Biol 2122 Exam #4 Reminder: The following study guide is exactly

Biol 2122
Exam #4
Reminder: The following study guide is exactly that, a guide. Use it to direct your studies for the third
exam. The text should be used to clarify any questions you have. You are still responsible for all class
notes covered or not covered in my lectures. Good luck to you all.
Urinary System:
Describe the functions of the kidneys given in lecture
Identify the major components (gross anatomy) of the urinary system.
The kidneys are located in a ___________________________ position.
The _____________ kidney is lower than the ____________. Why?
What structures exit the renal hilus?
What tissues make up the connective tissue layer of the external kidney?
Identify all arterial and venous branches within the kidneys
What comprises the renal corpuscle?
The functional unit of the kidney is the __________________.
The three types of cells found in the renal corpuscle are the:
Which one makes rennin? Responds to concentrations and rate flow? Phagocytic properties?
Describe the events, in order, that occur in the renin –angiotensin system.
What does aldosterone do?
Identify the major parts of the nephron tubular system.
proximal convoluted tubule
loop of Henle (ascending and descending loop)
distal convoluted tubule
collecting duct
The collecting ducts are located in the renal ________________.
Describe what occurs during the three phases of renal physiology
What is the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
________% of the filtrate is reabsorbed.
19The descending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to _____________ and permeable to
20The ascending limb of the loop of Henle is impermeable to _____________ and permeable to
What is the trigone of the bladder?
At about __________ cc of urine, the signal is sent to the brain for micturition.
23- What are the normal components of urine? Abnormal components of urine?
Fluid, acid-base and electrolyes
What is the normal arterial blood pH?
2What conditions can cause metabolic acidosis? Metabolic alkalosis?
Respiratory acidosis? Respiratory alkalosis?
3Computing the anion gap can show there is relative balance between cations
and anions. Be able to compute an anion gap. What is hyperchloremic acidosis?
How does the Na+ - H+ antiport system work?
How can hyperaldosteronism affect this system? What will happen to blood
How does chronic diarrhea affect blood pH? Vomiting?
7- What is the breakdown of the 60% body weight composition of water?
8- Distinguish between an electrolyte and non-electrolyte
9- Obligatory water loss includes:
10- Understand the flow chart concerning regulation of water intake, water
output, regulation of sodium by aldosterone, ANH and baroceptors.
11. What happens during dehydration? Hypotonic hydration?
12- Aldosterone acts upon the distal convoluted tubule and collecting ducts for
Na+ retention
13- Amount of water reabsorbed in the distal segments of the kidney tubules is
proportional to ADH release (increase in ADH secretion = increase in water
14- ANH: Reduces blood pressure and blood volume by inhibiting nearly all events
that promote vasoconstriction and sodium and water retention.
15 K+: Regulation of Potassium Balance
Potassium is the chief intracellular cation
Relative intracellular-extracellular potassium concentrations directly
affects a cell's resting membrane potential, therefore a slight change on
either side of the membrane has profound effects (ie. on neurons and
muscle fibers)
Potassium is part of the body's buffer system, which resists changes in pH
of body fluids; ECF potassium levels rise with acidosis (decrease pH) as
potassium leave cells and fall with alkalosis (increase pH) as potassium
moves into cells.
16. Increase Na+ in plasma= decreased K+ in plasma; vice-versa for filtrate in
17. What is the effect of PTH and calcitonin on blood calcium, phosphate and
18. What is a buffer?
19. The three types of chemical buffers in the body are
20 Bicarbonate buffers: Major extracellular buffering system
HCO3- functions as a weak base while
H2CO3 functions as a weak acid.
21. Acids are proton donors and bases are proton acceptors.
22. Two examples of physiological buffers are:
Endocrine and reproduction given out in class (see attached word doc. notes on