CHAPTER 10 CHAPTER 10 Section 1 UNIT 3 Answer Key

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UNIT 3 Answer Key
CHAPTER 10
2. continuous body
IV. Section 4: The Members of Congress
A. Backgrounds
1. states
2. experience
B. The Job
delegates, trustees, partisans, politicos
C. Benefits
benefits, franking privilege
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. members could go home
Sample definition: to end a meeting
2. asking how many people lived in each
home
Sample definition: a count of the
population
3. believed in her truthfulness
Sample definition: a person that others
trust to act for them
4. e; Sample sentence: In a long session, the
senators discussed the issues.
5. a; Sample sentence: The legislators voted
on the hurricane relief bill.
6. b; Sample sentence: The senator was
expelled for accepting bribes.
7. d; Sample sentence: When the Census
Bureau reapportioned the seats in the
House, my state lost three seats.
8. c; Sample sentence: A partisan can be
counted on to vote in line with her party.
CHAPTER 10 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1. To make laws.
2. Historical: British Parliament had two
houses and so did most of the colonies, so
that’s the system with which the Framers
were familiar.
Practical: The States could not all agree on
either proportional or equal representation
because the populations were so varied.
The only way to get them to agree was to
have two houses.
Theoretical: The Framers thought it
would be easy for Congress to become too
powerful, so dividing it would ensure that
each house checked the other.
3. Some States had much larger or smaller
populations than others. The large States
would not have agreed to a Congress with
equal representation for each state, while
the small States would not have agreed to
a Congress with representation based on
population.
4. a. term; b. session; c. session
5. A term is the period between noon on
January 3 following an election and noon
on January 3 following the next election.
6. A session is the period of time during
which, each year, Congress assembles and
conducts business.
7. The President may convene a special
session in an emergency and dismiss
Congress when the two houses cannot
agree on a date for adjournment.
8. Before World War II, Congress met only for
four or five months per year; today, they
are in session for most of the year.
Chapter Outline 2
I. Section 1: The National Legislature
A. The Bicameral Congress
1. Senate, House of Representatives
2. bicameral, powerful
B. Terms and Sessions of Congress
session, term
C. Representation in Congress
1. two
2. population
II. Section 2: The House of Representatives
A. Terms and Size
1. 435, two
2. representatives
B. Reapportionment
census
C. Congressional Districts
1. district
D. Gerrymandering
district lines (or congressional districts)
E. Qualifications
1. 25
2. seven
III. Section 3: The Senate
A. Size and Term
1. 100
2. six
B. Qualifications
1. 30, nine
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Congress
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
2. Historical: The British Parliament had two
houses and so did most of the colonies,
so the Framers were familiar with that
system.
Practical: Small and large states could
not agree on whether representation
in Congress should be equal or based
on population. They compromised by
establishing two houses, the Senate with
two representatives for each state and the
House of Representatives with the number
of representatives based on population.
Theoretical: The Framers thought it
would be easy for Congress to become
too powerful. They sought to avoid this
by dividing it to ensure that each house
would check the other.
3. A term is two sessions of Congress.
4. A session is the period of time during
which, each year, Congress assembles and
conducts business.
5. The President may call a special session
to deal with some matter of particular
importance.
6. California, because membership in the
House of Representatives is determined
by a state’s population and California has
more residents than the other three states.
7. Sketches should show 32 House seats for
Texas and 2 Senate seats and should show
9 House and 2 Senate seats for Tennessee.
8. a
9. a
10. b
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. d
4. a
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. a
8. b
9. b
10. b
CHAPTER 10 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Core Worksheet 2
6.
Benefits of Option A: Majority representation
ensures that the largest groups will get the
most resources.
Drawbacks of Option A: Smaller groups could
be forced to shut down.
Benefits of Opinion B: All groups will be able
to acquire resources.
Drawbacks of Option B: Large groups may not
get enough resources.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. e
4. a
5. d
6. c
Main Ideas
7. a
11.
435
They are divided according to population.
two years
Their term is very short.
(1) The permanent size of the House is
435. (2) Following each census, the Census
Bureau will determine the number of seats
each State should have. (3) The President
must send the Bureau’s plan to Congress.
(4) If neither house rejects the Bureau’s
plan within 60 days, it becomes effective.
the Tuesday following the first Monday in
November of each even-numbered year
an election in a year between presidential
elections
the President’s party
The members of the State’s dominant party
have drawn district lines to ensure that
the dominant party will win the highest
possible number of seats in Congress.
The Court said that districts must have
substantially equal populations. It ended
the overrepresentation of rural areas in the
House of Representatives.
(1) must be at least 25 years of age,
(2) must have been a citizen of the United
States for at least seven years, and (3) must
be an inhabitant of the State from which he
or she is elected; informal qualifications:
party identification, name familiarity,
gender, ethnic characteristics, political
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
experience, incumbency, and fund-raising
ability
4. Answers should make an argument for
or against the districting, as a democratic
process directed by elected officials or as
an undemocratic process that makes the
State legislature more important than the
voters.
5. Answers should show thoughtful
consideration of the districting process.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. The number of members is 435. Seats
are divided according to each state’s
population. Qualifications include: at least
25 years of age; a citizen of the United
States for at least 7 years; and an inhabitant
of the state from which he or she is elected.
Terms are 2 years.
2. It permanently set the size of the House at
435 seats. After each census, the Census
Bureau decides on the number of seats
for each state. Congress must approve
the Census Bureau’s plan for it to become
effective.
3. An off-year election is a congressional
election that happens in a year when there
is no presidential election. A district is a
subdivision of a state. Each district elects
one representative to Congress.
4. The state has drawn district lines in order
to favor one party over another.
5. The Court said that districts must have
substantially equal populations. It said
that one man’s vote should be worth the
same as another’s.
Core Worksheet 2
Reflection Questions
1. Answers will vary.
2. Answers should make an argument for
or against the districting, as a democratic
process directed by elected officials or as
an undemocratic process that makes the
State legislature more important than the
voters.
3. Answers should show thoughtful
consideration of the districting process.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
2. f
3. e
4. b
5. c
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. c
10. a
Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. California, Texas, New York, and Florida;
31.9 percent
2. Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota,
South Dakota, Vermont, Wyoming; 1.6
percent
3. Since the total number of seats in the
House of Representatives is apportioned
among the States on the basis of
their populations, States with greater
populations have more representatives
than States with smaller populations.
Therefore, States with more representatives
have more influence in the House.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. e
3. d
4. a
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. c
10. b
Core Worksheet 3
Reflection Questions
1. Answers will vary.
2. Answers should show that students
recognize and understand the “packing”
and “cracking” strategies.
3. Answers should acknowledge that State
legislators may affect election outcomes by
drawing districts.
CHAPTER 10 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. 100, two senators from each of the 50 States
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
Bellringer Worksheet 3
2. It is a smaller body, with members who
have longer terms and who must meet
higher qualifications than the members of
the House.
3. Senators serve for six-year terms, three
times the length of House terms, so they
have more time between elections and are
less responsive to the pressures of public
opinion.
4. only one, except when the other seat has
been vacated by death, resignation, or
expulsion
5. It provided for popular election, or election
by the voters in each State, rather than
selection by State legislatures.
6. There is no limit.
7. All of its seats are never up for election
at the same time. Senators’ terms are
staggered, with only a third of them
expiring every two years.
8. The small size of the Senate allows
senators to gain more notice and public
exposure than members of the House.
Senators are often more focused on
national concerns than on local interests.
9. (1) must be at least 30 years of age, (2) must
have been a citizen of the United States
for at least nine years, and (3) must be an
inhabitant of the State from which he or
she is elected.
10. Informal qualifications include party, name
familiarity, gender, ethnic characteristics,
political experience, incumbency, and
fund-raising ability.
Representatives:
• two-year terms (shorter terms create more
responsiveness to local concerns; also
subjects representatives to pressures from
the public and special interests)
• at least 25 years old
• U.S. citizen for at least seven years
• most represent district within State
• more local focus
• less public and media exposure
Senators:
• six-year term (longer term intended to
insulate from public pressure)
• at least 30 years old
• U.S. citizen for at least nine years
• longer terms of office intended to reduce
influence of events and passions of the
moment
• represent entire State (a larger and more
diverse constituency than districts)
• elected at-large
• only one from each State selected in any
given election
• terms staggered, creating a continuous body
• more national focus
• media attention gives more State and
national clout
Both:
• must inhabit State from which elected
• informal qualifications include party, name
familiarity, gender, ethnic characteristics,
political experience, incumbency, and
fund-raising ability
• no limit on number of terms
• elected by popular vote
• may exclude or punish a member by
majority vote and expel with a two-thirds
vote
Reading Comprehension 2
1. The total number of members in the Senate
is 100. The number of members from each
state is two. The length of a senator’s term
is six years. Qualifications include: at least
30 years old; citizens of the United States
for at least nine years; and residents of the
state they represent.
2. A Senate term is three times the length of a
House term.
3. only one is elected in any given election
4. All of its seats are never up for election
at the same time. Senators’ terms are
staggered, with only a third of the Senate
up for election every two years.
5. political experience, a familiar name, and
appeal to a wide range of voters
Skills Worksheet 3
Answers will vary.
