain how extinction would be represented in a tree diagram. 16. What is the difference between allopatric and sympatric speciation? 17. How are parallel evolution and coevolution different? 18. How does the fossil record, genetics (biochemistry), and natural selection give scientists evidence towards evolution? Explain with examples.