Skill Activity 2
1. The issue to be decided is which person
would make the best candidate for the
United States Senate.
2. Students should identify information
in the chart that will help them make a
decision. For example, for Candidate A,
these might include: immigrant, earned
money, wounded, awarded, GI Bill, law
school, House of Representatives. They
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
should use library resources to find out
more information about each candidate.
They should take careful notes and
organize their research.
3. Students should try to predict the effect
that each candidate would have on the
country. For example, they might predict
that if Candidate B wins, she might be
unresponsive to the needs of the poor and
middle class, but might make reforms
to the nation’s education policies and
formulate programs to help children.
Further research would help students
refine their predictions.
4. Students should select a candidate and
write a short paragraph to explain why
they made their choice.
2. legislators, representatives, committee
members, servants of their constituents,
and politicians
3. Delegate: what the “folks back home”
think about the issue
Trustee: own conscience and judgment
Partisan: party platform and the views of
their party’s leaders
Politico: balance own view of what is
best for constituents and/or the nation,
the political facts of life, and the peculiar
pressures of the moment
4. a proposed law
5. the members of the committees to which
the bills have been referred
6. the oversight function
7. Failure to do so could mean lost votes in
the next election.
8. Any five of the following: a special tax
deduction, travel allowances, low-cost life
and medical insurance, low-cost health
care, generous retirement plan, Social
Security benefits, offices near the Capitol
and allowances for offices in their home
State or district, funds for office operation,
franking privileges, free printing,
restaurants, exercise facilities, library
services, and free parking
9. the President’s veto power and fear of
voter backlash
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. e
2. f
3. d
4. c
5. a
6. b
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. a
10. c
Reading Comprehension 2
Quiz B
1. While the majority of senators and
representatives are still men, the number
of women and minorities such as African
Americans, Hispanics, and Asians is
increasing.
2. they cast votes for or against laws
3. Delegate: whether or not the bill will help
the people they represent
Trustee: the quality of the bill
Partisan: in line with the views of their
party
Politico: combines the quality of the bill,
the wants of the people, and their party’s
views
4. a proposed law
5. the Senate and House committees
considering the bills
6. Any three of the following: a special
tax deduction, travel allowances, low
insurance rates, medical care, offices and
money for hiring staff, franking privileges,
Key Terms
1. e
2. f
3. d
4. c
5. b
6. a
Main Ideas
7. c
8. b
9. a
10. c
CHAPTER 10 Section 4
Reading Comprehension 3
1. No, they are older than the average
American, have more education, and are
much less likely to be women or foreignborn.
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
free restaurants, gyms, swimming pools,
and free parking
7. (a) It protects them from being questioned
in the courts. (b) It applies to debates
in Congress. (c) It does not apply to
statements made in public documents,
such as newspapers, or speeches made
outside of Congress.
2. Yes; she voted against declaring war on
Japan.
3. trustee
4. It ended it.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. a
4. c
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. c
10. a
Core Worksheet 3
Location(s): Washington, D.C., and your home
State
Starting Salary: $168,500 (for most)
Job Description: Helps make laws; acts as
representative of constituents when voting
on legislation, works on committees, serves
constituents by fulfilling their requests and
solving their problems
Length of Contract: For a member of the
House: two years, with an option for renewal;
for a senator: six years, with an option for
renewal
Benefits: Generous medical insurance, tax
deduction to help maintain two residences,
generous travel allowance, life insurance,
health insurance, on-site medical staff,
generous retirement plan, office near the
Capitol, allowance for home-state offices,
funds for hiring staff and running offices,
postage-free mailing for job-related letters,
two on-site gymnasiums, free parking at
the Capitol and nearby airports, Library of
Congress services, freedom from prosecution
for libel or slander, legislative immunity
Qualifications, Skills, and Other
Requirements: Senators must be at least 30
years old (25 for representatives), have been
a citizen of the United States for at least nine
years (seven years for representatives), and
must be an inhabitant of the State where
running for election. Preference given to
candidates with strong skills in attracting
votes. Will also consider party affiliation,
name familiarity, gender, ethnic characteristics,
political experience, and fundraising talent.
Education and Experience: College degree
preferred. Preference given to candidates with
advanced degrees, especially in law. Political
experience a plus.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. a
4. c
5. d
6. e
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. d
10. a
CHAPTER 10
Test A
Key Terms
1. b
2. c
3. g
4. d
5. a
6. e
7. f
8. h
9. i
10. j
Main Ideas
11. c
12. d
13. b
14. c
15. a
Extend Worksheet 3, 4
1. because of her pacifist beliefs
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
16. b
17. d
18. c
19. c
20. a
Document-Based Question
21. The Framers needed to create a bicameral
legislature in order to diffuse some of the
power of the legislative branch, which
might otherwise have been much more
powerful than the other branches. In
addition to this ”theoretical” reason, the
Framers also established a bicameral
legislature for historical and practical
reasons. They were already familiar with
bicameral legislatures, as the British
Parliament was bicameral and so were
many of the colonial assemblies. By
establishing a bicameral, rather than a
unicameral, legislature, they were able to
get both large and small States to agree to
the Constitution.
The two houses they established are
the House of Representatives and the
Senate. Representation in the House of
Representatives is based on population,
while representation in the Senate is equal
for all States. Members of the House
serve two-year terms, while members
of the Senate serve six-year terms. The
qualifications for members of the Senate
are higher than for members of the House,
and senators represent entire States, while
most House members represent smaller
districts within their States. (Seven States
have populations so small that they have
only one representative in the House).
Critical Thinking
22. Any five of the following: party
identification, name familiarity, gender,
ethnic characteristics, incumbency, and
fund-raising ability. For each of the
five, students should explain how that
qualification might affect a candidate’s
vote-getting ability. For example, students
should understand that a candidate’s
identification with a particular party
would help the candidate gain votes
from members of that party and that
fund-raising ability is important because
congressional campaigns are very
expensive.
Essay
23. Answers may vary, but students should
make a case for one of the four ways
that lawmakers can vote—as delegates,
trustees, partisans, or politicos. Their
answers should display an understanding
of the four ways lawmakers can approach
their decisions (trustee, delegate, partisan,
and politico) and explain which approach
they believe is best.
Test B
Key Terms
1. c
2. f
3. d
4. e
5. g
6. h
7. i
8. a
9. j
10. b
Main Ideas
11. b
12. d
13. a
14. a
15. c
16. b
17. b
18. c
19. c
20. a
Document-Based Question
21. (a) The two houses are the Senate and the
House of Representatives. (b) The Framers
decided on a bicameral legislature partly
because they were familiar with the British
Parliament which had two houses. Also,
having two houses settled a conflict during
the Constitutional Convention when the
large and small states could not agree
upon the size of Congress. A third reason
the Framers created a bicameral legislature
was so the two houses could check one
another. They thought this would keep
Congress from becoming too powerful.
(c) The quotation reflects the Framers’ goal
of preventing Congress from becoming
too powerful by dividing it into two
houses that would check one another.
The excerpt characterizes the tendency
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
Chapter Outline 2
of the legislature to usurp power as an
“inconveniency” and says the remedy for
this problem is to divide the legislature
into different branches.
Critical Thinking
22. Informal qualifications include name
familiarity, political experience, and appeal
to a wide range of voters. Students should
explain how each of these qualifications
might affect a candidate’s vote-getting
ability. For example, a voter familiar with
a candidate’s name may tend to cast a vote
for that candidate. An experienced political
candidate has probably made political ties
with many people in the party, so he or she
might find it easy to gain party support.
If a candidate appeals to a wide range of
voters of different backgrounds, he or she
would probably draw more votes than a
candidate who appeals to a narrow group
of voters.
Essay
23. Answers may vary, but students should
make a case for one of the four ways
that lawmakers can vote—as delegates,
trustees, partisans, or politicos. Their
answers should display an understanding
of the other ways that a lawmaker might
vote and explain why they think a
lawmaker should vote in a particular way
or in a combination of ways.
I. Section 1: The Expressed Powers of Money
and Commerce
A. The Delegated Powers
delegated; expressed, implied, inherent
B. The Commerce Power
1. Gibbons, Ogden; national
government
2. exports
C. The Taxing and Other Money Powers
1. tax
2. domestic industry; health, safety
3. four
4. deficit financing; borrowing power
5. paper money, currency
6. bankruptcy
II. Section 2: The Other Expressed Powers
A. The Foreign Powers
1. declare war
2. War Powers Resolution
B. Domestic Powers
1. copyright
2. eminent domain
III. Section 3: The Implied Powers
A. The Necessary and Proper Clause
Elastic
B. Strict versus Liberal Construction
1. strict constructionists
2. liberal constructionists
C. The Implied Powers Today
expressed powers
IV. Section 4: The Nonlegislative Powers
A. Amendments and Electoral Duties
1. 33
2. House
B. Impeachment and Executive Powers
1. Andrew Johnson, Bill Clinton
2. conviction
3. appointments, treaties
4. gather information
CHAPTER 11
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. Expressed powers are powers of the
national government that are written in the
Constitution.
2. Implied powers are powers of the national
government that are suggested by the
expressed powers in the Constitution.
3. Inherent powers are powers that all
national governments in the world have.
4. Commerce power is the power of
government to regulate trade.
5. c
6. b
7. a
8. e
9. d
CHAPTER 11 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
1. The government in the U.S. is limited, it is
federal in form, and it has only the powers
delegated to it.
2. (a) expressed powers—powers granted
explicitly in the Constitution; (b) implied
powers—powers derived by reasonable
deduction from the expressed powers;
(c) inherent powers—powers granted by
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
creating a national government for the
United States
Article I, Section 8; 27
The commerce power is the power of
Congress to regulate interstate and foreign
trade. It has been more responsible than
any other provision of the Constitution for
the building of a strong and United States.
In Gibbons v. Ogden, the Supreme Court
defined “commerce” broadly. This led
to an extension of federal authority into
many areas of American life.
(a) Congress cannot tax exports.
(b) Congress cannot favor the ports of
one State over those of any other in the
regulation of trade.
(c) Congress cannot require that “Vessels
bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to
enter, clear or pay Duties in another.”
(d) Congress could not interfere with the
slave trade, at least not until the year 1808.
(a) to raise money to meet public needs
(b) to protect domestic industry against
foreign competition
(c) to protect the public health and safety
(a) Congress cannot lay a tax on church
services.
(b) Congress cannot lay a poll tax as a
condition for voting in federal elections.
(c) Congress may tax only for public
purposes, not for private benefit.
(d) Congress may not tax exports.
(e) Direct taxes must be apportioned
among the States according to population,
except for income taxes.
(f) All indirect taxes must be levied at the
same rate in every part of the country.
There is no constitutional limit on the
amount of money Congress may borrow,
but Congress has put a statutory ceiling on
the public debt—which it regularly raises.
(a) all of the money borrowed by the
Federal Government over the years and
not yet repaid, plus the accumulated
interest on that money
(b) spending more money than the
government takes in each year and then
borrowing to make up the difference
(c) the legal proceeding in which the assets
of a bankrupt individual, company, or
organization are distributed among those
to whom a debt is owed, thus freeing the
bankrupt from legal responsibility for
debts acquired before bankruptcy
11. Following the Revolution, there was no
stable currency system in the United
States. Each of the 13 States issued its own
currency, and the paper money issued
by the Second Continental Congress
and the Congress under the Articles was
practically worthless. This convinced the
Framers of the need for a single, national
system of “hard” money.
12. It laid a ten percent tax on their
production.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. The powers of Congress are limited
because our government is a limited
government in which people hold the real
power and because some powers belong to
the states alone.
2. The Constitution gives Congress power
through the expressed, the implied, and
the inherent powers. Expressed powers are
those written in the Constitution. Implied
powers are suggested by the expressed
powers. Inherent powers are those that all
national governments in the world have.
3. Meaning: The commerce power is the
power of Congress to regulate trade
between states and with foreign countries.
Importance: It is important because its
gradual growth helped the United States
to become a world leader.
Constitutional limits: Congress is not
allowed to tax exports, cannot favor the
port of one state over that of another state,
and cannot force vessels from one state to
pay taxes to another state.
4. *Congress can use taxes to raise money
to meet public needs. Congress can use
taxes to protect industry in this country.
Congress can use taxes to protect the
public health and safety.
5. Congress may tax only for public
purposes. Congress may not tax exports.
Direct taxes must be divided equally
among the states. All indirect taxes must
be collected at the same rate in every part
of the country.
6. bankruptcy: Bankruptcy is a legal
proceeding in which the assets of a
bankrupt individual are paid to those
to whom a debt is owed. The person or
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
company is then free from all debts made
before bankruptcy.
public debt: Public debt is all of the money
borrowed by the federal government,
including the interest on that money.
deficit financing: Deficit financing means
that the government spends more money
than it takes in each year and then borrows
to make up the difference.
legal tender: Legal tender is any kind of
money a creditor will accept as payment.
the powers into the Constitution broadly to
allow Congress flexibility to adjust to future
circumstances.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. c
4. a
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. c
9. a
10. d
Core Worksheet 3
1. Currency Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 5
2. Commerce Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 3
3. Tax Power; Article I, Section 8, Clause 1
4. Commerce Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 3
5. Tax Power; Article I, Section 8, Clause 1
6. Borrowing Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 2
7. Currency Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 5
8. Bankruptcy Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 4
9. Commerce Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 3
10. Borrowing Power; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 2
Students’ responses to the Reflection Question
should indicate either a strict or a liberal
interpretation of the Constitution. Possible
responses: Yes, Congress has stepped outside
its authority. The commerce power does not
allow Congress to tell local businesses how
to operate. No, the Framers purposely wrote
the powers into the Constitution broadly to
allow Congress flexibility to adjust to future
circumstances.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. f
3. c
4. a
5. e
6. d
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. d
10. a
CHAPTER 11 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
1. (a) none; the 50 States are not sovereign, so
they have no standing in international law,
and the Constitution does not allow them
to take part in foreign relations.
(b) The Constitution gives the President
primary responsibility for the conduct of
American foreign policy.
(c) The Constitution gives Congress a
significant role in foreign affairs through
the spending, commerce, and war powers
and by making it the lawmaking body of a
sovereign state, with the inherent power to
act on matters affecting the security of the
nation.
2. any five of the following: the power to
declare war, to raise and support armies,
to provide and maintain a navy, to make
rules for the governing of the nations’
Core Worksheet 2
1. Currency; Article I, Section 8, Clause 5
2. Tax; Article I, Section 8, Clause 1
3. Borrowing; Article I, Section 8, Clause 2
4. Bankruptcy; Article I, Section 8, Clause 4
5. Commerce; Article I, Section 8, Clause 3
Students’ responses to the last question should
reflect either a strict or a liberal interpretation
of the Constitution. Possible responses:
Yes, the power to borrow should not be
unlimited. No, the Framers purposely wrote
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
Reading Comprehension 2
military forces, to call forth the militia
(today, the National Guard), to grant
letters of marque and reprisal, and to make
rules concerning captures on land and
water
because the Constitution makes the
President commander in chief of the
nation’s armed forces and, as such, the
President dominates the field
(a) if Congress has declared war
(b) when Congress has specifically
authorized a military action
(c) when an attack on the United States or
any of its armed forces has occurred
Copyright: exclusive right of an author
to reproduce, publish, and sell his or her
creative work; life of the author plus 70
years; Copyright Office in the Library of
Congress
Patent: sole right of an inventor to
manufacture, use, or sell his or her
invention; up to 20 years, or as extended
by a special act of Congress; Patent and
Trademark Office in the Department of
Commerce
Postal powers: power to provide for the
carrying of the mail; Article I, Section 8,
Clause 7
Weights and measures: power to fix
the standard of weights and measures
throughout the United States; Article I,
Section 8, Clause 5
Territories and other areas: power to
acquire, manage, and dispose of federal
areas; Article I, Section 8, Clause 17; Article
IV, Section 3, Clause 2
Naturalization: power to establish a
uniform rule of naturalization (the process
by which citizens of one country become
citizens of another); Article I, Section 8,
Clause 4
Judicial powers: power to create all of
the federal courts below the Supreme
Court and to define federal crimes and set
punishments for violations of federal law;
Article I, Section 8; Article III, Section 3
the inherent power to take private
property for public use; it must be for
public use, with proper notice to the
owner, and for a fair price
1. Any three of the following are acceptable:
Congress has the power to declare war.
Congress has the power to raise and
support armies. Congress has the power to
provide and maintain a navy. Congress has
the power to make rules for the governing
of the nation’s military forces. Congress
has the power to call forth the militia
(today, the National Guard). Congress has
the power to organize, arm, and discipline
the military forces.
2. Congress must declare war or approve
military action. In the case of an attack
on the United States, Congress must be
informed of military action within 48
hours. Military action can only last 60 days
unless Congress allows a longer time.
3. Copyright
Definition: exclusive right of a person to
reproduce, publish, and sell his or her
creative work
Good for (yrs.): life of the author plus 70
years
Administered by: Copyright Office in the
Library of Congress
Patent
Definition: Gives an inventor the exclusive
right to make and sell his or her invention
or a new and useful improvement
Good for (yrs.): up to 20 years
Administered by: Patent and Trademark
Office in the Department of Commerce
4. Postal powers: power to set up post offices
and postal routes
Weights and measures: power to fix the
standard of weights and measurements
throughout the United States
Territories and other areas: power to
acquire, manage, and dispose of federal
areas
Naturalization: power to establish a
consistent rule of naturalization (the
process by which citizens of one country
become citizens of another)
5. a. Eminent domain is the power to take
private property for public use.
b. The 5th Amendment requires the federal
government to give owners a fair price for
their property.
6. Congress has the power to set up and
organize the federal courts below the
Supreme Court.
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
Bellringer Worksheet 3
Court acted inappropriately. He calls the
Court’s decision a “power play.”
(b) He likely would not have opposed
this use of eminent domain. McCain does
not say anything against the power of
eminent domain per se, but he believes
that it should be used strictly for public
purposes. A new jail would probably
qualify in his mind as a legitimate public
use of land.
(c) He is a strict constructionist. He
interprets the term “public use” very
narrowly. To McCain, a commercial
development cannot qualify as “public
use” of property. He also expresses
concern about how certain constitutional
principles are “evolving.”
1. From the document, it appears that
Congress had the power to declare
war and to raise the armed forces.
The President had the power to act as
commander in chief of the armed forces
and to employ the U.S. Government’s
resources to conduct the war.
2. Congress’s power is indicated by this text:
“Therefore be it Resolved by the Senate
and the House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress
Assembled, that the state of war between
the United States and the Imperial
German Government is hereby formally
declared . . .” The President’s power is
indicated by this text: “. . . the President is
hereby authorized and directed to employ
the entire naval and military forces of the
United States and the resources of the
Government to carry on war . . .”
Skill Activity 2
1. McCain is saying that although the
government can legitimately use the
power of eminent domain to take private
property for public use, the use of eminent
domain to support private, commercial
development is unconstitutional.
2. (a) The power of eminent domain
gives the government the power to
take private property for “public use.”
(b) The 5th Amendment limits the power
of eminent domain by requiring that
“just compensation” be paid if private
property is taken for public use. (c) The
definition of “public use” is the main point
of controversy in the Kelo case and the
basis for McCain’s objections to the Court
ruling. If land is seized for the purpose of
development by a private company, does
that constitute “public use”?
3. (a) He disagreed with the Court’s decision.
He uses emotional language (e.g., “big
corporations” and “even the basic right
of property doesn’t mean what we all
thought it meant since the founding of
America”) to suggest that the Court acted
inappropriately. He calls the Court’s
decision a “power play.”
(b) He probably would not have opposed
this use of eminent domain. McCain does
not say anything against the power of
eminent domain by itself, but he believes
that it should be used strictly for public
purposes. A new jail would probably qualify
in his mind as a legitimate, public purpose.
Core Worksheet A 3
Answers will vary. Possible response to Part 1:
The power that affects the most areas of life is
the most important.
Core Worksheet B 3
Answers should show that students
considered different perspectives about the
importance of congressional powers.
Skills Worksheet 3
1. McCain is saying that although the
government can legitimately use the
power of eminent domain to take private
property for public use, the use of eminent
domain to support private, commercial
development is unconstitutional.
2. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution
gives the government the power to take
private property for “public use.” It limits
the power of eminent domain by requiring
that “just compensation” be paid if private
property is taken for public use. The
definition of “public use” is the main point
of controversy in the Kelo case and the basis
for McCain’s objections to the Court ruling.
3. (a) He disagreed with the Court’s decision.
He uses emotional language (e.g., “even
the basic right of property doesn’t mean
what we all thought it meant since the
founding of America”) to suggest that the
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
Quiz A
5. It has virtually eliminated the need for
frequent amendment of the Constitution.
6. Every exercise of implied powers must
be based on at least one of the expressed
powers.
7. (a) Beginning with Gibbons v. Ogden,
commerce has been defined so broadly
that it encompasses virtually every form of
economic activity today.
(b) Congress levies taxes and provides for
the spending of money to promote “the
general welfare of the United States,” such
as education and social welfare programs.
(c) Congress has the authority to do
whatever is necessary and proper for the
execution of its war power, including
providing for a draft.
Key Terms
1. c
2. d
3. e
4. a
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. c
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. c
3. d
4. a
5. f
6. b
Main Ideas
7. c
8. a
9. d
10. c
Reading Comprehension 2
1. a. The Necessary and Proper Clause is part
of the Constitution and says that Congress
can make all laws necessary to carry out its
duties.
b. It was added to deal with problems and
issues that might arise that the Framers
could not anticipate.
c. It has been called the Elastic Clause
because it has been stretched so far over
the years.
2. Strict constructionists wanted states to be
strong and believed that Congress should
be able to exercise only those implied
powers absolutely necessary to carry out
its expressed powers.
Liberal constructionists believed in a
strong national government and wanted
the government to be able to expand its
powers when needed.
3. Commerce power: It has been broadly
defined so that Congress can regulate
all types of economic activity, including
manufacturing, food and drugs, air travel,
internet activities, highways, and more.
War powers: Congress can do whatever is
necessary to protect the country, including
providing for drafting men to serve in the
military.
CHAPTER 11 Section 3
Reading Comprehension 3
1. the Necessary and Proper Clause, the
final clause in Article I, Section 8 of the
Constitution.
2. It has been called the Elastic Clause
because it has been stretched so far and
made to cover so much over the years
3. (a) believed that Congress should be able
to exercise only those implied powers
absolutely necessary to carry out its
expressed powers
(b) favored a broad interpretation of the
powers the Constitution gives to Congress
4. Liberal construction prevailed because
the Supreme Court upheld the concept of
implied powers in McCulloch v. Maryland.
Over the years, many other factors have
also led Congress to view its powers
in broader and broader terms, and the
American people have generally agreed
with a broader rather than a narrow
reading of the Constitution.
Core Worksheet 3
Chart Items
a. power to spend; Students’ answers will
vary. All actions in this worksheet are
considered constitutional to date, except as
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
noted below. However, there are no right
or wrong answers here. Students should
decide whether Congress overstepped in
each case and support their conclusions.
b. power to tax
c. war powers; This part of the Patriot Act
was ruled unconstitutional. The judge
in the case called this part of the law
“equivalent to breaking and entering.”
d. power to create naturalization law;
spending power
e. commerce power; The Supreme Court
ruled this law unconstitutional because it
had little to do with interstate commerce.
f. power to call forth the militia; war powers
g. borrowing power
h. power to administer federal lands; power
to regulate commerce
Critical Thinking
1. Strict constructionists favor restricting
congressional power; liberal
constructionists favor expanding it.
2. Answers will vary. Students who
believe that Congress overstepped its
constitutional authority in many of the
actions in the worksheet should conclude
that they tend toward strict construction.
Those who were not troubled by most of
the congressional actions on the worksheet
should conclude that they tend toward
liberal construction.
Critical Thinking
1. Strict constructionists favor restricting
congressional power; liberal
constructionists favor expanding it.
2. Answers will vary. Students who
believed that Congress overstepped its
constitutional authority in many of the
actions in the worksheet should conclude
that they tend to be strict constructionists.
Those who were not troubled by most of
the congressional actions in the worksheet
should conclude that they tend to be
liberal constructionists.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. e
3. f
4. c
5. d
6. a
Main Ideas
7. a
8. c
9. a
10. b
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. b
3. f
4. d
5. c
6. a
Main Ideas
7. a
8. a
9. b
10. c
Core Worksheet 2
Answers in the “Did Congress Go Outside Its
Authority” column will vary. All actions in
this worksheet are considered constitutional
to date, except as noted below. However, there
are no right or wrong answers here. Students
should decide whether Congress overstepped
its authority in each case and support their
judgments.
Chart Items
1. Power to spend to promote the general
welfare
2. War powers; this part of the Patriot Act
was ruled unconstitutional. The judge
in the case called this part of the law
“equivalent to breaking and entering.”
3. Commerce power; the Supreme Court
ruled this law unconstitutional because it
had little to do with interstate commerce.
4. Power to call forth the militia; war powers
5. Borrowing power
CHAPTER 11 Section 4
Reading Comprehension 3
1. (a) by proposing amendments by a twothirds vote in each house and (b) by
calling a national convention to propose
an amendment if requested to do so by at
least two thirds of the State legislatures;
the convention method has never been
used
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
2. (a) The House, voting by States, must
choose a President from among the three
highest contenders in the electoral college
balloting. Each State has one vote to cast,
and a majority of the States is necessary for
election.
(b) The Senate must choose a Vice
President. The vote is not by States but by
individual senators, with a majority of the
full Senate necessary for election.
3. The President nominates a successor,
subject to a majority vote in both houses of
Congress.
4. “To impeach” means to accuse or bring
charges; the President, Vice President, and
all civil officers of the U.S.
5. treason, bribery, or other high crimes and
misdemeanors
6. (a) The House has the sole power to
impeach.
(b) The Senate has the sole power to try
impeachment cases.
7. Johnson: violation of the Tenure of Office
Act; Yes; No (but just one vote short of
conviction)
Clinton: perjury; obstruction of justice; Yes;
No
Nixon: obstruction of justice; abuse of
power; failure to respond to subpoenas;
No, because he resigned first; No, because
he resigned before he could be impeached
8. (a) All major presidential appointments
must be confirmed by the Senate by
majority vote.
(b) The Senate must approve treaties by
a two-thirds vote of the senators present.
The President also consults with members
of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee
and other influential senators when a
treaty is being negotiated.
9. The unwritten rule of senatorial courtesy
says that the Senate will turn down the
President’s appointment of a federal officer
who serves in a particular State if the
appointment is opposed by a senator of the
President’s party from that State. The rule
means that some senators virtually dictate
certain presidential appointments.
10. Congress’s power to investigate is
implied by the Constitution’s grant of the
legislative power to Congress in Article I,
Section 1.
11. (a) to gather information necessary to the
framing of legislation
(b) to oversee the operation of various
agencies in the executive branch
(c) to focus public attention on some
particular matter
(d) to expose the questionable activities of
some public official or private person or
group
(e) to promote the particular interests of
some members of Congress
12. (a) informs committees of both houses on
taxing, spending, and other budget-related
matters
(b) provides members of Congress with
factual information on virtually any
subject
(c) monitors the work of executive branch
agencies and reports its findings to
Congress
Reading Comprehension 2
1. (a) Congress may propose amendments
by a two-thirds vote in each house or
(b) call a national convention to propose
an amendment if asked to do so by at least
two thirds of the state legislatures. The
convention method has never been used.
2. a. The House must choose a President
from the top three candidates. A majority
of states must vote, and each state has one
vote.
b. The Senate must choose a Vice
President. Each senator gets one vote, and
a full Senate is required.
c. The President must pick a new Vice
President. Congress must approve the
choice by a majority vote in both houses.
3. After the House votes to impeach, the
Senate holds a trial. The President is
convicted with a two-thirds majority
vote of the Senate. A conviction results in
removal from office.
4. Andrew Johnson
Reason: violation of the Tenure of Office
Act
Impeached by Full House? Yes
Convicted by Senate? No (but just one vote
short of conviction)
Bill Clinton
Reason: “inappropriate” relationship with
a White House intern
Impeached by Full House? Yes
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
Investigatory Powers
2. Congress, the executive branch,
Congressional Budget Office,
Congressional Research Service,
Government Accountability Office, any
individual Congress asks to testify
3. when Congress wants to gather
information necessary to frame legislation,
oversee agencies of the executive branch,
focus public attention on an issue, expose
questionable activities, or promote the
interests of a member of Congress.
4. The party in control of Congress could
use investigations to advance the party’s
interests
5. Investigations allow Congress to become
more educated on topics relevant to
legislation, but also to make sure the
executive branch is functioning as
intended and without corruption
6. Answers will vary.
Convicted by Senate? No
Richard Nixon
Reason: Watergate
Impeached by Full House? No, because he
resigned first
Convicted by Senate? No, because he
resigned before he could be impeached
5. a. The Senate must confirm appointments
by a majority vote.
b. The Senate consults with the President
on treaties, and the Senate must accept or
amend the treaty as written.
6. Congress may investigate to do any two
of the following: gather information when
writing new laws; oversee executive
agencies; inform the public on certain
matters; expose the questionable activities
of some public official or person or group;
promote the interests of some members of
Congress.
Bellringer Worksheet 3
Core Worksheet B 3
1. the House of Representatives
2. the Senate
3. Conviction requires a two-thirds vote in
the Senate.
4. President Clinton was impeached.
5. He was acquitted by the Senate.
Amending the Constitution
2. Both houses of Congress, delegates from
each State, and/or State legislatures
3. Option 1: Congress proposes amendment
by a two thirds vote in each house
ratified by three fourths of State
legislatures OR ratified by conventions in
three fourths of the States
Option 2: At least two thirds (34) of the
State legislatures request a convention
Congress calls a national convention
of delegates to propose amendment
ratified by three fourths of the State
legislatures OR ratified by conventions in
three fourths of the States
4. This power would be used if two thirds
of each house of Congress supported an
amendment or if two thirds of the State
legislatures requested a convention.
5. It is unlikely that the power to amend the
Constitution would be used successfully in
a partisan manner because of wide support
necessary for success. However, parties
could request amendments to gain favor
with their supporters.
6. In recent years, State legislatures have
petitioned Congress for amendments—
among them measures that would
require Congress to balance the federal
budget each year, prohibit flag burning,
Core Worksheet A 3
Appointments
2. The President, nominees for important
government positions, the Senate
3. The Senate must approve the President’s
major appointments, including Cabinet
officers and federal judges
4. If the Senate were controlled by a
different party than the President’s, they
could refuse to approve the President’s
appointments. However, the Senate rarely
rejects Cabinet appointments.
5. Answers should emphasize the need for
consensus.
6. Answers will vary.
Treaties
2. The President, the Senate
3. When treaties are negotiated
4. Members of the party in control of the
Senate could try to influence the terms of
treaties.
5. Prevents the executive from gaining too
much power
6. Answers will vary.
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
permit prayer in public schools, outlaw
abortions, impose term limits on members
of Congress, and prohibit same-sex
marriages.
Electoral Duties
2. The House may choose the President; the
Senate may choose the Vice President.
3. No candidate for President receives a
majority of the electoral college votes.
Each State’s House delegation decides
which of the top three candidates to
support. Each State has one vote. Failure to
aggress means the loss of the State’s vote.
If a majority of the State delegations
vote for one candidate, he or she becomes
the next President. If no candidate wins a
majority, another vote must be taken.
The Senate debates the articles. A twothirds vote is required for conviction.
4. The power is supposed to be used when
the President, Vice President, or federal
officer of the United States commits
treason, bribery, or other “high crimes
and misdemeanors.” However, political
disagreements have been the cause of
many impeachment proceedings.
5. Impeachment can be and has been used in
a partisan manner.
6. President Clinton was impeached, but not
convicted, in 1998 and 1999.
Extend Worksheet 3, 4
Answers will vary. Students’ answers should
correspond to their selected topic.
Quiz A
No candidate for Vice President receives
a majority of the electoral college votes.
Each senator decides which of the
top three candidates to support.
If
a majority of the senators vote for one
candidate, he or she becomes the next Vice
President. If no candidate wins a majority,
another vote must be taken.
4. This power would be used if no candidate
for the presidency or vice presidency wins
a majority of the electoral college votes.
5. Party leaders could encourage party
members to vote for a particular candidate,
but the ultimate decision would rest with
each member of Congress. Therefore, a
party is unlikely to be able to “get ahead”
using these powers.
6. The last President chosen by the House
was John Quincy Adams in 1825; the only
Vice President chosen by the Senate was
Richard M. Johnson in 1837.
Impeachment
2. The House and the Senate and the
President, Vice President, and civil officers
of the United States
3. The House Judiciary Committee considers
charges against the accused and votes on
whether to send articles of impeachment
to the full House.
The House considers
the charges.
The House votes on each
article. If an article is approved by a
majority vote, the official is impeached.
House sends articles of impeachment
to the Senate.
The Senate tries the case.
Senators hear testimony and evidence.
Key Terms
1. f
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. d
6. e
Main Ideas
7. d
8. c
9. b
10. d
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. e
2. b
3. c
4. a
5. d
6. f
Main Ideas
7. d
8. c
9. b
10. c
Landmark Decisions of the Supreme
Court 3, 4
1. Students’ answers should focus on the
idea that a national bank represented an
infringement on States’ rights and powers.
2. Students’ answers may vary, but they
should recognize that the Necessary and
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
Proper Clause does not give Congress
unlimited power.
3. Students responses may vary. Generally,
Republicans and Libertarians are most
associated with strict construction.
Main Ideas
11. c
12. b
13. c
14. a
15. d
16. a
17. d
18. d
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. Monroe is protesting against the Necessary
and Proper Clause because he believes it
gives unlimited power to Congress. He is
particularly concerned that Congress will
use these implied powers in the future to
take away individual rights and freedoms.
To prevent such an abuse of power,
Monroe calls for a bill of rights or some
other clear statement in the Constitution
expressly protecting individual rights from
future tampering by Congress.
Critical Thinking
22. The Constitution gives the President
primary responsibility for the conduct
of American foreign policy. However,
the Constitution also gives Congress a
significant place in the field of foreign
affairs. Its authority arises from the
spending power, the power to regulate
foreign commerce, the war powers, and
from the fact that the U.S. is a sovereign
state. Congress has the exclusive power
to declare war. In addition, only Congress
can raise, support, or govern the armed
forces. The President is commander in
chief of the nation’s armed forces, and he
or she controls military actions. In the past,
Presidents have sent troops into combat
for extended periods of time without
congressional approval. The War Powers
Resolution of 1973, however, requires the
President to commit troops to combat
only in certain situations: when Congress
declares war; when Congress specifically
authorizes military action; or when an
attack on the United States or any of its
armed forces has occurred. Students’
opinions on whether the division of power
is reasonable should take into account
that the President must have the power
to respond quickly and decisively to
Landmark Decisions of the Supreme
Court 2
1. They did not believe that the Constitution
gave the federal government the power
to create a national bank. The states felt
threatened by the growing power of the
federal government.
2. Maryland wanted its banks to be able to
compete with the national bank. It also
wanted to make it difficult for the national
bank to operate in Maryland.
3. The decision influenced this relationship
because it helped to define the powers of
the federal government and the limits of
state power.
4. Students’ answers should focus on the idea
that, to some, a national bank represented
an infringement on states’ rights and
powers.
5. Students’ answers may vary, but they
should recognize that the Necessary and
Proper Clause does not give Congress
unlimited power.
6. (a) Samuel Alito and John Roberts
(b) Students should be able to ascertain
that Chief Justice Roberts and Justice Alito
are both considered to be Republicans and
fairly conservative. They are both, in fact,
considered to be strict constructionists,
although this may be difficult for students
to discern from available sources.
CHAPTER 11
Test A
Key Terms
1. d
2. i
3. b
4. e
5. h
6. j
7. g
8. a
9. f
10. c
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
foreign affairs, but that Congress plays an
important role in matters of foreign policy
and national security.
Essay
23. Answers will vary, but students should
recognize that the Constitution has been
interpreted to give Congress broad and
flexible powers. This has made it possible
for Congress to increase the powers of the
Federal Government without having to
amend the Constitution. However, it has
also given rise to concerns that the implied
powers, as they have been interpreted,
have allowed Congress too much power.
The implied powers are based on the
Necessary and Proper Clause, which gives
Congress the power to create laws that are
necessary to carry out its other powers and
duties, as long as these laws do not conflict
with other parts of the Constitution.
Congress has used this “elastic clause” to
greatly expand its powers. Students may
mention that Congress has expanded its
power to regulate interstate and foreign
trade so much that now it regulates
virtually every aspect of economic activity
in the United States.
Students’ answers should note that
strict constructionists, from the time of the
Constitutional Convention to the present,
have warned that a broad interpretation
of the Necessary and Proper Clause
would give Congress virtually unlimited
power and that this would be dangerous
to the principle of limited government.
Despite their concerns, there has been
a broad consensus in all three branches
of the Federal Government and among
the American people in favor of a liberal
construction of the implied powers.
Main Ideas
11. c
12. b
13. c
14. a
15. d
16. a
17. d
18. c
19. d
20. b
Document-Based Question
21. The Necessary and Proper Clause tells
Congress it can make all laws necessary
to carry out its duties. Monroe thinks this
clause gives unlimited power to Congress.
He is particularly concerned that Congress
will use these implied powers in the
future to take away individual rights and
freedoms. To prevent such an abuse of
power, Monroe calls for a bill of rights
or some other clear statement in the
Constitution that protects individual rights
from future tampering by Congress.
Critical Thinking
22. Only Congress has the power to declare
war. In addition, Congress raises,
supports, and governs the armed forces.
The President is commander in chief of
the nation’s armed forces, and he or she
controls military actions. In the past,
Presidents have been able to send troops
into combat for long periods of time
without congressional approval. The
War Powers Resolution was passed by
Congress after the Vietnam War. It requires
that the President commit troops to action
only in certain situations: when Congress
declares war; when Congress specifically
approves military action; or when an
attack on the United States or any of its
armed forces has occurred. It also limits
the period of time that troops can be in
action without congressional approval.
Essay
23. The Constitution was written to give
Congress broad and flexible powers.
This has made it possible for Congress to
carry out its duties. However, it has also
raised concerns about Congress growing
too powerful by abusing the Necessary
and Proper Clause. This clause gives
Congress implied powers by allowing it
Test B
Key Terms
1. c
2. h
3. i
4. d
5. g
6. j
7. f
8. a
9. e
10. b
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
to create any laws necessary to carry out
its other powers and duties, as long as
these laws do not conflict with other parts
of the Constitution. Congress has used
this “elastic clause” to write many laws
that have expanded its expressed powers.
For example, Congress has expanded
its commerce power so much that now
it applies to just about every type of
economic activity.
The Framers of the Constitution who
were Anti-Federalist were concerned about
the almost unlimited power granted to
Congress by the Necessary and Proper
Clause. Today, strict constructionists
still work to limit the size and power of
government. The liberal constructionist
philosophy of interpreting and expanding
federal power has prevailed.
3. joint
III. Section 3: Making Law: The House
A. Bills and Resolutions
1. bill, resolution
2. Concurrent resolutions
3. rider
B. Introduction and First Reading
reading
C. Bills in Committee
1. pigeonholed
2. discharge petition
3. hearings
4. five
D. Bills on the Floor
1. Rules
2. Committee, Whole
3. quorum
IV. Section 4: The Bill in the Senate
A. The Senate Floor
one
B. Debate
1. filibuster
2. Cloture
3. minority
C. Conference Committees
1. exact same
2. conference committee
D. After Passage
1. veto, pocket veto
2. two-thirds
CHAPTER 12
Prereading and Vocabulary 2
1. subcommittee: 4 syllables; noun; a
subordinate committee composed of
members from the main committee
2. rider: 2 syllables; noun; an amendment or
addition to a document or record
3. b
4. e
5. c
6. a
7. d
CHAPTER 12 Section 1
Reading Comprehension 3
Chapter Outline 2
1. every two years, on January 3 of every
odd-numbered year
2. All 435 of the House seats are up for
election every two years, so the House
technically has no sworn members until its
opening-day ceremonies are held.
3. The clerk of the House in the preceding
term presides until the Speaker is sworn in.
4. (a) calls the chamber to order and checks
the roll of representatives-elect
(b) takes the oath of office; swears in the
rest of the members, as a body
(c) administers the oath of office to the
Speaker
(d) sworn in by the Speaker; take their
seats with other party members; elect
clerk, parliamentarian, sergeant at arms,
chief administrative officer, and chaplain;
I. Section 1: Congress Organizes
A. Presiding Officers
1. Speaker
2. president
3. president pro tempore
B. Party Officers and Committee Chairmen
1. majority, minority, party caucus
2. Committee chairmen
3. seniority rule
II. Section 2: Committees in Congress
A. Standing Committees and
Subcommittees
1. permanent
2. Subcommittees
B. Other Committees
1. House Rules Committee
2. Select
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
adopt the rules of the House; appoint
members of the 20 permanent committees
by a floor vote
The majority party has already decided the
matter beforehand.
Newly elected and reelected members are
sworn in, vacancies in Senate organization
and on committees are filled, and a few
other details are attended to. Since two
thirds of the Senate’s membership is
carried over from the previous term, the
Senate does not face large organizational
problems at the beginning of a term.
The State of the Union address is the
President’s annual report to Congress on
the state of the nation as he or she sees it.
Speaker of the House:
How chosen: elected by members of the
House, though the majority party has
settled the matter beforehand
Member of that body: yes
Duties and powers: chairs most sessions;
recognizes members; applies rules; refers
bills to committees; rules on points of
order; puts motions to a vote; decides
outcomes of most votes; names members
of select and conference committees; signs
all bills and resolutions passed by the
House
Able to debate: yes (but seldom does)
Able to vote: yes (but seldom does)
President of the Senate:
How chosen: by the Constitution (always
the Vice President)
Member of that body: no
Duties and powers: recognizes members;
puts questions to a vote; other powers of a
presiding officer
Able to debate: no
Able to vote: only to break a tie
the Speaker of the House
The President pro tempore serves as the
presiding officer in the Senate in the Vice
President’s absence.
The party caucus is a closed meeting of
the members of each party in each house
that mainly deals with matters related to
party organization, such as the selection of
the party’s floor leaders and questions of
committee membership.
(a) tries to carry out the decisions of his or
her party caucus and to steer floor action
to the party’s benefit
(b) assist the floor leaders in each house;
serve as a liaison between the party’s
leadership and its rank-and-file members;
check with party members to find out
how they will vote; try to ensure that
all members of the party are present for
important votes and that they vote with
the party leadership
(c) head the standing committees in each
house; have a major say in such matters as
which bills a committee will consider and
in what order and at what length, whether
public hearings will be held, and what
witnesses the committee will call; usually
manages the debate when a bill from the
committee has been reported to the floor
13. The seniority rule is an unwritten custom
that provides that the most important
posts in Congress will be held by those
party members with the longest records of
service. The rule is applied most strictly to
the choice of committee chairmen.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Congress comes together every two years,
on January 3 of every odd-numbered year.
2. All 435 House seats are up for election
every two years, so many members of
the House are being sworn in for the first
time on opening day. The Speaker and
important committee members are chosen.
3. a. The clerk of the House calls the
members to order.
b. After being chosen, the Speaker swears
in the members of the House.
4. Newly elected and reelected members are
sworn in, committees are filled, and other
details are discussed.
5. The Senate is called a continuous body
because only one-third of seats are open
for election every two years.
6. the State of the Union address
7. Speaker of the House
How chosen? The majority party in the
House chooses the Speaker.
Member of that body? Yes
Able to debate? Yes
Able to vote? Yes, and must vote to break
a tie.
President of the Senate
How chosen? The Vice President of the
United States is president of the Senate.
Member of that body? No
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
8.
9.
10.
11.
Able to debate? No
Able to vote? Yes, but can only vote to
break a tie.
The Speaker of the House is more
powerful.
The President pro tempore serves as the
presiding officer in the Senate in the Vice
President’s absence. He or she is elected by
the Senate.
Committee chairmen lead standing
committees in both houses. These
committees do most of the work of
Congress. Chairmen control what bills are
considered and how they are discussed.
The seniority rule is a custom that gives
the most important jobs in Congress to
party members who have served the
longest.
they vote and do so in the interest of the
party; Interactions with Other Members:
act as spokespeople for the party, providing
direction to other members; Importance of the
Job: important for providing organization and
direction to members; Common Activities:
negotiating, cajoling, liaising between party
leadership and rank-and-file members
President of the Senate: Background and
Experience: Vice President of the United
States, usually has significant political
experience; Responsibilities: presiding over
and keeping order in the Senate; Interactions
with Other Members: presides in a fair and
judicious manner; Importance of the Job:
mainly a ceremonial role, as the Vice President
often appoints another member to preside
temporarily; Common Activities: presides
over the Senate, fulfills vice presidential duties
President pro tempore: Background and
Experience: leading member of the majority
party, usually the member with the longest
record of service; Responsibilities: presiding
over and keeping order in the House of
Representatives in the Vice President’s
absence; Interactions with Other Members:
presides in a fair and judicious manner
or appoints another member to do so;
Importance of the Job: increasingly important,
as the Vice President is routinely absent from
sessions; Common Activities: presides over
the Senate, sometimes debates
Core Worksheet A 3
Speaker of the House: Background and
Experience: long service in the House, a
history of voting with the party leadership,
proven fundraising ability; Responsibilities:
presiding over and keeping order in the
House of Representatives; Interactions
with Other Members: presides in a fair and
judicious manner; Importance of the Job:
the Speaker is the most powerful member of
Congress, second in line to the presidency;
Common Activities: presides over the House,
sometimes debates, sets the legislative agenda
Floor leaders: Background and Experience:
long service in the House or Senate,
history of voting with the party leadership;
Responsibilities: In the Senate, the majority
leader works with the minority leader to call
bills to the floor. All the floor leaders serve
as spokespeople for their parties and work
to pass legislation that meets the party’s
goals; Interactions with Other Members:
act as spokespeople for the party, providing
direction to other members; Importance of
the Job: the Senate majority leader is the most
powerful of the floor leaders, but they are all
important for providing organization and
direction to members; Common Activities:
control order of business on the floor, consult
with party leaders and opposing party leaders
Whips: Background and Experience: history
of voting with the party leadership, ability
to organize and persuade; Responsibilities:
keep party members “in line,” making sure
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. d
2. a
3. c
4. e
5. b
6. f
Main Ideas
7. a
8. c
9. b
10. a
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. d
2. a
3. c
4. e
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
5. b
6. f
Main Ideas
7. a
8. c
9. b
10. a
is created to iron out the differences in the
bill. Its job is to produce a compromise bill
that both houses will accept.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Standing committees are permanent
committees that consider certain topics.
2. There are 20 in the House.
3. There are 16 in the Senate.
4. Standing committees are important
because they do most of the work of
Congress and because they decide whether
to send a bill to the House or Senate floor
for consideration.
5. Members of committees are chosen by
seniority rule.
6. Ways and Means, Armed Services, Foreign
Affairs, and Judiciary
7. Subcommittees are smaller parts of
standing committees that do much of the
committees’ work. They hold hearings,
write bills, and handle legislation.
Joint committees are committees
composed of members of both houses.
Conference committees are made up of
members from both the Senate and the
House. Their role is to settle differences in
versions of a bill passed in the House and
the Senate.
CHAPTER 12 Section 2
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Standing committees are permanent panels
to which similar bills can be sent; there are
20 in the House and 16 in the Senate.
2. Most bills receive their most thorough
consideration in the standing committees.
Members of both houses regularly
respect the decisions and follow the
recommendations the committees make.
Thus, the fate of most bills is decided in
the standing committees, not on the floor
of either house.
3. The members of each standing committee
are formally elected by a floor vote at
the beginning of each term. However,
each party has already drawn up its
own committee roster before that vote,
and the floor vote merely ratifies those
party choices. The majority party holds
a majority of seats on each standing
committee, but the other party is well
represented too.
4. Subcommittees are divisions of
standing committees and do most of the
committees’ work; there are nearly 70 in
the Senate and 99 in the House.
5. The House Rules Committee is often
described as the “traffic cop” in the House,
because it controls the flow of bills to
the floor and sets the conditions for their
consideration there.
6. Select committees often exercise the
oversight function, by conducting
investigations of federal agencies or of
specific issues.
7. committees composed of members of both
houses
8. Joint Economic Committee, Joint
Committee on the Library, Joint Committee
on Printing, Joint Committee on Taxation
9. When the two houses pass differing
versions of a bill, a conference committee
Core Worksheet 3
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
G
E
M
T
B
K
R
F
L
A
S
N
O
D
C
P
Q
I
J
H
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
CHAPTER 12 Section 3
Core Worksheet 2
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Science and Technology
Veterans’ Affairs
Natural Resources
Education and Labor
Foreign Affairs
Agriculture
Ways and Means
Armed Services
Rules
Homeland Security
Reading Comprehension 3
1. Only a member may introduce a bill in
either house. However, most bills do not
originate with members themselves. They
may originate in the executive branch,
with special interest groups, or with
private citizens.
2. tax bills
3. (a) measures applying to the nation as a
whole
(b) measures applying to certain persons
or places
(c) measures similar to bills that have the
force of law; most often deal with unusual
or temporary matters or are used to
propose constitutional amendments or to
annex territories.
(d) measures that deal with matters in
which the House and Senate must act
jointly; do not have the force of law; used
most often to state a position
(e) measures that deal with matters
concerning either house alone; regularly
used for the adoption or amendment of a
rule of procedure
(f) a provision not likely to pass on its own
that is attached to an important measure
certain to pass
4. the Speaker of the House
5. They sift through all of the many bills
referred to them and reject most of them.
6. A discharge petition forces a bill out of a
committee that has buried it.
7. The chairman of the committee refers it
to one of several subcommittees. For an
important or controversial measure, the
committee or one of its subcommittees
holds public hearings on the measure.
8. (a) report the bill favorably, with a “do
pass” recommendation
(b) refuse to report the bill (pigeonhole it)
(c) report the bill in amended form
(d) report the bill with an unfavorable
recommendation (rare)
(e) report a committee bill, a new bill that
the committee has substituted for one or
several bills referred to it
9. Bills are grouped by type on different
calendars, helping the House prioritize.
There are five calendars: the Union
Calendar, the House Calendar, the Private
Extend Worksheet 3
H.R. 2385: Veterans’ Affairs; Armed Services;
Small Business
H.R. 21: Natural Resources; Science and
Technology
H.R. 182: Ways and Means; Energy and
Commerce
H.R. 98: Ways and Means; Judiciary;
Homeland Security; Education and Labor
H.R. 390: Oversight and Government Reform
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. f
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. d
8. d
9. a
10. b
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. d
4. f
5. c
6. e
Main Ideas
7. d
8. a
9. d
10. b
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.
16.
Calendar, the Corrections Calendar, and the
Discharge Calendar. Bills are taken from
each of these calendars for consideration
on a regularly scheduled basis.
The Rules Committee must grant a
rule before a bill can reach the floor.
By not granting a rule for a bill, the
Rules Committee can effectively kill
it. By granting a special rule, the Rules
Committee can limit floor debate on the
bill or prohibit amendments to the bill’s
provisions.
The Committee of the Whole is all of the
members of the House, sitting as one large
committee. Its rules are much less strict
than the rules of the House, and floor
action moves along at a faster pace. Only
100 members need to be present to do
business.
The House’s large size forces it to impose
severe limits on floor debate. No member
may hold the floor for more than one hour
without unanimous consent to speak for a
longer time, and any member who strays
from the subject at hand can be forced to
give up the floor.
Any member can “move the previous
question” or demand a vote on the
issue before the House. If that motion is
adopted, debate ends.
Members vote on Amendments and
procedural motions.
voice votes, standing votes, teller votes,
roll-call (or record) votes; teller votes,
record votes, and quorum calls are now
handled electronically.
The bill is engrossed, or printed in its
final form, and then read for a third time,
by title, and a final vote is taken. Once
approved, the bill is signed by the Speaker.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Ideas may come from special interest
groups or from private citizens. Senators,
representatives, and the President can also
suggest new bills.
2. public bill: a bill that applies to the entire
country, such as a tax increase or war
policy
private bill: a bill that applies to certain
places or people
joint resolution: a proposal for action that
has the force of law when passed
concurrent resolution: resolution by both
the House and Senate used to explain the
government’s position on a matter
resolution: a measure dealing with some
matter in one house which does not have
the force of law and does not require the
President’s signature
rider: an unrelated provision added to an
important bill so that it will “ride” through
the legislative process
A new bill is titled and entered into the
House Journal and the Congressional Record.
It is then given its first reading and sent to
a standing committee. The second reading
comes during floor discussion. The third
reading takes place during voting.
Standing committees reject most bills and
pigeonhole them, which means that those
bills are no longer considered.
When a discharge petition is signed
by a majority of House members, a
pigeonholed bill will be released from
committee.
(1) recommend passing the bill;
(2) pigeonhole the bill;
(3) present the bill with changes or
amendments;
(4) make unfavorable comments about the
bill; or
(5) present an entirely new bill as a
replacement.
The Rules Committee decides when a
bill will be taken from a calendar and
discussed on the floor.
Led by a member (not the Speaker).
100 members must be present (not a
quorum).
Its purpose is to speed business on the
floor.
A member may demand a vote be taken.
First, the bill is printed in its final form.
Second, it is read for a third time. Third, a
final vote is taken. Fourth, if approved, the
bill is sent to the desk of the president of
the Senate.
Core Worksheet B 3
Students’ bills should follow the format and
guidelines set out in Core Worksheet A.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. a
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
2. e
3. c
4. d
5. b
6. f
Main Ideas
7. a
8. c
9. a
10. a
8.
9.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. b
2. a
3. e
4. d
5. c
6. f
Main Ideas
7. a
8. c
9. d
10. d
10.
11.
CHAPTER 12 Section 4
Reading Comprehension 3
12.
1. The Senate has only one calendar for
all bills reported out of its committees.
Bills are called to the Senate floor by the
majority leader, rather than going through
a Rules committee.
2. Debate in the Senate is almost
unrestrained. A senator may speak on the
floor for as long as he or she pleases.
3. an agreement that becomes effective if
no senator objects; they usually limit the
amount of floor time to be devoted to a
particular measure and the amendments
to it.
4. It provides that no senator may speak
more than twice on a given question on the
same legislative day.
5. to delay or prevent Senate action on a
measure
6. by invoking cloture, in which at least 16
senators submit a petition to invoke the
rule and 60 vote for the motion
7. Filibusters can protect the minority
and prevent hasty and ill-considered
legislation, but they can also promote
gridlock (and public ridicule).
because party control of the Senate has
been a very narrow thing, and because the
Cloture Rule means that 60 (not 51) is the
minimum number of votes necessary to
pass an important bill in the Senate
The first house usually concurs in the
other’s amendments, and congressional
action is completed. However, if the
House or Senate will not accept the other’s
version of the bill, the measure is turned
over to a conference committee to iron
out the differences and come up with a
compromise bill.
A number of major legislative decisions
and compromises are often made by
conference committees. And only rarely
does either house turn down a conference
committee’s work.
sign the bill
veto (refuse to sign) the bill
allow the bill to become law without signing
it (by not acting on it within 10 days)
use the pocket veto (allow the measure to
die by not acting on it within 10 days when
Congress has adjourned its session within
10 days of submitting the bill)
The veto power is part of the system of
checks and balances. The President has a
chance to veto an unpopular bill unless it
has a veto-proof majority.
Reading Comprehension 2
1. Senators may speak for as long as they like
on any topic, rather than being limited to
an hour as are members of the House.
2. The two-speech rule allows a senator
only two speeches on a topic in the same
legislative day.
3. The purpose of a filibuster is to keep
talking long enough to prevent the Senate
from voting on a measure.
The filibuster can be limited by the
Cloture Rule
A benefit of the filibuster is that it can
protect the minority.
A drawback is that it also prevent any
action by the Senate, which is unpopular
with the public.
4. (1) sign the bill
(2) veto the bill
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
On January 24, 2007, a cloture motion in the
Senate failed as 43 Republican Senators (all
but 5) rejected the bill without the tax cuts,
opposing all 47 Democrats who were present
for the vote. Once tax cuts were added to the
bill, the Senate passed the amended bill 94-3
on February 1, 2007. (Three Republicans
opposed, and one did not vote; two Democrats
did not vote.)
(3) allow the bill to become law without
signing it
(4) use the pocket veto
Bellringer Worksheet 3
1. Like Mr. Smith, one senator may not be
physically able to prolong a filibuster long
enough to achieve the desired results.
2. He asked for a unanimous consent
agreement, which would limit time spent
debating the bill.
3. A unanimous consent agreement can be
defeated by the objection of one senator.
Being unconscious, the young senator
could not object to it, so it could be enacted
unanimously by the other senators.
4. Possible answer: If I were a senator, I
would be upset by the portrayal of corrupt
senators, but happy to have people
interested in how Congress works.
Quiz A
Key Terms
1. f
2. d
3. b
4. e
5. a
6. c
Main Ideas
7. b
8. a
9. d
10. b
Core Worksheet 3
Students’ bills should reflect the format
and guidelines set out in Core Worksheet
12.3 A. They should also show evidence of
compromise.
Quiz B
Key Terms
1. f
2. d
3. b
4. e
5. a
6. c
Main Ideas
7. c
8. d
9. d
10. b
Skills Worksheet 3
Students’ presentations should meet the
criteria established in the Skills Worksheet.
Skill Activity 2
Students’ presentations will vary. The basic
facts of the legislation follow:
When the Democratic Party took control
of Congress after the 2006 congressional
elections, it promised to enact a number of
bills within its first 100 hours on the floor.
The Fair Minimum Wage Act of 2007 was
part of the party’s so-called “100-Hour Plan.”
The bill was introduced into the House on
January 5, 2007, by George Miller (D-CA) and
passed by the House on January 10. All 233
House Democrats, along with 82 Republicans,
voted in favor of the bill; 116 Republican
representatives voted against the bill. (Four
representatives did not vote). Opposition
was particularly strong in the South and the
western United States.
CHAPTER 12
Test A
Key Terms
1. d
2. j
3. b
4. e
5. h
6. c
7. f
8. i
9. g
10. a
President George W. Bush advised that the bill
should include tax cuts for small businesses
that could be harmed by the wage increase.
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
well to meet the needs of the nation.
However, any complex system can usually
be improved. For example, though there
are hundreds of members of Congress,
power is concentrated primarily in the
hands of a few members of the majority
party. This can make it very difficult for
members of the minority party to move
legislation forward in the interests of their
constituents, which can leave millions of
voters feeling insufficiently represented in
government. By the same token, a nearly
even split in the numbers represented by
each party can bring legislation to a halt
as members of Congress split along party
lines and stop each other’s initiatives
from getting through. These problems
and others can and probably should
be addressed and improved upon, but
changing Congress and the lawmaking
process can be difficult.
Students’ answers should indicate
that complex rules and procedures
each house follows are meant to bring
order to what could be a very chaotic
system made up of hundreds of people
representing many differing points of
view. Though these rules and procedures
can be frustrating and sometimes lead to
even greater conflict, for the most part
they keep the business of the House and
Senate organized. Many criticize specific
practices, such as the seniority rule or
the filibuster. Others see such traditions
as necessary parts of the organization
that keep it functioning year after year.
Congress does try to improve itself,
though changes usually happen slowly.
Movements to make dramatic changes or
improvements to the lawmaking bodies
and processes are usually met with
resistance by powerful members, who tend
to benefit most from these traditions.
Main Ideas
11. c
12. d
13. a
14. b
15. d
16. a
17. d
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. The basic steps in the lawmaking process
are much the same in the House and
Senate. Still, there are some critical
differences in the processes. These involve
the consideration of measures on the floor.
After a measure is introduced by a senator,
it is referred to a standing committee,
where it is dealt with much as are House
bills. However, Senate proceedings are
less formal and its rules less strict. For
example, the Senate has only one calendar
for all bills reported out of its committees.
And where debate in the House is strictly
limited, it is almost unrestrained in the
Senate. The great latitude the Senate
allows gave rise to the filibuster and the
Cloture Rule.
Critical Thinking
22. Sample answer: The seniority rule has
the positive effect of making it easy to
select committee chairmen with little
internal conflict or questioning of the
decision. It also ensures that those with
the most experience and knowledge of a
subject area lead committees. However,
the seniority rule has the negative effects
of rewarding longevity rather than
ability, may discourage new members,
and place those most out of touch with
public opinion in positions of authority. I
believe the rule should be abandoned and
committee chairs should be opened up to a
vote of the members. This would introduce
a more democratic element and encourage
younger members of Congress to excel
and forge good relationships with other
members in order to compete for these
important positions.
Essay
23. Students may note that most of the time,
Congress seems to function sufficiently
Test B
Key Terms
1. d
2. j
3. b
4. e
5. h
6. c
7. f
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UNIT 3 Answer Key (continued)
8. i
9. g
10. a
Main Ideas
11. c
12. d
13. a
14. b
15. d
16. a
17. d
18. b
19. b
20. c
Document-Based Question
21. The basic steps in the lawmaking process
are much the same in the House and
Senate. However, there are also some
important differences. These involve the
consideration of measures on the floor.
After a bill is introduced by a senator, it
is referred to a standing committee. In
committee, the bill is dealt with in a way
that is similar to House bills. However,
while the House Rules Committee
sets conditions for debate on the floor,
Senate proceedings are less formal and
its rules less strict. The Senate has only
one calendar for all bills that come out of
its committees while the House has five
calendars. Debate in the House is strictly
limited. Senators are given much more
freedom to debate than members of the
House. In the Senate, sometimes debate
can develop into a filibuster.
Critical Thinking
22. Possible answer: The seniority rule has
the positive effect of making it easy to
select committee chairmen with little
disagreement. It ensures that those with
the most experience and knowledge are
put in a position to lead committees. On
the negative side, seniority rule could
reward a legislator simply for years spent
in the Senate rather than ability. It could
discourage new members who could
bring new ideas to the Senate. I believe
committee chairs should be opened up to
a vote of the members. This would make
the process more democratic. It would
force senators to compete to be committee
chairmen and would help ensure that the
best person gets the job.
Essay
23. Possible answer: Most of the time,
Congress seems to work well enough to
meet the needs of the nation. However,
many people believe that the system could
be improved. For example, though there
are hundreds of members of Congress,
power is mostly in the hands of a few
members of the majority party. This can
make it very difficult for members of the
minority party to move legislation forward
in the interests of their supporters. This can
leave millions of voters feeling as if they
have no voice in government. Another
problem is that Congress often splits along
party lines and stops important legislation
from getting through. These problems
and others can and probably should be
addressed.
The complex rules and procedures each
house follows are meant to bring order to
the legislative process. This is necessary
because there are hundreds of people in
Congress representing many different
points of view. These rules and procedures
for the most part keep the business of the
House and Senate organized. However,
some people criticize certain practices,
such as the seniority rule or the filibuster.
Others see such such traditions as
necessary parts of the organization that
keep it working year after year. Congress
does try to improve itself, though changes
usually happen slowly.
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